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CAPTAIN W. W. Waron, M,D., 


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. B. W. , . 


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F&ASEB Xljtg. 

H. B. W.. , 







1 7i>S), liwitonanlrffenoral, governor of 
Jamaica and St. Domingo, born in 17tfO, was 
son of Lieutimant-goneral Goor-go William- 
Bon (1 707 P-'1 7tSl ), who commanded the royal 
artillery at the nii^o and capture of Louis- 
burg in 17fiK and during the operations in 
North America terminating in the capture 
of Montreal in 1700. He became a cadet 
gunner on 1 Jan. 174H, entered the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich in 1750, and 
was appointed practitioner-engineer on 1 Jan, 
3753, lie went to North America in tlio 
following year, was engineer in Braddock's 
ill-fated expedition to Virginia in 1755, and 
was wounded at the buttle of Da Quesno on 
5) July. Ou 14 Oct. ho received a commis- 
sion as ensign in the Oth foot, was placed 
upon the stall" of the expedition to North 
America, and served throughout the war. On 
25 Sept, 1757 ho was promoted to bo lion- 
tenant in the 5th foot, and on 4 Jan. 1758 to 
bo ongmooMWtraordiniiry and captain-lieu- 
tenant. In August 1759 he was wounded at 
Montmortmcy at the siege of Quebec (London 
Gfissettei 19 Oct. 1759). On 21 April 1760 
ho was promoted to bo captain in the 40th 
foot j in August he dwtinguifilujd himself in 
the repulse of the French, who were be- 
sieging Quebec, at Fort Levis, L'Tflle Koyalo, 
and at the end of tho year ho accompanied 
IUH father to England on leave of absence. 

Williamson returned to North America 
in 1761, and wont with the expedition to the 
West Indies, where he took a gallant part in 
the capture of Martinique and Guadeloupe 
in February 1702. Ho returned to England 
in 176& On 16 Aug. 1770 he was promoted 
to bo major in the 16th foot, and on 4 Pec, 
to bo engineer in ordinary. He was trans- 

ferred to the Gist foot 

'as major, and on 

12 Sept. 1775 was promoted to bo lieutenant- 
colonel in the army. Brought into tlio 18th 
royal Irish regiment of foot as a regimental 
lieutenant-colonel on 9 Dec., ho ceased to 
perform engineer dutiow, and joined his regi- 
ment, "which was on active service in North 
America, taking part -with it in the battle 
of Bunker's Hill, and returning with it to 
England in July 1770, when ho was quar- 
tered at Dover. 

On 23 Dec. 1778 Williamson was ap- 
pointed deputy adjutant-general of the forces 
in South Britain, on 16 Feb. 1782 was pro 
moted to be colonel in tho army, and on 
28 April 1790 to be major-general, on If) July 
was appointed colonel of the 47th foot, 
and in the same year was made lieutenant-' 
governor and Commander-in-chief at J iimaicu. 
In 1791 some of the inhabitants of St, Do- 
mingo made overtures to Williamson, pro- 
posing to place the colony tinder the protec- 
tion of Great Britain, Tho proposal a were 
warmly advocated by Williamson, who re- 
ceived discretionary powers from the home 
government in 1^5 to take over those parts 
of tho island of which tho inhabitants might 
desire British protection, detaching from 
Jamaica a force sutUcient to maintain and 
defend them. Williamson made a descent 
on St Domingo in September with all the 
troops which could be aparod, and established 
a protectorate. On 19 March 1794 ho was 
transferred to tho colonelcy of the 72nd high- 
landers, and on 24 Oct. ot the same year he 
relinquished the government of Jamaica, and 
was appointed governor of St. Domingo, Port 
au Prince, the capital, having capitulated to 
the British conjoint expedition under Com- 
modore Ford and Colonel John Whitalocke 
[q. v.] on the previous 5 June. Williamson 
was made a kaight of the order of the BatU 




- > 

on 18 NOT. He was promoted to be lieu-, 
tenmfrfweml on 26 Jan. 1797. ^ Yellow 
ferarand mneiWesifltory fighting made such 
tarriS&e havoc &ong the British troops that, 
ha spite of all Williamson's enthusiasm and 
energy, t&e islariS had to be evacuated in 
1796, aadWilfiflinfiOif, who had, sacrificed his 
prirafe fortune And keaitfa. ia this enterprise, 
to SSgiglairfL ^e died from the 
eeflee$ ofra&Il at Ayffcury House, 
on 21 Oct. 1708. ' ** 

* Eecords ; Cenolly Papers ; 
,es; British. Military Library, 1798; 
BEJBB Edwaw^sHisttf tie British, Colonies fa 
the tfest ladfes: Gen]*. Mag^lTflS ; Knox's IJCis- 
torical Jernal OT the C^mp&gns m North Ame- 
2 Tola. 4to, 1769.] B. L V 

flWfmttftwnufl', ALBXANDSR (1829- 
% 189Q), sessionary to China, was horn on 
& Bee. 1829, aUMIdrk, studied at Glas- 
^ow/aadwas apjwintst missionary to China 
under the Ixmon Missionary Society. He 
wasoa^abfid at Glasgow in April 1855, and 
asSed ni the following mojdi for Shanghai, 
Ea^b^OTefvio^tsly married Iflass Isabel*6oHi~ 
$& for tvo years he took part; in mis- 
aonary work at Shanghai and Pringhu ; but, ] 
* *-i* Uta& left China on riofc 
J ajrrp|E ia Jfegland on 18 April 
His connection with the London 

In June 179fl Williamson mrvod on tho 
coast of Franco in tho expedition to ( juibtwm 
Bay, to assist the French rovalwl H. In 17U1) 
he went to tho Capo of (4owl ITopo and 
served in the Hottentot and Kaffir wr of 
that : year, thence to Jflgypt aucl th Medi- 
terranean, was at the mfl#o f Jnohia in 
June 1809, commanded tlm lory at tho 
capture of four of tho Ionian ifd'imdtt in 
October of that year, and at, tlm tmw* nnd 
capi^re of Santa Maura in A pril 1 8 1 0, H < 
subsequemtlywont to Spain andeommandiHl * 
the artijllery at the battlo of ( Jatal1a, tindnr 
Sir John Murray (17flBP<jHSi7) fq. v.lon 
12 April 1813; at thei ff of TarraKtmain 
Junej at the disastrous n^ngiqnont of Onial 
on 12 Sept, and at tho com hat tm tlm fol- 
lowing iay at Villa Franca, Ho wan fro. 
quently^ mentioned in doHpatahw, 

He returned to England in JH14,and in 
the following jfoar wunt ta th< NothwlwitU 
^and commanded the 'artillwy of th third 
division at the battla of Wat.rioo, j" 
received the Waterloo modal and WOK unuln 
a companmu^f tta oriw of tlm Ilnth, 
mihtary divwion, m 1 8 1 />. I \ n mv ^{ wie] J 

JIS^ OW ^ n . in Fronw untnhiw 
promotion to bo w^immtal Jiiuitwumt- 

coionel, when he^retumwd to England, hu 
o as i iir?r me *'* um wpwMfawwnt, of tho 
Jioval Military Jtapoflftoxy at W^wlwWi 
and prepared a now and oxtonNivo ow of 
instruction m artillery, whwh formwi tlm 

a. an 
TOd at Shanghai in December 1863. He 

hw i ' ' 

the miscdlanonfl intratum f 

17 , 




through whose influence he was admitted 
as a town-boy to Westminster school, then 
tmder Dr. Busby, Busby recommended 
him to Gerard Langbaine the elder [q. v.1 as 
a doaorvmg northern youth, and in September 
1650 ho entered as a bateljer of Queen's Col- 
lege, Oxford, whence he graduated B.A. on 
2 Feb. 165,3-4. Hid college tutors were 
Dr. Lamplugh and Dr. Thomas Smith. After 
graduating Jae went int6 France and the Low 
Countries as tutor to a young man of quality, 
possibly ono of the sons oi the Marquis 01 
Urmondo (Hint, MS& Comm. 4th. Kep. App. 
p. 546 ; of. Cal State Papers, Dom. 1051-3, 
p, BOO). In November 1057 he was elected 
a fellow of Queen's (graduating M.A.. in the 
same month), and ho held his fellowship 
tmtil his marriage. Boon after the Hestora- 
tion he quifctiod Oxford for political life upon 
obtaining a place in tho oilico of Shr Edward 
Nicholas [q. v.], an old Queon's man, at 
that time secretary of state. In Tuly 1660 
Charles II wont to the provost and follows of 
Queim's a apecial mjuoHt that they would 
grant Williamson a dujptmHation for absence 
from college j his lows was regretted both 
by the parwntn of hifl pupils and by his col* 
loagtttiH, Henry Dtwton, the BnccesBor to 
his rooms in col'loftQ, alluded to his musical 
tastes when ho wrote in October 1060 ' Your 
couple of viols fltill hang 1 in their places as a 
monument that a genuine" son of JuTbal has 
boon here,' 

Ills poition in tho secretary's office was 
not at tot. lucnitivo; but his status was 
improved on ttG Doe. 1061 by his appoint- 
wumt as towjpur of the king's library at White- 
hall and ut the paper oiftco at a salary of 
J 60J, pr annum, The paper office work was 
performed by four or five clerks under Henry 
Ball, Williamson's subordinate, They issued 
news-letters once a week to numerous sub- 
scribers and to a smaller number of corre- 
spondents, the correspondents in turn fur- 
auahinft materials which were subsequently 
embodied in the 'Gazette* (see below; of, 
Ball's curious report of 23 Get, 1674 appended 
to Christie's Williamson Correspondent and 
Mrs. Everett Green's preface to Cal, State 
jfopara, Bom, 1666-6), 

Meanwhile in October 1662 Nicholas 
was succeeded as secretary by Sir Henry 
Bennett (afterwards Lord Arlington), anc 
Williamson was transferred to him as 
secretary. Facilities for making money 
now became abundant, and he showed him- 
self no backward pupil in the generally 
practised art of exacting gratifications from 
all kinds of suitors and petitioners* Pepys 
met him at dinner on ft Feb. 1668, and 
dedbribes him: 'Latin Secretary . , . 

pretty knowing man and a scholar, but it 
may be he thinks himself to be too much 
On the 28th of the following month, 
became one of the five commissioners 
:or seizing- prohibited goods, and in Novem- 
>er 1664 he was one of the five contractors 
tor the Koyal Oak lottery, which,became a 
S ? U i! ce j? ^siderable profit to him (the 
right of conducting and managing lotteries 
was restricted exclusively to the five ' com- 

miasi ??S5v itt J . une 1665 )* In this sam & 
year (1664) Williamson seems to have been 

called to the bar from the Middle Temple, 

When, in the autumn of 1665, Charfes II 
sought refuge in Oxford from the great 
plague, the lack of a regular news-sheet waa 
strongly felt by the court, The ravages of 
the pestilence seem to have disorganised , 
L'Eatrange's < Intelligedacer * and 'Newsf 
Under those circumstances Leonard Lichfield 
w- v ' J> tlie university printer, was authorised 
to krmg out a local paper. On Tuesday 
14 Kov ; the first number of the 'Oxford 
Gazette appeared, and was thenceforth 
contoued regularly on Mondays and Thurs- 
W 8 * ^i h Oxford pioneer of the paper was 
lfe y Muddixnan ; kt, after a few numbers, 
Wiihamson procured for hjmself tho privi- 
iW 3 ? * ?r ltw> ' em ploying Charles Perrot of 
Oriol Oolite as his chiof assistant. When 
the court was back at Whitehall, Muddi- 
man made vain endeavours to injure Wil- 
liamson's efforts as a disseminator of news, 
and J/Estrange put forth a claim, which 
WM rejected, to a monopoly in publishing 
official intelligence. Williamson's paper be- 
came the ' London Gazette; the first issue 
so named being that of 5 Feb. 1666 (No, 24) ; 
it soon outdistanced its rivals, and survives 
to this day as the official register of tho trans- 
actions of the government, 

As secretary to Arlington, who was at 
the head of the post office, Williamson took 
an active part in its management, The 
amount of olftcial work of allldnds that he 
got through during the next fifteen years 
from 1665 to 1680 is enormous, and his cor- 
respondence at the Becord Office is extra- 
ordinarily voluminous. Evelyn wrote that 
Arlington, 'loving his ease more than busi- 
nesse (tho* sufficiently able had he applied 
himselfe to it) ; remitted all to his ma Wil- 
liamson, and in a short time let Hm go into 
the secret of affaires, that (as his lordship 
himself told me) there waa a kind of neces- 
sity to^ advance him, ad so by his subtlety, 
dexterity, and insinuation he got to be prin- 
cipal Secretary, . / Williamson found some 
compensation for his labours in the opportu- 
nities afforded him of rapidly making money. 
Two instances of his generosity are afforded 


in August 1666 : he sent down money by a 
private hand to be applied to the relief of 

* . , , ^J_3 J olartTirPflAIITiAa 


tohisold college two pairs of banners wrought 
with silTer toad, and a massive silver 
trumpet which was long used to summon 
tie college to dinner (the summons^has 
always been made by i a clarion/ as ordained 
bythe college statutes). The motive of the 
gift to the college appears to have been 
Williamson's anxiety, though he was a non- 
resident, to retain and sublet his rooms t in 
college, and he menaced the fellows with 
'inconveniences' if they did not accede to 
his wish ; the college in reply diplomatically 
eroded the demand* In small matters, and 
espedallyinhis management of the * Gazette/ 
"Williamson showed a decidedly grasping and 
penurious spirit. 

"With the warm concurrence of his chief, 
"Williamson made various efforts to get into 
parliament, without meeting at first with 
success. His candidature failed at Morpeth 
'(October 1666), Preston (May 1667), Dart- 
i&outh, and at Appleby, where in December 
1687 his hopes were crushed by the inter- 
veatfoa of Anne Clifford, the famous coun- 
tess of Pembroke [for the laconic letter said 
ty Horace Walpole to have been written on 
the subject by the countess, see CLIFFORD, 
Asnra; that there is some truth in Walpole's 
story is rendered very probable by State 
ftyrt, Dom. Charles H, xxxi. 170]. On 
23 Oct. 1669 Williamson eventually suc- 
ceeded in getting elected for Thetford, and 
h was re-elected in February 1678-9, Au- 
put 1679, February 1680-], and March 
1685. He did not sit in the Convention, 
but b was returned for Rochester in March 
188(1 ^ e in October 1695, My 1698, and 
January 1700-1, being elected both for this 
oty anS for his old borough, he preferred to 
& k the former. He seems to have voted 
steady as a courtier, but, except in his offi- 
sh capacity as secretary, rarely opened his 

1671-2 Williamson became 
the council in ordinary and was 
, 13te jpost of clerk, which had 
v' T* Richard Browne, John 
s felfcer-in-kw, had been promised 
by the king, 'but/ explains the 
l consideration of the renewal of 
ksse aad other reasons I chose to part 
& to Sir Joseph Williamson, who gave 
fte rest of his brother clerks a hind- 
his house, and after su 

himself was an exjert per 

On 17% 1673 
steed, in company with Sir 

Looline Jenkins [q. v.] and the Earl of Hun- 
derlancl, as joint Jiritish plenipotentiary to 
the congress at Cologne, Thoro ho nmwinwl 
until 1/5 April 1074 (the lottors wril.Um to 
Mm during his absence woro printed for tho 
Camden Society in two volutuoH, iuwhr tho 

prolonged, nothing in reality waw 
and the separate peace bo.twomi England ami . 
Holland (which was suddenly proclaiuiod in 
April 1674) was made not ab Cologne, but 
in London, 

Before he left England on IUH omhiWHy it 
had been arranged botwoon WilliainHon ami 
his patron Arlington that upon hin rot urn 
Arlington should resign hm oihco an WM'.n*! aiy 
of state, and that williamHon, if ponniblo, 
should bo ollbred tho revewitm of thn post 
upon paying a sum of 6,000/, Thin arrange- 
ment was provisionally simct-ionod by tho 
king, Meanwhile, in March 1(574, Arlin^tun 
oiFered to secure the oHlce for Sir William 
Temple, another of hifl protfi^w, aiui <<> pro- 
vide otherwiwe for Will lamHon; but. 'IVmplo 
refused the oiler, remarking to bin friotidrt 
that he considered it no great honour to bo 
preferred before Sir Joseph WilliamHom 

Williamson returned in June HJ74, ami 
was at once appointed aeoretary of Htalo, 
being then not quite forty-one; Arlington 
obtained the more lucrativo yont of (thtutH 
berlain, A few days after IUH iippo'mtttH'itti 
Williamson -was on S7 Juno 1(^7'1 admit 1^1 
LL.l). at Oxford, and on 11 Hopt. lu WHH 
sworn of thu privy council Exoept for tlw 
great industry that characteriHed all Wil- 
liamson's departmental work, tteu in litilo 
to distinguislx liis tenure of oillou m (oro- 
tary. In September 1074 the new mwrtnrv 
olfioially announced to Tomplo a Kuglihh 
ambassador at The Uaguu that thn nffum 
of the United ProyinceH would ltonatfort h 
come under his special care* Tlw annount'o- 
ment cannot) have boon especially ugrwwblo 
to Temple, and it soumfl to have btum no 
less distaatoful to thu Princu of Orange, who 
saw in Williamson even morti than in Arliug^ 
ton an instrument of compltjt aubNHrvioiit*o 
to ^ the French sympathies of Olmrltm II, 
With respect to another despatch TtmipUt 
TOtes, on 24 Feb 1677 : ' Tho prinee otmid 
hardly hear it out with any patuwcu. Hif 
Joseph Williamson*8 style waft alway HO 
disagreeable to him, and ho thought tho 
whole cast of this BO artificial, that ho rtt* 
ceived it with indignation and scorn/ !ta 
said on another occasion, a* on thiw, that 
Williamson treated him 'like a child who 
was to bo fed on whipt cruam,' 



speaks elsowhoro with compassion of Sir 
Looline Jonltinfl lying under the lash of 
Secretary Williamson, who, upon old grudges 
botweon them at Cologne, never failed to 
lay hold of any Oceanian ho could to censure 
his conduct, nor did Temple himself alto- 
gether Huceood in escaping the lash, 

1 hiring 1075, at the instigation of OharlosII, 
Williamson triod to induce the master of 
tho rolls to remove Burnot from his place an 
. proaehor to the master of the rolls, but he 
encountered a determined opposition from 
Sir llarbottle Grimatou [q. v.J and the out- 
spoken Murnet was enablod to retain his 
foothold in London, ^ In 1 076 Milton's friend, 
Daniel Skinner, wished to print the do- 
coasod poet's 'Latin State Letters * and trea- 
tise t Do Doctrina Christiana,' and applied to 
Williamson for the necessary license (that 
of the oilicial licensor being apparently in- 
NuiUcumt), The secretary reltiHud, saying 1 
that ho could countenance nothing of Mil- 
ton's writing, and he wont so far as to write 
of Skinner (to a likely patron) as a suspect 
* until he very well cured himself from such 
infectious commerce as Milton's friendship/ 
Williamson managed ^ eventually to lay his 
hands upon the original manuscripts, and 
locked thorn up for security among the state 
archives, The ' State Letters' were surrep- 
titimiHly printed from a transcript in 167(5, 
but the treatise was not published until 
1 H#* (see LEMON, liowaiw j for the full com- 
pi iwitwl story of tut) manuscripts, soo MASWONT, 
Mlf<m, iv. lr>8, vi. 331, 608. CIO. 78L 729, 
77-1, HOB). 

Dry and formal though Williamson may 
have been in lite unual manner, it seems fair 
to inter that hewafl^byno means deficient 
iu4 a fltmrtitff, and hifi letters to several of 
the royal concubines show that ha did not 
haro Clarendon's scruples about Baying 
court to tho laditft whom tho king delighted 
to honour, Upon the whole, however, he 
confined himsiuf ^ vary clpsoly to his official 
and adminifltmtive bumnpss and to tho 
direction of foreign affairs, His fellow 
Moratory, Sir Henry Coventry, undertook 
the parliamentary work* Ho had to take 
a decided line upon tho subject of the Duke 
of York's exclusion, and on 4 Nov. 1678y m 
answer to Lord llusselPs motion to remove 
the Duke of York from the king's presence 
and councils, in a succinct and not ineffec- 
tive speech he declared that this would 
drive tho hair to the throne to join the 
French and tho ^catholics. Almost im- 
mediately after this he fell a victim to the 
panic excited by tho supposed discovery of a 
popish plot/ and on lo Nov. ho was com* 
imttod to tho Tower by tho lower house on 

the charge of 'subsigning commissions for 
ollicers and money for papists/ in other words 
of passing 1 commissions drawn up by the 
Icing's order in favour of certain recusants. 
IIo remained in the Tower but a few hours, 
for Charles with unusual energy and deci- 
sion lost no time in apprising the commons 
that he had ordered his secretary's release. 
At the same time the oifensive commissions 
wore recalled. Williamson's continuance in 
oilico, however, was not considered altogether 
desirable (cf. WOOD, Life and Times, ii. 438). 
Tho newsletters on 10 Feb. announced ' Sir 
Joseph Williamson is turned out, but is to 
be repaid what his secretaryship cost him.' 
As a matter of fact ho received from his suc- 
cessor, Sundorland, 6,000/, and five hundred 

In J 076 Williamson was elected master of 
the Olothworkers* Company (presenting a 
silver-gilt cup bearing his arms) ; toe was 
succeeded as master by Samuel Pepys* 

Williamson had been declared a member 
of the Jtoyal Society by nomination of the 
original council on 20 May 1003, and on the 
resignation of Lord Brouncker oil 30 Nov. 
1077 ho was elected second president of the 
society, a post which he hold until 30 Nov, 
1680, when ho was succeeded by Sir Chris- 
tophor Wren. The secretaries under him 
were Thomas Honshaw and Nehemiah 
Grew, On 4 Dec. 1677, being < tho first day 
of his taking the chair, he gave a magnificent 
supper* at which Evelyn was present. Im- 
moraod in multifarious business though he 
was at the time, Williamson presided at 
every meeting of the council during his term 
of onicQj and generally managed in addition 
to preside at the ordinary meetings. He 
presented several curiosities to the museum, 
and a large screw press for stamping 
diplomas, as well as his portrait by Knoller, 
now in the Society's meeting-room. Olden- 
burgh dedicated to him the ninth -volume of 
the ' Philosophical Transactions/ 

Though he evidently took much interest 
in the society f s work, researches of a legal, 
historical, and genealogical nature seem to 
have been more really congenial to him. He 
collected many valuable manuscripts relat- 
ing to heraldry and history, and he purchased 
the rich collections of Sir Thomas Shirley, 
which contained visitations of many counties t 
of England written by the heralds or thw f : t 
clerks during the sixteenth and seventeiwt 
centuries, ^ t ,'{* 

Shortly before his removal from oiHce in 
December 1678, Sir Joseph married Catha- 
rine, eldest and only surviving daughter of 
George Stuart, lord D'Aubigny (fourth, but 
second surviving son of Esmfc, third duke of 



Lennox), by Lady Catharine, eldest daughte 
of Theophilus Howard, second earl of Suf 
folk. She was baptised at St. Martin's-in 
the-Fields, Middlesex, on 5 Dec. 1640, anc 
married, first, Henry O'Brien, lord Ibraclcan 
who was buried in Westminster Abbey on 
Q.Sept. 1678. As heiress to Charles Stuart 
duke of Richmond and Lennox [q. v.], his wif 
brought Williamson a noble fortune. ' 'T wa 
thought/ says Evelyn, 'that they lived no 
so kindly after marriage as they did before 
She was xnuch censured for marrying so 
meanly, being herself allied to the roya 
family.' The alliance offended Danby, who 
coveted the Richmond estates for one of his 
own sons, and it may have had something 
to do with the secretary's fall from office 
When the .Duke of Richmond died in 1672 
Lady O'Brien succeeded to the bulk of his 
property, but his debts were so heavy thai 
it was found necessary to sell some of the 
estates to defray them, Under these circum- 
stances the Cobham estates, together with 
the fine old hall, were bought in by William- 
son for 45,000 In 1679 with his wife's 
money he purchased for 8,000 Winchester 
House in St. James's Square (No. 21), which 
he tenanted until 1684. 

In 1682 he became recorder of Thetford, 
and on his acquisition of the Cobham estate/! 
interested himself not only in Rochester,but 
also in Gravesend,for which in 1687 he pro- 
cured a new charter (CETTDBN'S Hist of Graves- 
end, 1843, pp. 376 sq.) In May 1690 he was 
appointed upon the committee to take ac- 
count of public moneys since William's 
accession, and in February 1691-2 a false 
rumour was spread abroad that he was to be 
lord privy seal. On 21 Nov. 1696, however, 
Williamson was sworn of the privy council, 
and on 12 Dec. he was, together with the 
Earl of Pembroke and Lord Villiers, accre- 
dited a plenipotentiary at the congress of 
-Nimeguen. Owing to indisposition he did 
not arrive in Holland until 8 June. The 
peace of Ryswick was signed somewhat 

?5? tl ?. 11 t . hree months later > a 20 Sept. 
1697. Williamson stayed on at The Hajyue 
in the capacity of < veteran diplomatist ' (as 

Qft + t r T < l by * ca * la y)> and on 11 Get, 
ipys tne nrst partition treaty was signed by 
linn at Loo as joint commissioner with Port- 
land. The secrecy with which the treaty 
iiad fceen negotiated excited the wrath of 
the commons in April 1699, but their full 
fury fell not upon Williamson but upon 
Pona^dandSomers, Williamson returned 
from Holland in November 1698, and next 
month it was reported that he would be 
sent as plenipotentiary to Versailles He 
returned, however, to The Hague until the 

middle of March Kf&)9, ( whon he finally ro- 
tirod from his diplomatic pont. Hn roruivod 
several vitiits from tho king at Cohham flail, 
and in tin* Koehwtor Corporation lu&mmfH 
are two heavy billn (May 1(JJ)7 and 1701) 
for expenses in connection thornwith, 

He died at; Oobham, Kont, on !J Oct. 1701, 
and was buriod on 14 Oct. in tho Dulto of 
Richmond's vault in King 1 lonry YUWhapot 
in WostoniiiNtor Abboy (OIIHMTHU, 7tV</, af 
fiurials, pp. a40, i251 ), WilliiimHtmV widow 
wasburiocliu WofltminHtor Abboy on 1 1 Nov, 
1702, leaving no IHHUU by hor weond hu- 

Rather a man of aflairo than a Htfttiwnan, 
Williamson appiwr to havo boon <lry and 
formal in his mannor ; 1m wan Htriatiy in\ 
thodical, flcruputoiw and uxact in thn t.rima- 
tion of busint'HH, Hub^rvimt in ail thing* to 
his chiefs, and nov^ro and exacting l^jwnrdM 
his subordinate^, MJIHUJ and hMt(riwtl unti* 
quitipa wr JUH clu<F rolaxatifjiw, hut IUH 
mnltilarious corrnHpontlnnro can Imvo l'h, 
him but lititlo timu to indulffi* th<*m. l^iko 
niOHt of tho sttttoRinowof tho dny, ho turned 
his industry to good account and nmmtfrwi 
to acciimulato a larg<^ Ibrtuno during IUH 
tenure of oillca Hom of hit* arly Htimu^MM 
of mann(r Hptinw to hav<^ worn oil; and a 
gradual riflo in I^py^H <mtimntm of him IM 
to bo traced through Urn jmtfon of tho 
* Diary/ Anthony & Wood had no lovo for 
tho secretary, who on S3 May 1(175 IgmirtHl 
wood a application for tho pont of town* of 
records in tho Towor. But ho wan * a vnmt 


friend/ Wood udmitH, to 
and to QuWs OoJhtf mon. Willimnnon 
befriended Dr. Laii*lot Addinon Iq.T.'L a 
contemporary with thu Homtary at Qu<<nV, 
who dedicated to Sir Jontmh, in inn rupmnty 
of curator of tho Slwldonmn pr*m hi inf/- 
restiijg q>rosimt Ktnto of thn Jowii in nr- 
bary. Tho famouH twHuyint WHH iminiii 
Joseph ftfbor his fatlwr'a iMuwfuctor. Wil* 
liamfion also mt J)r, Wiliium Lanntuitor 
and Bishop Nicohon (both <)umn f H mmi) 
abroad at tho crown'u vximm, in amtnliuiw 
with a plan of hi own ftr tmininff yrHuitr 
men of proimso for diplomatic work, Nit'ol- 
son, when a young tabordar of (iuiHmX dtuli- 
oated to the secretary hU <Itr Holltindi- 
cum in 1078 (still in manuscript in Qumw't 
Librarv). v 

Eyefwi'e charge of inmtitudn i rofutml 
by the disjositions of WilliamHon'a wilL in 
v ii ? H JMtittttiona and individual who 
oy wood, affection, or aerviee had any ckimn 
upon him were mentioned, To JBridakirk, in 
Edition to a present of silver fltgomi and 
halices for the church, he left 5(H)/, to b 
istnbuted among the poor, To the 




at St. !$<USH ho gavo 1m portrait; ho had 
already, in Soptoiubur 1(571, givmi two oxhi- 
bitiotiH for neholavH of Bovouby in hifl nativo 
parish. To tho provtwt and scholars of 
<iuon'fl College ho Mb 0,(H)0/. 'to bo laid 
out in f urUhur now buildings t.o tho eolloclgt) 
and othorwwtsboivittifyintf tho said collodgo,' 
as well as h'w * library ol printed books and 
bookH ofhoraldry and gwnaligy, a well inanu- 
Bcripts ii8 priutml ;' to Ohrist'H Church IJos* 
. ratal, London, h gavo Jl(H)/. ; to St. Bartho- 
lomew's (of which ho Imd bium a governor) 
800J. ; arid to tho Jtoyal Soc.iuty at ( jronham 
Collogo 2002, To Thotibrdj in addition to 
munificent giftM during IUH Hfotimo (HOC 

qnouthrtd ii,OGO/., and tho income in now d- 
vottwl partly to a Hehool and lu>Hj>itnl foun- 
dation at 'Jtiwtford, and partly m finding 
out appwuticoH and in local tsharitiM. To 
itoehttt>r, btfudt'H iiOJ, for tho poor, Homo gilt 
eommtmkm plato, and a portrait of Wil- 
liam 111 to uang in thu town-nail, Iw htft 
5,000/, for Uw purohmuntfof landn ami Umo- 
wnmtBto Hiippttrt a fr* * mathematical Hchool." 
ThiH ww oponodiu 170H umlr tho mantwr- 
ship of John UolMon [q.v,], and rnbittlt. mwlw 
a uw Hchomti in 1HOS 4* AH a mark of Lia 

loyalty to IUH old tioU<^(% Williamwrn 
for hm < f .wt tm of tii (ituum* ua^lon, and 
for liin motto * Hub umbra tuarum alarum * 
(bin armn im) HtiU to bo Mown in a window 
at Olothworkm* Hall), Among Wood' 
twmphUitH WIIH a now ram 'ImpwflHio wjcunda 
uarmitim horoici in honoram To Wiiliwa- 
son 1 (by !*aynt Finlu^]* 

An inttmtMtinK portrait (flwmnwwly attn* 
butod to Loly) wa iwwnirtwl by t^liw National 
Portrait UalWy, Lfmton t in 1H*)/J, HHHW 
tho portrait at St. HMH, and tho hali-luf{th 
by Kuollor at HurliHtfton HMH, thw art> 
port-rait of Williamson in (Jiuum 1 * Collide 
Kali, in tho town-hall, Hoch^to, aud in 
Olothwork0r' Uall. 

[A toll Lite of William** would iwlfe 
atmoHt oxhautiv4 rvy of political and 
Kngiiuid from 160A to 1680. Hi local c 
tion have bwn aonim^moratpd in a *rieH of brief 
but uMttfal uttmmanoi of hi* carats: that with 
Cobliam Hull by CJanon fieott liobertson in tho 
Ar0h*oUfffo Cantiana (*i 274-$4)j that with 
Oumbwland in HutehiuiMm'ft liiit of Cumber 
land, il, 244 in,, in Nicbolson and Burtt* West- 
morland, and in Iol' Annnli of the Foil** of 
BtmthcMo (chap, iii,>; tto* ^th lioctoter in 
Mr. Charts Bi^'n Hir J. WiiUamon, foxwdot of 
the Mathematical Sciiool (Boohitr. 1894), and 
in HP. A, Jthocterti very cftreful notice ol Wil- 
liamion in the Chatham and Bocheiter News, 
No?, 1898; that with Thetford !& Mwtotni 

with tho Koyal Society ia Weld's Hist, of the 
Hoytil Bocsioty, i. 2(>2 sq.; and that with Graves- 
end iu Grudon'a Hist, of Graveaoad, 1843, pp. 
U77 sq. The Cal, of State Papers, from 
KtM tx> 1671, containB freqxiexit references to 
Williamson, The state papers relating to tho 
yoaro 1072-i) (LS yet uncalendtuced) embody a 
vast number of Williamson papers, diaries, and 
kttors ; extracts from his official journal are 
printed as an appendix to the Calendars from 
1 07 1 onwartte, For the enormous bulk of Wil- 
liainHon Papers previous to their dispersion and 
rearrangement, ee Thomas's Departmental Hist. 
1846, folio; and 30th Annual Report of the 
Deputy-Keeper of Public Bocords, A fev 
lotitors, papors, and tranwcripte from his official 
diario are among the Additional manuacnpts 
(HOC cwpoflially Addit. MSS, 6488 ff. 1379, 5831 
f. 87, 128040 f, 36, 28093 f. 2H, 28945 1 197, 
34727 f. 130), and Stowo MBS, (see especially 
200, '201, 203-10 pS8im, and 549, f, 12) at tho 
BritiHh MttHMim. Bo also Christie's Williamson 
Oornwp. (Camdon SSoc.), 1874; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon, 1 500-1714 ; Oolite AtiheniB Oantibr, (Addit, 
MH, 6888, f. 83); Welch's Almrmi Westmon. 
p t 171,; Jftcknon's Oumljorlnnd and West- 
morland Papars, 1802, ii, 203, 230 ; Lonsdale's 
Worthies of Cumberland, vi. 228; Life and- 
TimoH of Aut-houy tX Wood, vols. ii. and iii. 
puHBim; Hiwtod'H Kent, ii. 63; Evelyn's Diary, 
1805, i. 400, ii. 22, 42, 67, 73, 101, 111, 124, 180 ; 
"" yn'a Diaify, etl. WheatJoy, to 290, 388, r. 
, w /nn, vi, 33-4, vii.and viii* ptiabim; LuttrelVs 
IrSi'f Hist. Itolution, i. 8 t 9, it 44, 156, 353, iii. 
mi> iv. pim, v, 84, 94, 90 ; Lexington Papers, 
ed* button, 1851; Anno Oreen' He^es fcom 
tho l)(d, 1050, p. 6 j Official Eettirns of Mem- 
ber* of BirJ.j Purl. Hifcit v, 1014, 1038; 
Ktwhurd'H Hint, of I8ngland t 1718, iij, 368, 479, 
408 j Kapin'a Hiat of Bngland, vol. ii,; Ralph's 
Hint. of Kngland, ml i.; Boyor's William III, 
pp. 76 sq. ; ' Kunke'i Hist, of England, iv. 65 ; 
Hint. MRS. Comm. 4th Hep, p. fi46, 7th. Eep. 
p. 40/S, 8th Bep. p. 390, 15th Bep. pp. 171, 
J 77 { 0<wrtnay' Life of Sir W, Temple ; Qta- 
tio'M Life of Bhafteabury ; Haison^ Life of Mil- 
ton> vi, paiaira; Ahton'0 Hist, of Lotteries: 
Evelyn's Numiamata, p.^7 J Nicholas Lit. Aneed, 
\y, 8-9 ; Paeent^fl St. James's Square, pp, 6, 
30, 107 f WtM'n Oat. of Boyal Society Portraits, 
1800, p. 70; National portrait Oallory Cat. 
1898; Platan's Diplomatie rran^aise, 1811, iv. 
passim; Notm and Queries, 1st wr.Ttt. pasaim; 
JBOtM from Queen's College BegiaterH, wiost 
kindly furnished by the Provoat,] T. S. 


lluit, of Thfttfojft!, 1779, pp. 220 q., and in 
Hmington'n Page in the MbttOf Thftfardj Ouit 

author and publisher, son of James William- 
son, crofter, was born mtHeparishof Aboyne, 
Aberdeen-ato, la 1780. Whett about ten 
years of affe he fell a victim to a barbarous 
traffic which then disgraced Aberdeen, being 
kidnapped and transported to ito American 
plantations, where he -was sold for a period 
of iiwn years to a fellow countryman m 




Pennsylvania. Becoming his own master 
about 1747, he acquired a tract of land on 
the frontiers of the same province, which in 
1754 was overrun by Indians, into whoso 
hands Williamson iell. Escaping, he en- 
listed hi his majesty's forces, and after many 
romantic adventures was in 1757 discharged 
at Plymouth as incapable of further service 
in conseouence of a wound in one of his 
hands, with the sum of six shillings with 
which he had been furnished to carry him 
home, he set out on his journey, and reached 
York, where in the same year he published a 
tract entitled < French and Indian Cruelty 
exemplified in the Life and Various Vicissi* 
tudes of Peter Williamson . . . with a Cu- 
rious Discourse on Kidnapping/ Arriving 
in Aberdeen in 1768, he was accused by the 
magistrates of having issued a scurrilous 
and infamous libel on the corporation of the 
city and whole members thereof. He was 
at once convicted, fined, and banished from 
the city, while his tract, which had passed 
through several editions in Glasgow, Lon- 
don, and Edinburgh, was ordered to bo pub- 
licly burnt at the Market Cross. William- 
son brought an action against the corpora- 
tion for these proceedings, and in 1762 was 
awarded 100J. damages by the court of session. 
He was also successful in a second suit brought 
in 1765 against the parties engaged in the 
trade of kidnapping. 

Williamson settled in Edinburgh, where 
he combined the occupations of bookseller, 
printer, publisher, and keeper of a tavern, 
* Indian Peter's coffee room' (FBUQyssotf, 
Mrnig of the Session). In 1773 he issued 
the first street directory for Edinburgh. In 
1776 he engaged in a periodical work after 
the manner of the 'Spectator/ called the 
6 Scots Spj, or Critical Observer/ published 
every Friday. This periodical, which is 
valuable for its local information, ran from 
8 March to 3Q Aug., and a second series, the 
'New Scots Spy/ from 29 Aug. to 14 Hov, 

About the same time Williamson set on 
foot in Edinburgh a penny post, which be- 
came so profitable in his hands that when 
in 1793 the government took over the 
management, it was thought necessary to 
allow him a pension of 252. per annum. 

Williamson died in Edinburgh on 19 Dec 
1799, He married, in November 1777, Jean 
daughter of John Wilson, bookseller in Edin- 
burgh, whom he divorced in 1788. A portrait 
of Williamson is given by Kay (Origina 
Portraits, L 128), and another 'in the dress 
of a Delaware Indian' is prefixed to va 
rious editions of his * Life.' 
In addition to ' French and Indian Cruelty 

nd tho * Scots Hpyj 1 Willianiwm wan author 
i: 1* ' Some OoiuudoriitiniiH on tho Pronrnt; 
itato of AftairH* Whoroiu tho IWcnct'lt'SH 
Itato of Groat Britain in point od out/ York, 
70S, & 'A briof Account of tho Wur in 
Sforth America/ Edinburgh, 170, 8, * Tra- 
vels of JPote Williamson amongHt tlw dif- 
ferent Nations and Tribim of Havago tmlinng 
n America/ Edinburgh, 1708 (now udit* 
786). 4, ' A Nominal Kiuwwiium on tho 
City of Edinburgh,' Mdintwrgh, 17IM, 5. * A 
Viow of Uu> wholo World/ Kdin* 
n.d* 0. *A Ouriww CoUnclion of 

VToral MaximH and Wino HuyingM,' Kd'm- 
>urgh, n,d 7, 'Tho Koyul Abdication t>f 
\stor WilliamHon, King 'of tho Mohawks,' 
Edinburgh, tul, 8, * 'Proposal H for oata- 
)lishing a ninny VtwtiJ Edinburgh, n,d, 

Among tho workft iHRUod frotu IUM pr<nrt 
wore oditionflof tlu Pnaliim in motro (l{*7D), 
of Sir David Lindna/H pot^nn (177B), and of 
William Mtwton'B * Mob contra Mok 1 Tho 
id OuriouB AdvnnturoH <f lNttr Wil* 
* (a reprint with tuhiititniH of hm 
i and IndianOniMlty 1 ) wan {itthliMhtul 

Lito and (I 

at Aburduunin IHOljHtid proviul vory popular , 
running through many oditionn, mtd appoar- 
ng also in an abbreviated form an a clinp- 

rPrintfldpapors in t*otwr Wtlltnttwou v* (3i 
and othorH, 1701-2, v* Fordyco nut} oUutrn, 

'. Juan Wilmm 17Mi)j HolmHmn'i* H<i 
" ,Ol- ; Kiiy'M OriinifcU*irtm: 
vtiud'ri MagHxiniu Ixiii, Utii i 
Chamtett'H Miwcollftny, vol. it, j 

cal Suraimwy of Punt (JIHmin Htnttlnnti, p. 1ft; 
Scottish NoUm and Uuorion, iv, SD, t. 7, Jx, i2J> f 
47.] I*. J, A, 

T,RA M U Ml.(l WJ- !H 10), 
was tho youngor turn of 

John Williainaon of Livorpool, in 

town ho was born in 

painto, was bom at Uipon in 1 75 L ! I o waft 
apprtmticinl to an ' ornamental ' painter m 
Kirmingham, marricsd in 17Hl t Hi>ttlwi in 
Liverpool in 178^ and continued to Tonido 
there, practising as a portrait-painter, till 
his <kath, on 27 May 1H1H. Among hin 
bast known works am portrait* of William 
Roscoa, Sir William Uiuxdiy, lt,A M XI. 
Fusoli, IiA., tho Eov* John 01wiw, and 
Nathan Litherland, tho invnt,or of th 
patent lover watch. Ho wa a wumbr of 
the Liverpool Academy, and a constant <x- 
hibitor at the local oxhibitiona, Jn 178H lui 
exhibited a portrait) at the lioyal A<mdt*my, 
IBs portraits are correct likamwaoaand fairly 
executed. He also painted miniaturon, but 
they were not in the bot 8tyl af that art, 
In 1811 Samuel had three landscapes hufig 



in tho first oxhihUiou of tlm Liverpool 
Amlcmy, of which body ho WUH a miMubnr. 
In tin* Huhwqwnt oxhilVitionH of that body, 
AH well AH tit the first oxhihitiou of the* Hoyiil 
Manchester Institution in 1H'J7 and the an- 
nual exhihitionn thU; followed each your, lw 
"WUH represented by a large numher of land- 
HcapoN and HIMIMCA|WA ilw only exhibit; oti 
the wallrt of tho Unyd Awdemy WHH a bind- 
wrap in 1H1L Ho earned u'eousidomhlo 
reputation UM a painter of HonpieeoH an<l Iniui- 
wcupert, and was highly entwined by itm folio w- 
tmvnHmon, On hw 'death, which took plnco 
on 7 June 1HH), an oheliMh to IHN memory 
waHoroeiod in the St. James's cemetery, a 
lithograph of whii'.h, by W.Ctdlingwood, wiw 
published, HIM pic.f imw are welt composed, 
and are painted with an attrarlive rlwrm of 
light awl colour. There are three works by 
him tit. the Walker Art Uallery, Liverpool, 
und many more, in private collect-ions in Urn 

|Umv*'H"H Did* of ArtiHlm KsluhttioH Onta- 
1'tftum; information from Itnhtirt WilliittitHofi of 
Kipoti; note in Miuu'ht'Htm' tHty NUWH, 7 Hopt, 
1H7H, by the promwt, writer,] A. N. 

l'UUO(18il$ 1 8i)6), naturalist, bornnUSwr- 
h trough on 1M Nov. lHit^ ( was tlie rtetjoad 
itud only Hurvivinj^ son of John Williamson, 
tfiwionor and naturalist, Hirst eurntorof tho 
Scarborough Muntum t by Htteabeth (Jraw- 
ford, eldertt dau^htor of a Heottish lutndnry 
und watd i n mitt ^ who migrated to Vorushim 
when yountf, In lusettrly Iwtyhood ho leurmnl 
the lnpihiry*s art in tfrawionrn worltHhop, 
and luujuirett a tfood know ledjyfM of Held natu- 
ral history from bin father and his father's 
frimulft, not ably William Hinith (17tm 1H;IO) 
jq, v- 1 the: founder of modern Htratigraphmal 
^*<b)gy, ami hw nephew John PhiUipn 
(lHO(HH74)[i.v,] pnifesHor of geology ut 
Oxford, who WUH fur somutime an inuwtnof 
John Williamson^ houstn His schooling, 
bog'un^ early, was jwuhufuato, largely owing 
'to tlelicate health. Between thruo and HIJC 
yearn of ag( hw went to thnw diunu sehoolw ; 
m IH^J ht^ wont to William i'ottw'H w.hool, 
wht*rn ho had mertgre instruction in Latin 
and WttKlwh, In fHHl h had hi only real 
ttaching, from thn Ibv. ThomtiH Irving at 
Thornton grammar nuhno!, whoro h Btaytnl 
only ix nwrnthft, In the* wituran !w went 
for aix month* to tho wsliool of a M, Mon* 
titum nt Haurbourg, niar Oalai, with littlo 
intolh^tuttl profit, wen in tlu tuqumltioa of 
Frm<th| for thn majority of tho boys wuro 
Mnglish. Thi oomplotod hin gchoullifo : he 
ttctquirud oas in Fvoncsh apoaking, 
ho road tho language with oaao, nor knowhulgti of any other modorn tongue, 
lie, was aimronticod as a medical studont 
(IHa) to Thomiw Wwldoll, apothecary of 
Scarborough, whoro ho discharged tho funo- 
tioiw of orraud boy, diflpener, and cleric, 
aoHn to tho ffonoral cutom. Ilo con- 
tlnutul hiH natural history studies, and con- 
tributed a papier on Lirds to tho Zoological 
Sotni'ty, and two to tho (leological. Those 
W(^r<^ auioug tho iirfit pioneering attempts to 
analyst* tlu^ Btmta iut.o smaller < zoaes ^ cha- 
ractriHtKl by thir owx^ proper groups of 
foHKtlw, a field in which enormous advances 
have Hintw been made, J lo also published a 
pamphlet^ Kinco t.wicui reprinted, giving an 
account* of the eonttmtB ol a tumulus opened 
at (h'isthnrpe, and described a new muflsel 
(Af<tff. Nat. Mi*t. IHJM-). To the 'Fossil Flora 
of Ciroat J Britain/ by John Lindloy [q> v.l 
and JamiM Hutton (17^(^1797) [qv.], ll 
eontributtid ilhmt.mted dtwcriptiohs cff fofisils 
whiclt had btuMi diHuovered in an esttiarijio 
deposit. )>y liis iather and hie iather'fl coiwin, 
Simon Jtt^m, 1 1 w work attracted tho atten- 
tion of many eminent naturaliHtfl, notably 
William B\iuklad [q. v,] Owing to their 
intimist, and to that 'of naturalists visiting 
Scarborough, h rocoived a call from the 
Manrhtwtur Natural Hwtory Society to the 
cumt.orship of thwr muHoinn in 18*55, Wed- 
doll gennrously cftncolling IUH indentures ; ho 
hold thin oflico iV>r three years, continuing 
{wpocmlly geological nwoarch and publica- 
tion, and wa n frequent visitor at the Lite- 
rary and HuioHophioal Bocinty, where he 
m<t among ot,hurH John Dakon( 1760-184*) 
[q,v.] lit th umwjor of 18,18, in order to 
rniMo fundrt for medical study, ho gavo a 
courHo of HIX luuturua on jxt?olpgy in various 
UJWIIH <jf LancuHlujfo, Yofithiro, and Dur- 
ham j ho Btudiwl ono winter at the Pino 
$trtwt mudiual school, Manchester, and en- 
ttmd in tho autumn of 1889 at UnivOTflity 
0<jllga > London, In 1840 ho attended a se- 
cond <wum> of lectures there } but before the 
close of the year had obtained the diplomas 
of M.1UX8. and L.H.A., and in January 1841 
commenced practice in ManchoBtcr with the 
ganurouB guamnteo of two wealthy friends. 
Some flucceanful opwrations on squint brought 
him into note, and he was Boon appointed 
surguon to tho ()horlton-on*Modlock dispon- 
eary, a post ho roaigned in 18(^8. Ear troulbies 
during nis Rtudent days had interested him 
in that organ; ho profited by some vacations 
to study aural aurgory undr Mt3iu6re ia Pans, 
Joswph Toynbee [q. vj and Harvey in Lon- 
don, took active 8teps towards the creation 
of the ManohoHtor Institute for Diseases of 
tho 12ar in 1855, and was surgeon to it until 
1870, when ho became its consulting sur* 




geon. To his large general practice lie thus 
added that of a specialist in this department. 
He continued professional medical work till 
about his seventieth year. He -was present 
at that public demonstration of mesmerism 
which first attracted James Braid [q. v.] to 
the subject ; was the first to show from^the 
contracted pupils that the hypnotised patient 
was in a genuine and peculiar state; and 
utilised Braid's services as a hypnotist later 
on in the successful treatment of epilepsy ; 
tout finally abandoned the therapeutic use of 
hypnosis, regarding it as likely to undermine 
the will power of the patient. He devised 
the treatment of infantile convulsions by 
prolonged continuous chloroform anaesthesia, 
and wrote two papers on this subject, the 
first (not cited in the Reminiscences) in the 
' Lancet ' (1853, vol. i.) A clinical observa- 
tion on the ' Functions of the Chorda Tym- 
pani' (also not cited; Assoc. Med. Journ. 
1855) as a nerve of taste, a view which still 
has partisans, completes with the three cited 
papers (Brit. Med. Journ. 1857) his contri- 
butions to medical science. 

In January 1851 he was appointed first 
professor of l natural history, anatomy, and 
physiology ' in the Owens College, Manches- 
ter. His duties comprised instruction in 
zoology and botany in the widest sense, be- 
sides the geological sciences. In 1854, with 
Mr. Eichard Copley Christie, he initiated at 
the college evening classes for working men. 
At first he divided his subjects into two 
groups, on which he lectured in alternate 
sessions ; but ultimately the demands of uni- 
versity students made this impossible. In 
1870 a distinct lectureship had to be created 
in mineralogy. In 1872, on the fusion with 
the Royal School of Medicine, geology was 
also separated, and Williamson became pro- 
fessor of * Natural History/ A demonstrator 
to assist in the then new laboratory work 
was appointed in 1877 ; and in 1880 zoology 
was split off, leaving him the chair of botany 
which he resigned in 1892, after forty-one 
years' continuous tenure of office, with the 
title of emeritus professor, and a year's 
salary as gratuity. Bis lectures to students 
were well arranged and well delivered, in- 
teresting and fluent, but lacked minuteness 
of accurate detail ; and from the ignorance 
of German which he deplored he never 
thoroughly assimilated the current language 
of the modern aspects of botany. 

Williamson added largely to his income 
by popular scientific lectures ; between 187^ 
and 1890 alone he gave, among others, at 
least three hundred in connection with the 
Gilchrist trust. For these, many of which 
dealt with his own discoveries, he drew anc 

^ainted beautiful and oflbetivti diagrams, 1 1 o 
was highly successful as a popular Iwturw. 
Several of his popular locturoa wore print od. 
le wrote a mmibor of articlos for tho ' Low- 
Ion Quarterly Koviow/ publiwhod uiwlwr Woa- 
,eyan auspicoa, and some for liho * Popular 
Science Review.* Those on * Primeval Yg* 
;ation in its relation to th Doctrimw of 
Natural Selection and Evolution* in tho 
Owens College Eaeayfl and a Adclnw/ 
1874, and on * Pyrrhonism in Soitmco ' ( Cbn* 
temporary Jfcv. 1881), show his caulimia 
attitude, by accepting the tloHeent-fchoory 
generally, but resenting all attempts at fltuon- 
bific dogmatism and intolerance He was* in-* 
dined to demand something which escapes 
scientific analysis, in addition to tho known 
natural factors of divergent evolution* 

He was on friendly terms with tho Wea* 
leyans in Manchester, and was for a timo a 
member of that body* He was medical at- 
tendant to the Weskyan Theological Col- 
lege, Didsbury, 1864-83, and a member of 
the committee of management, 

After an attack of ill-health in 1800, Wil- 
liamson settled in 1861 in the then outlying 
hamlet of FallowMd. There he built a 
home, with a garden and range of plant- 
houses, and became a successful grower uaptv- 
cially of rare orchids, insectivorous plants, 
and higher cryptogams ; thofto were utilwoa 
in the later development of laboratory touch- 
ing at the college, which contributed an 
annual grant towards the expense. In 1883 
he suffered from diabetes, and had finally to 
resign his chair in J 891. Ho removed irom 
Manchester to Clapham Common, where hft 
continued in harness nearly to the laHt, work- 
ing in collaboration with Professor II, I). 
Scott at his own house or at the Joddroll 
Laboratory, Hew. Hi last publication (in 
February 1895) was tho obituary of IUH old 
friend, sometime opponent and rocunt con- 
vert, the Marquis de Saporta. He died at 
Clapham on^sS Juno 1895, IIa was nparti 
and erect, with blue-grey oyes dwp not in an 
oval face. He had an educated taste in 
music; and the watorcolour skotchoa ht 
brought back from his vacation trips wm* 
poetic in feeling and happy in composition, 
He was married twice; first, in 1849, to 
Sophia (& 1871), daughter of the Bev, Ho* 
bert Wood, treasurer to the Wesleyan body, 
by whom he left a son, Eobert Bateson, 
solicitor, and a daughter, Edith j secondly, 
in 1874, to Annie 0. Heaton, niece of Bir 
Henry Mitchell of Bradford, who completed 
and edited his autobiography under the title 
of 'Reminiscences of a Yorkshire Natural- 
ist ; ' by her he left one son, Herbert, paintnr. 
Williamson's scientific work was iniuum*< 


ami invaluable Kurly rMwwheH on tho 
Foratmniiera betwewi lH-10 and 1H50 hid to 
Lin preparing a monograph on the recent 
form** of thiH group for tho Hay Hwuety ; 
William Bemamin Oarpentw [<|*v,| annerl<*d 
that bin work introdiuku^a new technique 
for their Htudy (that of thin MutfimiM) ana a 
iu*w conception (that of thn aomhmatiou of 
a wide variety of fontm hitherto ranked ii 
of HjwtnlUt or geut'rw rank in Mtuglo indiyt- 
dualM), and that it gave, a starting-point 
for all futuro invent igutimw. Uemtarc.hert on 
Pb/wr about iHfil), only HOMO thirty yearn 
lator nptieed ami wmltrnuul, tiemotiHtrattttl 
that thin critical form in eswmtially vegetal, 
not animal, in its morphology, A very com- 
ploto Htudy of tho wheul-ammalj Mfttwrtttt 
wan publinbed in 1HM, anil in wmnequetu'.u 
ho wan umplnynd by Andrew pritulmni to 
writo a monograph on tho Rotifera lor tho 
third edition of hU ' lufuwtria 1 (1H(H); thin 
wa an admirable, {* itutwonn 
I MO ami lHr>(), largely provitletl with inato- 
rial by Sir Philip t'it/MnlpuH <}rey~Hgert.ou 
Itj, v,| t bo protlucetl two inonogmplm on tho 
mHtology f tooth, flnb MCttleM, and bono, of 
duri.HH'iU' vuhin, I Worn ho thmtottHtratotl 
two capital tbeneH- tho oMHential identity of 
ti^oth and of ibth m*aleH f utul tho dUtinction 
of botu^ furmtnl t <lir<u)t1y in mombmni* fttmi 
that preformed in airfcilugo, Kiilliker, tho 

tanttwfwgh to warrant. IUM arduouH piUfri- 
nmgo from cumtral <Uirmnny to ttccopt Wil- 
lianmun'rt lumpitality of board and Htudy, 
Thin work gut nod Williatnutm thu follow- 
hip of tho lloytd Boeitity (IH54). Fauil 
plantu bad ongttgod IUM oarHoHt olforU. llo 

litiH probably como cluatir to its dot arm in a> 
tion than any ont^ oiao, But it was only 
towards 1H58 that ho really bogan that com- 
pruheniv tudy of tho planU of the coal- 
meanunm which in hm groattmt cluim to rank 
&* one of the fouudirti of paltpobotany, llo 
dtimonatrattjd that with cm-tain cliaractors of 
the higher exiating ^owerleuB plants horse* 
tttil,ftsrn*,clubmo8(ifi,&io, thera were found 
at thttt period planta whoao woody cylinder 
grew by external teosit of n^w layers, w 
m oux foreBt trses* His results mat at first 
with neglect and hostility. His drawings 
ware exquisite and nature-true, mado ( on 
lithographic tranifer paper with the artifice 
of a quadrilU eye-piece : but they suffered in 
the proceseoe of transference to stone and 
printing. His figures were distributed over 
the plates with a view rather to neatness and 
economy of space than to logical connection. 





\n (ach SUCCOSHIVO memoir he described SlV 

t-ho material ho had studied completely uj> v 41 (** J 

* - - 1 -* - To his unfamiliarity with modem 

terminology ho addod a defective 
i. 11 IB text, was a detailed descrip- 
tion of tha pttimims, with references to tne 
accompany ing plat OB and to those of pro- 
viouH mampirt^ lutorHporsod witk discussions 
of genoralitioH and of controversial matter, 
withwt tables of contonts, genoral introdac* 
tionn, or linal numtnarics and conclusions. 
T<^ mantor Huoh papow was, in oHect, to con- 
dnct a rtwoarch on tlio figuros with a mini- 
mum of olloctivo aid. In 1871 a discussion 
at tho .Hritish AHsociation was followed up 
m ' Nafcurej 1 \vhr a corroapondont uccusea 
him of going bade to the conceptions of 
Nohomioh Grow [q. v.l In France his 
rtjHiiltn wro Hystomatically ij^norod, despite 
liin can nt tint iuvitatioua to his opponents to 
Htudy IUB ftpiicimtms a hisguosts, until 1882, 
wlum for th iirHt timo the facts and argu- 
ment** ou both Bidos wore marshalled in a 
readily owuiHBiblo form in a French essay, 
1 Len ^igillairwB <^t IUB J/ipidodondrto* by 
WilliamHOii and his demonHtrator, Professor 
Marcus Havtag (Ann, $a Nat* 1882). Fresk 
nvitlonco pourod in* In 1887 Henault. MB 
c!uf t)pponont, rotroated honourably from 
ono part of tho ilold, and Grand' Bury and 
Baporta in 1 81)0 avowed thair general con- 
version. Only in respect of one minor point 
tho question of tho interstitial growth of 
the ctmtre of tbo woody cylinder did Wil- 
liamHan's viows break down j but it was 
through hia own laborious investigations 
that tho disproof was completed, A full 
invcmtigation on the structure of compact 
coal was commenced in 1876 and continued 
to his death, but the examination of many 
thousand auctions led to no publication em* 
bodying general results after the preliminary 
note (BritM Amdatitm Jfc%>ort, 1881), A. 
valuable research in 1885 extended Nathorst's 
discovery that reputed animal and vegetable 
fossils were mare tracks of animals or of tidal 
currents* Williamson never spared money 
in the purchase of adequate apparatus and 
specimens; one of the latter, a magnificent 
Bigillaria with stigmarian roots, from Clay- 
ton, near Bradford, now in the Manches- 
ter Museum, was long called ' Williamson's 
Folly,' He met with generous Kelp from 
the amateur field-naturalists of the north, 
often working men, who were proud to help 
him with the fossil s they had collected or the 
sections they had cut and noted as worth Hs 
study. This help i.e always acknowledged. 
Williamson's scientific work lacked, of 
course, the method developed by personal 
academic training and by the laboratory in- 




struction of pupils. He stands halfway be- 
tween the scientific amateurs of genius like 
Cavendish, Lyell, Joule, and Darwin, and 
the modern professional savants of Cam- 
bridge and South Kensington. Averse from 
excessive speculation and dogmatism, he took 
no share in the formation of scientific theory. 
iFrom 1865 to 1882 his reputation stood at 
the lowest among the new school of profes- 
sional English biologists, trained when his 
pioneering work had become the anonymous 
commonplaces, of the text-book, while his 
recent work was ill understood or largely 
ignored. From that period onwards it rapidly 
rose, and at the British Association meeting 
in Manchester (1887) he was an honoured 
member of the cosmopolitan group of bota- 
nists there present, many of whom were his 
personal guests. Williamson was elected 
F.R.S. in 1854. He became a member of 
the Literary and Philosophical Society of 
Manchester in 1851, served repeatedly on its 
council, and was elected an honorary member 
in 1893 ; and he took a leading part in the for- 
mation in 1858 and in the working of the 
microscopic and natural history section. His 
ninth memoir, ' On the Organisation of the 
Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures' (Phil 
Trans.), was given as the Bakerian lecture 
at the Royal Society. A nearly complete 
bibliography is given in the * Reminiscences.' 
He received the royal medal of the Royal 
Society in 1874, an honorary degree of 
LL.D. of Edinburgh in 1883, and the Wol- 
laston medal of the Geological Society in 
1890, besides foreign honours. A portrait 
by H. Brothers is in the Owens College, 

[Reminiscences of a Yorkshire Naturalist, 
1896; obituaries and notices by Count Solms 
Laubach (Nature, 1895), A. C. Seward (Nat. Sc. 
vol. viL 1895), R. D. Scott (Science Progress, 
1895-6, arid Proc. R. S. vol. clxx. 1896-7), 
P. J. Fjaraday] and T[homas] Hpcfes] (Mem. 
Manchester L. and Phil. Soc, 1896), and Lester 
Ward (Science, vol.ii. 1895); information kindly 
given by Robert Bateson Williamson, Rev. 
"W, H. Dallinger, P.B.S., Rev. Richard Green (of 
the Wesleyan Theological College, Didsbury), 
Mr. Walter Brown (University College, London), 
the registrar of Owens College, Manchester, and 
P. J- Hartog ; personal knowledge.] M. H. 

WILLIBALB^OOP-786), bishop and 
traveller, born about 700, was the son of a 
certain St. Richard who bore the title of 
Mng, and is conjectured to have been the son 
of Hlothere, king of Kent, who died in 685. 
His mother was Winna, sister of Saint Boni- 
face [q. v.l, the great apostle of Germany; 
ehe was also related to Ine [a. v,l, king of 
"Weseex. Willibald had a brother W unebald 

and a sister Walburga [q. v.], who woro nlwo 
missionaries among tho GormmiH. In hirt 
boyhood he was sent to the monaHtory of 
Waltham to bo educated ( Vita #eu poliuit 
JKodccponcon fiancti WitUbaldi, up, Toimwu, 
Descriptions Terra* f j). 0), Hero ho 
conceived tho idea of a pilgrimage, and per- 
suaded his father and brother to Hot out with 
him for Homo ($. pp. 14-10) about 720-1. 
At Lucca Willibaltvrt father died, but lit* 
himself and his brother preyed on their dif- 
ficult and dangorouH journey, and finally 
arrived in Homo. IJoro Willibald formed 
the design of going on to Jerunalom, and 
after wintering in Kome, where he wan 8im- 
ously ill, set out in the spring of 7^2 For 
Syria. It was a timp when ]nlgrimago in tho 
east was fraught with infinite hurdHlrip and 
danger, when tho old hoflpitala on tho pilgrim 
routes had fallen into neglect, and wuen tho 
great Maliommodan empire stretched from 
the Oxus to the Pyrenees. The HuiledngH of 
Willibald and his party were therefore very 
great, At JQmofla they were taken primmer** 
as spies, but were ultimately wot froo to visit; 
tho pilgrim shrinos still allowed to remain 

r, Willibald scorns to havo wandered 
,t Palestine a good dual, and to Iwvo 
visited Jerusalem several titnoH, finally leav- 
ing Syria about 726 after a narrow oHtwpo 
of martyrdom through smuggling hulfttim 
from Jerusalem (BrusnvNY, '77w? Darni <tf 
Modern Geography, p. 152 j but sue WHUIHT, 
Jtioyr, Brit. Lit, i. #42), In Conntantwnplo 
he spent two ycara, from TM to 7^8^ return-* 
ing to Italy after an abnonce of Htvti yearn 
(6. p. 6S) by way of Naplen. At the great 
Benedictine monastery of Monto ( limit w ho 
remained for ten years (A, p, 4/i) t holdiiitf 
various offices in tho houw^ At the end or 
this time he again viHitml Remo, where U re- 
gory HI talked with him of IUH travelw (ih, 
pp. 46-7) ?> and authoriHod tlu puhlieation of 
ms narrative. J?oniface meanwhile WHH in 
neod t of help in Germany, and united for 
Willibald, who -was accordingly tltwpnttthwi 
by Gregory III to Eiehwtiidt (?/;. pp, 4H ), 
At Salzburg in 741 Willibald wu wnm\ 
crated to tho bishopric of Michntiidt by A wh- 
bishop BonUaeo (t. pp, 51 ^), and her the 
latters (loath became the loader of tho (Ger- 
man mission, He built a monantery int. 
Eichstadt, and Hvod a monastic life thuns 
(5.) dying in 786, 

WillibahVs guido-book, entitled < Vita mm 
Hodoeporicon Sancti Willibaldi msriptnm a 
Sanctimoniali/ from which tho dutailH of 
his life are taken, waB dictated by himnulf 
(ib. p. 62), and probably written down by a 
nun at Ileidomuura, tho ilninhiug to 
being added by another hand oi'tur hin 



Jim book tfiv**H lit tin gonoral information, 
UK tlw writer WUH wtont upon IUH dovotionrt, 
but thrown Homo light upon law and ctiHtnm 
in tho tuiMtom lantln in which Iw travelled. 
HH vjituo IK owing **> tho ofcjrowo Hwiwity 
of |>ilgrim jmtitw during theoij(htlt ctmtury. 
1t in imbtiHlitMi by Mabilitm tu tho *At.ifc 
Hanoturuw OrdiwH Houedicti* (iv. ttOfmnj.), 
but tho moHt awoHHihio edition in that of 
Toblor in tho * 1 h'wmpt imuw 'IVrrw* 
(pp, 1 fifi). OthorlivoHlwHnduprutthihav 
beon written, but Iwvo added to it nothing 
of importance {llAUDY, /^WVV)J///Y? VtttttL 
I pi, li, pp. 4M-I). Tht* (thief of thoHO - 
tho *Vita Hive potitw ItinewHuw Hancti 
Willihaltti auHoro Antmytim' in alnu tiuh- 
linhod by Toblor ( hw. fit,, pp. W 70), Wilii- 
bald in Huid tit hnvo writ.lett tho well-known 
UFo of 8U Boniikeo publwhotl by JiirtVi in tlio 
1 Mtmiuntmta Moguutina* in * Uiblinthoca 
Horum ( Im'Maniimrum* ( Itewnpt* (fatal, 1, 
cit..p.47H ; but mm /%n //V, M i. JM4 fi), 

rAuthovitiwi quotiitl in tlw toxt. 1 ) 

' A. M. 


ardtbiwhop of Utmtht and 
Frinia, born about tW^wana Nor* 

i, 5*10 B), thw on of Wiigils, who, aftw 
"Willibnml'H birth, rotirad from th world to 
awll at tlw mouth of tho II umber (AidtUN t 
ViL Witt* vol. I chap. i.) wherti hn livod the 
imchorittfn lifii, 1 1 ift day waa later obwurvod 
an a leant day in WillilmmTa own montiatwry 
of Kohtiontaoh ($. chap* xxxi) Dadicatud 
by hm mother and father to a raligious lifts, 
willtbrord, a noon as ho was weaned, Wftn 
given to thomonkfl of Hipon, whore h0 came 
under the influence of St. Wilfrid [<j. vj (^, 
chap, iil; EDDIUB, F/ Wil/rifa m //& 
C/mrcA </ Fo/ 1 vol. i,) In hie 

twentieth vear, the fame or the schools and 
scholars of Ireland drew him thither, and he 
spent the next twelve yeaw (677-4X)) at the 
monastery of Bathmefeigi with St. Egbert 
[q, v, J who in 690 sent Willibrord, after he 
had been ordained priest, to preach the gos- 
pel to the Frisians* 

Landing at the mouth of the Bhine, "Wil- 
librord went thence to Trajeotum (Utrecht), 
but, finding- the pagan kmp Batnbod and 
his Frisians hostile, 'he boldly went direct 
to Pippin of Borstal, ' duke of the Franks/ 
who had ^juat (687) established his power 
over the Franks by the battle of Tostry (ib, ; 
ALOUIN, Vit, Will. I chap, v.) Pippin wel- 
comed Willibrord) and thus identified Ixim* 
8if and his house with the conversion^ of 
thorn* parts of the German settlements which 
still heathon. The alliance between 

Pippin and Willtbrord was tho salvation of 
tlu i now movnont. Kathbod boinff expellud, 
wtiltitudoH of tho pwplo of ' Hithor Frieia" 
nu*(*iv<ul tho faith '(&.; Mm* IRst* .RritA* 
588 1)), Willibrord wont probably in (m to 
Homo t<u>ljl uin tlu^ conwmt of Poix^ Bt^m 
to tht* nnKHion, and in tho hopo 01 rocoivhi^ 
holy rdics of tho apostles and mar- 

tyrn to pluou in tlw ahurotuw ho wimltod to 
build in rVicHlnnd (Bm>H, JIM* Xkal. vol, v. 

chap, xi, ; AJ*OUIN, Vit* Will, vol. i, ohnpB, vi. 
vii.) IloobtaintHl bot,h, and on IUH re turn over- 
throw papin idolH, plan tod churohos, placing 
in t.hom tlw rtilii'H ho had brought from Homo, 
find) though amid f(roat tlitlicult.ioB, won tho 
1 runt, of tho KriHiatiH. 1 lo nuwlo a bold onwot 
in Holitfolnml upon tho pa^aw Hhrino of the 
p;od Kiwito, who wan a HDU of Haider, and, 
inviting tlw vontfoanoo of tht pod by his in- 
iVin^omont of tlw IHWH ^uurdtn/jf tho wacrwi 
fouutnin thoro, ho won a romarkablo u- 
jmnuncy <*V(^r tho mi mitt of tho puffim Friniann 
( A MiuiK, vol. L lirt, x, xi.) Mo clontroyod 
t<hu gr*Mit idol of \V altihi^ron, at tho porii oC 
IUH own lift* (/A, vol, i, chapxiv) In 714 
Pippin and Phmtrudin hi wifV^gavo Willi- 
brord tho monantory of Hiuwtra (MioNH, Ptit* 
Lnt* ixxxix, 1547) ; horo occurred one of a 
rioa of miracloB whioh won for tho saint 
amonf( tho pvoplo tho imputation of Hiipur** 
natural powor (AiiOum, chapg. 5cv. xvi,) t 

I'ktotulwffhiH labours bovond tho Fraukiwh 
iftttd f Willibrordwmtto liathbod,butfaiUuI 
to convort him ($ chap, ix,), and finally, 
r<3<*o#mamg that m hapoloHH, went on ' atl 
jprociwimo Danorum populos/ and their 
king * Ongondus, homo omi fera crudolwr ' 
(pombly tho Oniafwwtheow of IJoowulf), who 
waa as nrmly pagan as Uathbod. But Willi- 
brord took thirty Danish boya back with him, 
and baptised thorn, hoping to train them up 
as Christians, and to send them whun mou 
on a mission to their own land (ib* chap, ix,) 
Gradually Willibrord was able to organiwo 
his jrreat 'parochial The faithful, m thoir 
gratitude to him, offered their patrimonios, 
which were devoted to roligious foundations 
(ib. chap, xii. j for the chartors of tho most 
famous of these grants see MiaNM, Pat. Lat> 
Ixxxix, 685-6SJ), 

In 695 Willibrord wont to Rome a second 
time, in order that, at IMrmin's requet f 
ha might be consecrataa arcKbishop of the 
Frisians by Sergius, lie was consecrated 
in the church of Santa Cecilia in, Trastevere 
on the feast of St, Clement (21 Nov,X and 
on consecration received the name of Cle- 
ment, a name which, however, never came 
into general use (but cf. BBBB, Hist, J&e/. v, 
11; BBB, ^Chron.sivedeVI^ 
99 C } 




Wl&. in Mon. Hist. Brit. y. 639 B). Alcuin 
(chap, vii.) mates Willibrord go to Borne 
only once, but in this he is probably wrong. 
He also says his consecration took place in 
St. Peter's ($.), but this also seems to be 
a slip. Bede,who places Will ibrord's second 
journey to Kome in 696, probably postdates 
at by a year (cf. Monumenta Ahmniana, p. 
46 n.) Remaining in Rome only fourteen 
days, Willibrord on his return received from 
Pippin a seat for his cathedral at Wiltaburg, 
a small village a mile from Utrecht. Later, 
in 722, Charles Martel, confirming his father 
Pippin's action, made a formal grant to 
Wulibrord of Utrecht and lands round the 
monastery (BOTTQTIET, iv. 699 ; MlG-NB, Pat. 
Zat. Ixxxix. 551, 552). In Utrecht Willi- 
brord built a church of St. Saviour's (cf. 
Boniface to Pope Stephen III, Ep. 90, apud 
MieKNU, Ixxxix. 787-9 j Men. Mog. pp, 259, 
260). He built many churches and some 
monasteries throughout his widespread dio- 
cese (BEDE, Hist. EccL vol. v. chap. xi. ; 
Aictrar, Vit. Will. chap, xi.) Of the latter 
the most famous foundation was that of 
Echternach on the Sauer in Luxemburg, 
near Trier, which he and the abbess Irmina 
founded. It was richly endowed by Pippin 
and his queen Plectrudis in 706, and later 
by Charles' "Martel in 717 (ib. chap, xxii; 
MiasrB, Pat. Lot. Ixxxix. 639-50). IJe con- 
secrated several bishops for Frisia. When 
St. Wilfrid [q. v.] made his second journey 
to Rome with Acca [q. v.] as his companion, 
they visited Willibrprd, and Wilfrid was 
a$e to see the completion by Willibrord of 
the work of which he himself had partly 
laid- the foundations (& iii, 13, v. 19 j ED- 
Dius in Historians of Church of York, p. 37). 
In 716, during the war between Rathbod 
and the Franks, Christianity in Frisiaendured 
a' time of persecution. St. Boniface in that 
year went to Frisia, hoping to help Willi- 
brord and to win JRathbod's consent to his 
preaching* But the latter was refused, On 
15 May 719 Boniface was appointed Willi- 
brord's coadjutor, his special work being to 
convert those of the German tribes who 
were still pagan. On Rathbod's death 
Willibrord was joined by Boniface, and they 
worked together in Frisia for three years ; 
but when Willibrord urged that at his death 
Boniface should succeed to his archbishopric 
and charge, Boniface's humility refused such 
honour, and he went on into Hesse (MiGNE, 
'Ixxox 615, 616; BoirmoB, J&>, 90, in 
Micros, Iranrix. 787, 788V 

Willibrord baptised rippin the Short, 
grandson of Pippin of Herstal who had first 
welcomed him, and he foretold that he 
overthrow the sMow of Mero- 

vingian rule and become king of tho Franks 
(ALOUIW, vol. i. chap, xxiii.) In extreme old 
age he retired to the monastery of Kehtor- 
nach, where he died and wn buried, aged 
81, in 738 or 739. Boniface's stattmumt of 
his having preached for ' fifty yoarw ' (MiONtt, 
Pat. Lat. Ixxxix, 585} iw approximate only. 
Alcuin (chap, xxiv,) givo.N (iNov, <w tho day 
of his death, but ThooiVid givow 7 Nov., and 
the latter is the* day ktvpt; in hm honour w 
the Roman calendar. HIM rmnainH wro 
translated in 10#1 to a mvw and tnoro 
sumptuous church built at. ICohtnrnaeh in 

his honour (ALOUIN, Vit* ll'ilL ohapM. #jdv 
*) ho 

xv, i*K), xatiii. i-7, JM), 
fame of miracles wrought at liin tomb and 
by his relics bocanut g<Mieral (Au!UtN } JVA, 
frill, chap, xxvi.j ,Pwim,xv, tW7, 1)70, 07 1, 
1271, &c.J Wiilibrord'H work Huilond a re- 
action loss than iiffty ynaw alter Itw death, 
when Widikind overthrew (JhriHtinnity in 
Frisia (PjaitTO, it. 410), Tlie eanne of Willi- 

brorcVs succeKH proved alno Mm (*aum^ (tf hin 
failure; hiH miHHirm had dt^peiuled largely 
for its support upon tlie help ef the rul*r of 
the state ; onco that) Hupj)ert \VUH wit hdrttwn 
or overwhelmed, the \verlt til* tlm itUHHiou 
was not Ruilieiently ind(podimt to enduw 
in its entirety, WillUjp(rd had bein not 
so much a mwfuonary UH the right hand of 
Pippin and of OJiarkw Martel in their eilortH 
to ciyiliso the lower Gurmuu trih(% Though 
indoiatipfablo in the werk of Inn tiintwm*, thw 
establiHnmont of IUH litHliopriti at Utn^ht, on 
the borders of the eniplrts and eHpeeinUy bin 
frequent rotirement to Kchternarh i the very 
heart of tho Frankinh n^ion, einphnMjHe thin 
fact, It waH in the wakt\ of FmrtluHh nr rnitm 
that his niain 'work in J^rinia WUM tiono, 

According to a will printed in 
JPatrologia Latina'Clxxxix, 554' II), 
iscontainod a long and detailed fte 
all Willibrord'fiptwHCMHionii, mainlv giftH from 
Peppin and PItrudi and (Jhurlim Muriel, 
Willibrord left all hi) ptutMUHUHni tu tli abbey 
of Echternach, vhore no wihod hiu bmly t<i 
rest, The famous * tlanciwg prowHuiou/ utiil 
held at Eehtornaah on Wbit-TunmUy, for 
which pilgrims asemble f from Hetttium,Uw 
many, ana France, aomutimwi to tu ttumlwr 
of ten thousand, is aid to owe it* origin to 
a pilgrimage mada in the eighth century to 
the relics of Willibrord. 

[The chief authority for Williteord'* Jif it 
Bede's Hietoria EcclwiWicft, bk, iii, <sh*p *iIJ, 
bk : v, chaps. *, xi, xix. Th0 eaiWt Jti?t ww. 
wntten by an Irish monk, *rtjtico utiio, 1 bthii 
name and work have parinhed, Tbe Uttur, how- 
ever, -waa the bap of the two iiv* of Wiliihrord 
by Alcum, one in pro for uno in th tthtw*h of 
Ecntornach, the otlwr in vm$ fur the 

Willis x 

of the pupils in tho monastic school, Both are 
printed in Mcmumenta Alcuiniana, pp. 39-79 
(vol vi. of Jaffe'a Bibl. Her. Germ.) Alcuin 
wrote at the request of Boornrad, archhishop of 
SOQB and abbot of Eehternach from 777 to 797* 
Next Boornrad himself, ut the request of Charles 
the Gtaat, collected the traditions concerning 
Willibrord which still existed in tho monastery 
of JBehtoniach, and so laid tho foundation of the 
'Golden Book.* Early in the twelfth century 
two new lives wqre written by Thoofrid (d. 1 110), 
abbot of Eehternach, one in prowo and one in 
' Torso, together with sormonn for St. Willi- 
brord 's day. Extracts from Theofrid's IIVCH aro 
in Moivamflnta Eptornaconaia Gorm,, in .Perth's 
Mon. Seriptoros, tom.xxiii. 23-30, and tho details 
given above are from Weilnnd'a Introduction, 
pp. aci, acix, Next tho abbot Thoodoric, who 
wrote the GhronU'on Bptornacenso, a chronicle 
ending in 1102, wrote much of him. Migne's 
Pat, Lafc. vol, Ixxxix. containfl Diplomats ad 
S. Willibrorclunt vol ab GO collate, which give 
further dotailn, as doow Pwrtz'H Mon. BcriptproB 
torn, ii. xv. xxiii. Odhnr HVOH and, diHciwaions 
of Willibrord, hi work, voliea, and commemora- 
tion, arc Dwlwich'H ,Da Jjalmn dow hctligon Wil- 
librmxhiH tiach Alcuin, in hi B<nt,ruge zur 
r(>miHcih-<J<MitHolum OoKohioh1o am Niodorrhoiu 
(IB/50) ; Knglin^H Apoatolat AOH hoiligon Willi- 
brord im 1/aniio dot Luxcniburgor (18(J3); 
Kner* Dio Sptinp;pPOBtt8iott in Kchtornaoh 
(1870); Le MiroV CorfcVerhael van hot Loven 
van don H. WUlibrord\w(161S); Mnollondorff's 
Loban d heiligon Oloniena Willibrord, <5tec. 
{Seo alMO ttutoria HRcra ; Boswchaerf, Do primia 
veteris FrlHint ApoHtolis. The most modern 
authority is Thijm'fl Gctschiftdenia dee ICerk in 
de NodorlanciA 1 H. WillibrorduH (1801), of 
which an enlarged German translation waa pub- 
liahftd in 1863, Plumm er'a edition of BecUgivw 
valuable note, 1'onulav books of devotion are 
still publiwhod, Hnch an LflboriHgeschichte doa 
hilig(*tt OkmwmH Willibrord, oin AndachtHbiioh- 
lin, &c, Trier, 18^4.1 H. T. 


WILLIS, BKOWNIil (16B2-170Q), aatir 
ttuary, born at Blandford Bt, Mary on 14 Sept* 
1682, waft ffrandaon of Thomas Willis (1081- 
1076) [q.v.j, and eldest son of Thomas Willis 
(1668-1699) of Blotohltsy, Buckinghamshire, 
who marrtad, at Weflt-minfltor Abbey on 
S6 May 1681, Alice (A, % June 1068), eldest 
daughter of Bobert Browne of Frampton 
and Blandford in Dorset. Thomas Willis 
died on 11 Nov,1699, aged 41 ; his wife died 
of (nief on 9 Jan. 1009-1700* Both were 
buried in. the chancel of Bletchley church, 
and out of regard for their memory their son 
spent on the church the sum of 8001, between 
1704 and 1707, 

Browne Willis was educated at ftrst by 
the Bev. Abraham Freestone, master of the 
endowed school at Bwhampton, Bucking- 


haxnshire. Then he was sent to Westmin- 
ster school, which he left on his mother's 
death, and his intense love of antiquities was 
implanted in him by his schoolboy rambles 
in Westminster Abbey. He was admitted 
gentleman-commoner of Christ Church, Ox- 
lord, matriculating on 23 March 1699-1700, 
and in 1700 be became a student of the 
Inner Temple. At Oxford his tutor was Ed- 
ward Wells [q.v.J and on leaving the univer- 
sity ho lived for three years under the train- 
ing of Dr. William Wotton [q, v.] at Middle- 
ton Keynes, a few miles from Bletchley. 
Several years later Willis published anony- 
mously a tract of * Reflecting Sermons Con- 
sider'd, on discourses in Bletchley Church 
by Dr. E. Wolls, rector, and Dr. B. Wells, 

Willis possessed largo means, owning 
Whaddon Hall, the adjoining manor and 
advowflon of Blotchley, and the manor of 
Burlton in Burghill, Herefordshire. At 
Burlton ho frequently met John Philips the 
poot, who alludes to him in his ^poem on 
* Older ' (GooKEf JtfcrfifordMrt) * Grimsworth 
Hundred, 1 p. 55), From December 1705 to 
1708 ho sat. in parliament for the borough of 
Buckingham, a town for which he had a 
peculiar affection j he was returned by the 
casting vote of a man brought '16rom pri- 
son. After that date he was immersed in 
thn study of antiquities. Hie property was 
augmented in 1707 by his marriage to 
Katharino, only child and heiress of Daniel 
Eliot of Port Eliot (#wn St. Germans, Corn- 

wall, on 28 Oct. 1702), She brought him a 
fortune of 8,000^, 

Willis's industry and retentive memory 
wera subjects of general praise. He had 
visited every cathedral except Carlisle in 
England and Wales* and was one of the 
liret antiquaries to base his works on the 
facts contained in records and registers, but 
he was very inaccurate in detail. He was 
a great oddity and knew nothing of man- 
kind. Through his charitable gifts, his por- 
tions to his married children, and the 
expenditure of 6,000/. on the building of 
Water Hall at Blefcchley, he * ruined his fine 
estate/ and was obliged towards the end of 
his days to dress meanly and to live in 
squalor, becoming very dxrty and penurious 
so that he was offcen taken for a beggar* He 
took an active part in 1717 in reviving the 
Society of Antiquaries, and was formally 
elected F,S, A. in April 1718. By diploma 
torn the university of Oxford he was created 
M. A, 28 Aug. 1720, and IXO.L, on 10 April 
1749, He was a member of the Spalding 

After an illnega of some months 




died at Whaddon Hall on 6 Feb. 1760, and 
was buried beneath the altar in Fenny 
Stratford chapel on 11 Feb., where there 
is an inscription to his memory. His wile 
died at Whaddon Hall on 2 Get, 1724, agod 
34 and was buried under a raised table- 
tonib at Bletchley. Of their ten children, 
eiffht were alive in 1724, but only the twin- 
dauffhters Gertrude and Catherine survived 
in 1760, and they both died in 177?. Ilw 
grandson took the name of Fleming and 
Eved at Stoneham. Willis appointed his 
eldest grandson and heir the sole executor, 
and left him all his books and pictures, ox- 
cept Kymer's 'Frcdera/ which he gave to 
Trinity College, Oxford, and the choice oi 
one book to the Kev. Francis Wiso [q. v.J 
His manuscripts were to go within throo 
months to the Bodleian Library. They con- 
sisted of fifty-nine folio, forty-eight quarto, 
and five octavo volumes, of much value for 
ecclesiastical topography and biography, tb 
history of Buckinghamshire and that; of thn 
fourWelsh cathedrals. Heloftto Oxford Uni- 
versity his ' numerous silver, brass, coppor, 
and pewter coins, also his gold coins, ii pur- 
chased at the rate of 4J. per ounce,* which 
was at once done. In 1720 he gave to that 
library ten valuable manuscripts and hw 
grandfather's portrait, and between 17! JO 
and 1750 he had given other coins. Many 
of his letters are among the Ballatd and 
liawlinson manuscripts (MAOTUY, Bodfaitm 
jGiar.pp. 221,269-60,483-4 ; MABAN, Wettem, 
MSB. lii. 678, 602). Large colleictiona of 
letters and papers by or relating to him aro 
in the British Museum, especially among 
the Cole manuscripts. Willis's biwuiae- 
tions included the revival in 1702 of this 
market at Fenny Stratford, a hamtot con- 
tiguous to Bletchley, and tho raining, in 
concurrence with his cousin I)r, Martin Bon- 
son (afterwards bishop of Gloucester), of 
money for building there between 1724 and 
1730 the chapel of St. Martin. It was a 
memorial of his grandfather, whoso portrait 
was placed over the entrance, arid, an did 
on St. Martin's day 1676, Willis loft abon- 
faction for a sermon in the chaptil oyory 
year on that day, He contributed materially 
towards the rebuilding of part of Stony 
Stratford church in 1746 ; in 1762 ho gave 
2002, for the repairs of Buckingham church, 
and in 1756 he restored Bo wBrichhill church, 
which had been disused for nearly 1 50 yuawu 
The chancel of the church at Little Brickhill 
was repaired through his liberality, and ho 
erected at the cathedral at Christ Church, 
Oxford, a monument for Canon lies, who 
had helped his grandfather at the university, 
The celebration at Fenny Stratford of Bt. 

Martin's day, regularly mamtaiitod by Willis 
during IUH fifo, in ntill obwrvud by itn in* 

Tho foibloa and apjHMiratwi of Will IM w<*ro 
jatiriHod in limtH wit-ton by Dr. Danvll f 
LillmffHlion-Darroll Thoy worn printed iu 
tho 'Oxford Hauwatfo' and, with tfoloV nol<H 
'whim out; of humour with him/ in * Noton 
and tiutff'uw' (Untl Htr. vi. 4UH ) A nur- 
castic d<wcript.ion of hiHbtntHp JH in Ni(*.luilM* 

[lonrno wroto * An Awwnt f my Jotirnt'y 
to Whaddon Hull* 17MV whirl* in print *;d 
in ' Ijiottow from tho Bodleian Ialmry*(ii. 

Wil1i' portruit wiw otrlu*d in 17H1 at 
Oolo'H rouuoMt trotn a drn\yin# t*ido )>y Ut*v, 
Mic.haid Tynon of tho oriifiuul tmtnf iiu{ ly 
l)ahl. ItiiHripituiutMd iu iNirhulnH * I*iti*rury 
AmustlotoH* (yiti, *J10) and HutfiinH*H ' Dor- 

motlior, and oihor tmilrM of U* fumily 
won* at HlMrhlty. 

^ tlu* litoriiry wnrltM itf WiltU r*< iu* 
eluded Htirv'yof tlm four \Vi*l!i cutluMtrulH, 
vw, Ht. Davi'd'H (ITlT)i LtundnlV OVtiMt >^t 
AHiiph (17*JO) iwd Hjnjsr t T/'.U 1 ; ttut ilw 
(Inscription <vt'St DuvidV in Hi^fi*il * M, N,,* 
and wiw drawn up l>y Dr. Wtilutm W<>u*n 
(thn initiuln liu)i tti* nmt'tuthiitf l*tti'M nf 
hi nunum) t tmd tltut uf LkntlnlV, whirh WM 
alHocotnpiittd hy Wottoiii IIHM tun uiunt* in 
full* VViliw publtHhnl m 17^7 two vtiiittn*rt 
of *A Hurvny of tlu* CuthmiruiH *f Vtirh, 

; Ourlirtlts t'h^Htt^r, MHU, LifhtMtiy 

and bo wMiicd iu 17tt) a iluri vnlumo on 
* I/mtu>ln, Mly f Oxford, nmt l'^ti<rborutt^li.' 
Thomiw t )rthorn, tit** bookmll<ri jtimdmH*'*! 
tbo unnuitl ptjHi'H of thin itujin'hHinu ntut 
advert inud Itin i^u in 174*J HH n tu-w luiitton 
containing hintorit'H of ntl th* ^nthfdrnUi 
whrimn WilltM iit*n(mn(*iui (In* jwnwtl* 
ing in t no 1 London HV^UIIIK INmt/f* 8 M 

]{rittHh MdHtntm huvi* i*tt|mtm ntftn by Wd* 
liain jVlf |<j, v.|, nmt tntiiKt.*fi]ttH of Willi*** 
additionn in bin own ropy, Unn itnpri'HMMit 
at th UritiMh Muxiiutit of tin* vuhtmtt o*t 
Llaudaif t'ttttunirntitHH mnny not**** by Uougb, 
and an tnlit ion of tbt< Htirvry uf Hi, AHH}*b f 
onlargod and broimbt down to dato, wn>* j)tti- 
Hwhen iu |HtL Tbomronnl of t!m *t!itii* 
dral of Man ' i nmrtHitinni tit IItirrtituit*ii 4 4 Htl 
litHtoriatui' of that M* (Mmtt Hots nvui 
l*2(Jfil), tho mirvt^y of Ltnrolit ttalt^irtti 
formtid tho hfti of ft VO!IIUM mt * Tb*r Anti- 
quit ifla in Lincoln Cathedral * (1771), unti n 
* History of (4othiis nntl Hnxtm Arrttitiu't urn 
in England '( 170H) wan romiaUt fro bii 
works and thou of J tittum Ifeutlutm |i|. v.1 


Willis also wrote : 1. ' Notitia Parliamen- 
taria ; or an History of the Counties, Cities, 
and Boroughs- in England and Wales/ 
1715, 8 vols., 1716, 1750 ; 2nd ed. with addi- 
tions, 1730, 1716, 1750 (but the last two 
volumes are of the original edition). A 
single sheet of this work on the borough of 
Windsor was printed in folio in 1783, and 
is now very scarce. 2. 'History of the Mitred 
Parliamentary Abbies and Conventual 
Cathedral Churches/ 1718-19, 2 vols. (cf. 
Rel Hearnian, ed. Bliss, 1857, i. 428). He 
had previously drawn up ' A View of the 
Mitred Abbeys, with a Catalogue of their 
respective Abbots/ for Hearne's edition of 
Leland's ' Collectanea ' (1716, vi. 97-264), 
the Latin preface of which is addressed to 
him. Both the preface and the pajjer on 
the abbeys and abbots are reprinted in the 
1770 and 1774 editions. 8. TarochialeAngli- 
canum ; or the Names of all the Churches and 
Chapels in thirteen Dioceses/ 1733. 4. ' Table 
of the Gold Coins of the Kings of England, 
by B. W./ 1788, small folio a hundred copies, 
and the same number on large paper, which 
are said to have been printed at the expense 
' of Vertue ; it was included in the * Yetusta 
Monumental 6. ' History and Antiquities of 
the Town, Hundred, and Deanery of Buck- 
ingham/ 1755. Cole's copy, t with notes 
copied from those by Willis, is in the Gren- 
ville Library, British Museum. Cole also 
transcribed and methodised in two folio vo- 
lumes, now with the Cole manuscripts at the 
British Museum, his 'Historv of the Hun- 
dreds of Newport and Cotslow ' to match 
this volume on Buckingham. Willis had 
circulated queries for information on the 
' county in 1/12. 

In 1717 Willis published anonymously 
'The Whole Duty of Man, abridged for the 
benefit of the Poorer Sort/ and in 1762 an 
anonymous address *To the Patrons of 
Ecclesiastical Livings.* Editions of John 
' Ecton's ' Thesaurus rerum Ecclesiasticarum,' 
with corrections and additions by Willis, 
came out in 1764 and 1768. He assisted 
in Samuel Gale's 'Winchester Cathe- 
dral* (1710), W.Thomas's 'Antiquities of 
Worcester ' (1717), Tanner's ' Notitia Mona- 
stica' (1744), and Hutchins's * Dorset/ He 
also aided and corresponded with Francis 
Peck [q. v.] Early in life he had made 
some' collections on Cardinal Wolsey 
(HBA3H9TB, Collections, ed, Doble, i ^71, h. 
261}, and communications from him on 
antiquarian topics are inserted in the 
Archaeologia ' (i, 60, 204, viii. 88-1 10). 

John Nichols possessed numerous letters 
of Willis, including a thick volume of those 
to I*r. Ducarel, Many communications to 


and from him are printed in Nichols's ' Illus- 
trations of Literature' (i. 811-12, ii, 796, 
806-7, iii. 485-6, 532-3, iv. 113), Letters 
rom the Bodleian Library ' (1813), and in 
Hearne's ' Collections ' (Oxford Hist. Soc.) 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, ii. 36, vi. 120, 186- 
ill (mainly from a memoir by Dr. Ducarel, read 
Dofore Soc. of Antiquaries, 22 May and 12 June 
1760, and printed in eight quarto pages), viii, 
217-23 ; Hutchins's Dorset, 2nd ed. i. 100, 104- 
105, iv. 327-37; Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire, 
iv. 10-14, 18-37, 55, 75; Hearne's Coll. ed. 
Doble, i. 117, iii. 350; Misc. GeneaL et Heral- 
dica, ii. 45-6 ; Chester's Westminster Abbey, p. 
20 ; Halfcett and Laing's Anon. Lit. pp. 2106, 
2535, 2601, 2811; Biogr. Britannica; Bel. 
Hearnianse, ed. Bliss, ii. 579-81, 609.] 

W. p. 0. 

WILLIS, FRANCIS (1718-1807), phy- 
siciati, born on 17 Aug. 1718, was third son 
of John Willis, one of the vicars of Lincoln 
Cathedral, and his wife Genevra, daughter 
of James Darling of Oxford. He matriculated 
from Lincoln College, Oxford, on SO May 
1784, migrated to St. Alban Hall, and pro- 
ceeded B.A. on 21 March 1788-9, and M.A. 
on 10 Feb. 1740-1 from Brasenose College, 
of which he was fellow and subsequently 
vice-principal. In obedience to his father 
he took holy orders, but he had so strong an 
inclination for medicine that even while an 
undergraduate he studied it and attended 
the lectures of Nathan Alcock [q, v.], with 
whom he formed a lifelong friendship. In 
1749 he married Mary ; youngest daughter 
of the Rev. John Curtois of Bramston, Lin- 
colnshire, and took up his residence at Dun- 
flton in that county, He is said to have at 
tot practised medicine without a license, 
but in 1759 the university of Oxford con- 
ferred on him the degrees of M,B. and M,D. 
In 1769 he was appointed physician to a hos- 
pital in Lincoln wmch he had taken an active 
part in establishing. For the six following 
years he never ceased to attend it regularly 
twice a week, though distant nearly ten 
miles from his own home. In the course of 
this work he treated successfully several 
cases of mental derangement, and patients 
were brought to him from great distances. 
To accommodate them he removed to a larger 
house at Gretford, near Stamford. 

"When George III experienced his first 
attack of madness, "Willis was called in on 
6 Dec. 1788* He encountered considerable 
opposition from the regular physicians, 
being 'considered by some not mucn^ better 
than a mountebank, and not far different 
from some of those that are confined in his 
house 7 (SHEFPtEU), Auckland CorrG^on* 
?, ii. 266), From the first he maintained 



that the lung would recover, and insisted 
that the patient should be more gently treated 
and allowed greater freedom thftn heretofore 
(GBBNVILLB, Buckingham Papers, ii. 35; 
JESSE, iii. 92), He soon became popular at 
court. Mme. D'Arblay describes Mm as** a 
man often thousand; open, honest, dauntless, 
. light-hearted, innocent, and high-minded' 
(JDtOTty 1892, iii. 127) ; while Hapnah More 
calls him 'the very image of simplicity, quite 
a good, plain, old-fashioned country parson* 
{Memoirs, ii. 144). 

After the king's recovery in 1789 Willis 
returned to his private practice, but his re/ 
putation now stood, so high that he was 
obliged to build a second house at Shilling- 
thorpe, near Qretford, in order to accom- 
modate the large number of patients wluv 
wished to be attended by him. He died on 
5 Dec. 1807, and was buried at Gretford, 
where a monument to his memory was 
erected by his surviving sons. His first wife 
died on 17 April 1797, and not long before 
his death he married Mrs. Storer, who sur- 
vived him. 

Willis had five sons by his first wife ; of 
these John (1751-1835), with his father, 
attended George III in 1788, and again in 
1811 alone; Thomas (1764-1827) was pre- 
bendary of Rochester, rector of St. George's, 
Bloomsbury, and of Wateringbury, Kent ; 
Richard (1755-1829) was admiral in the 
royal navy; and Robert Darling (1760- 
1821) attended the king during his second 
attack of madness, wrote 'Philosophical 
Sketches of the Principles of Society and 
Government, 7 London, 1795, 8vo, and was 
father of Robert Willis (1800-1875) 
[q. v.] 

[Report from the Committee appointed to ex- 
amine the Physicians who have attended his 
Majesty during his Illness touching the state of 
his Majesty's Health, London, 1788, 8vo, in A 
Collection of Tracts on the proposed Regency 
1789, 8vo, vol.'^A Treatise on Mental De- 
rangement, by Fra. Willis, M.B., 2nd edit., Lon- 
don, 1843, 8vp, p. 86; Wraxall's Memoirs, iii. 
197 ; Jesse's Life and Reign of King fteorge the 
Third, vol. iii. passim; Life of Charles Mayne 
Young, by his son, i. 343-50; inscription on 
the monument in Gtetford church ; private in- 
formation.] j. 

1884), painter, -was born in 1810 at Bristol, 
the son of a drawing-master in that city. 
He practised for a time in Bristol with little 
success, and then went to the United States 
but after a brief stay was compelled bv ill- 
health to return. In 1848 he settled in 
London, and gained a considerable reputation 
as a painter of cattle and landscapes, He 


exhibited at the Koyal Academy, 
Britiwh rnHtitution, and Suffolk Street Oal* 
lory from 1844 to 1K(&, and from IHH! to 
1807 was a inombnr of the * I'Yoe Itahibi* 
tions ' Society. In IHOiJ he was elected an 
associate ol'tko 'Old Watercsolour 1 Society, 
and tkfencaforth waft a ooiuslaint cont.ribut.oi* 
to its oxhibil.ioiiHj in L8(j;j 1m botmnu^ a full 
mombor, Wtllin painttul in an attractive 
manner VAI'IOUH pi<;tunMqu(^ localifinn in 
Groftib Britaini inl.nxltunng finely cotnpoMiMi 
groups of caUln, llin 'Highland dattto/ 
painted in 1 8UO, i tho property of tlnMiH*en, 
and his ' J^tm Oruiwkan Uat,tlo*coming Hout-h ' 
was at the Paris Inhibition of 1H(J7, Four 
of. his compositions wr i^n^ruve<l in Uw 
' Art ^ Union Annual/ 1RI7, lh^ died at. 
Kensington on 1.7 Jan* iHH'^andwaw buriud 
iii the comotory at Hanwoll. 

[Ko^ot'n HiHt, of t.ho ' Old Watonolonr f Ht.; 
Athoiuioum, 1884; JJryan'N Diet, of 1'aititi 
Engravorw, od ArniHtrong.'] 1<\ A1, 

WILLIS, JOHN (tt. [ OSH P) t 
and mnomotiioiau, grtuluntotl I$,A, from 
Chris's ("ollog(s (lanilirid^ 1 , in IfiiW *% 
MA. in ir>0,and RD. in IHOrt. On l fe j.lum) 
1601 ho wan admitt(l tt> fch n;tory <^f Ht, 
Mary Bothaw, Dowguto Uill, London, which 
horesignodin IflOrtonbtungivpnoinhtti ft^tor 
of Ktoitley Parva, KNHnx. Probably iut dio<l 
in 1CSJ7 or 1CIS28, ft8 it m NtatiHl *thia thu 


'Schoolflmaflfcor' WUH mplt<ly llttwl ftir 
th edition of hin * Htom^raphy ' ( I HUH) 
by * tliu aforesaid authour, a littlo bnfow hin 

WilliB invented thn ilrwt pmi*ricii! and m* 
tional Btthunitt of modi^n Hhortimntl ftnuuliwl 
on a strictly alphabntiaal buwH, Th <arlitr 
syHtemn dovW by Timothy Bright (IftHH) 
and Poto BaLsn (int)O) wmi utterly iitmrut!- 
ticable. and had no ttmult, wtiortmM WiWn 
method wafi publiHljd again and uguin f anti 
was imitated and improved upon by tmocumd- 
ing authors, 

The first work in which Inn ftyntom wan 
explained appeared anonymoiwly under 
title of 'The Art of Stono^aphie, 


bvplame and oortaino rules, to tlw capatiitio 
of the meanest, and for the vaa of all pro- 
fessions, the way to Compendious WritW 
Wherevnto is annexed a very uaie dihMitlcui 
for Steantfgrahio, or secret writing,* l^on* 
e only capita known to 

don, 1602, 16ma e ony capta known to 
exist are m the British Museum and tha Bod- 
leiaxi Libraries. Tho 'fifth edition IB ftntittad 
The Art of Stenogmpbie, or Short Writing 
by spelling character^,' London, 1617, A 
Latin version, ' Stonogvaphia, BIVO Ars ctnm- 
P 6 ?^^ 6 ^ 11 ! 011 ?^ waH P ub Hhml at London 
m 1618, The sixth edition, of the English fork 

Willis T 

appeared in 1623, the seventh in 1623 (not 
IfaJS, as given in some lists), the eighth in 
1623, the ninth in 1628, the tenth in 1632, 
the eleventh in 1636, the thirteenth in 1644, 
and the fourteenth in 1647. Willis also 
wrote ' The Schoolemaster to the Art of Ste- 
nography, explaining the rules and teaching 
the practise thereof to the understanding of 
the meanest capacity/ London, 1623, 16mo ; 
2nd edit. 1628 ; 3rd edit. 1647. This work 
is.printed so as to be sold separately, or in 
conjunction with the later editions of * The 
Art of Stenography.' Willis's shorthand 
alphabet, the first introduced into German 
literature, is given in * Delicies Philosophic^/ 
Nuremberg, 1653, iii. 53. 

To students of mnemonics Willis is well 
known as the author of 'Mnemonica; sive 
Ars Eeminiscendi : e puris art/is naturseque 
fontibus hausta, et in tres libros digosta, 
necnon de Memoria natural! fovenda libellus 
e variis doctisaimorum operibus sedulo col- 
lectus/ London, 1618, Bvo. The treatise 
* De Momoria natural! fovonda' was reprinted 
in 'Variorum de Arts Memorise Tractatus 
sex/ Frankfort, 1678. The whole work was 
translated into English by Leonard Sowersby, 
a bookseller ' at the Turn-Stile, near New- 
market, in Lincoln's Inn Fields/ and printed 
at London, 1661, 8vo, This book develops 
many of the principles of the local memory 
in an apt and intelligible manner* Copious 
extracts from it are printed in Feinaigle's 
' Nw Art of Memory/ 3rd edit, 1813, pp, 

[Ooopor's Parliamentary Shorthand, p. 6; 
G-ibbs's Historical Account of Compendious and 
Bwift Writing, pp. 3$, 43 j Gibson's Bibl. of 
Shorthand, pp. 13, 237; Journaliefc, 11 March 
18B7 ; Levy's Hist, of Shorthand j Lewis's Hist, 
of (Shorthand ; Nowconrtto Boportorwm ; Notes 
and Qxiorios, 7th ser, ii, 300 ; Shorthand, ii, 160, 
108, 176; Watt's Bibl, Britj 2$bitfB 

" T. 0, 

1877). justice of the kind's bench, Upper 
Canada, born on 4 Jan. 1793, was the second 
aon of William Willis (d. 1809), captain in 
the 18th light dragoons, by his wife Mary 
(d. 1881), only daughter and heiress of Bo- 
bert Hajnilton Smith of Lismore, co. Down. 
He entered Gray's Inn on 4 Nov. 1811, was 
called to the bar, and joined the northern cir- 
cuit in 1817. Shortly afterwards his first 
published work, a book on the law of evi- 
dence, appeared. There came out in 1820 
* Willis's JEquity Pleading/ for xaany years 
a standard work on the subject, and m 1827 
a valuable treatise on the "Duties and Re- 
sponsibilities of' The colonial 
office- at this time intended to establish a 


court of. eguity in Upper Canada, and to 
make Willis its chief. As an interim ap- 
pointment he received a puisne mdgeship in 
bhe king's bench. On 18 Sept. 1827 he pre- 
sented his warrant to the lieutenant-governor, 
Sir Peregrine Maitland [q. v.], but soon found 
that neither the governor nor the council, 
neither the assembly nor the bar, was disposed 
to assist him in organising a court of chan- 
cery. His chief opponent was (Sir) John 
Beverly Robinson [q. v.], afterwards chief 
justice, then attorney-general and practical 
leader of the government. There arose dif- 
ferences between the judge and the law officer 
as to the conduct of crown business which 
waxed keen with time, and were plainly ex- 
pressed on both sides. The judge was evi- 
dently the more hasty, for within a year of 
his appointment he declined to sit in banco, 
and declared his reasons openly. They were 
that the act constituting the court directs 
that * a chief justice, with two puisne judges, 
shall preside '' in it ; that the chief justice waa 
absent from the province on leave, and not 
likely to return ; and that, till his successor 
was instituted, the court could not legally sit 
inbanco* The lieu tenant-governor took no step 
to fill the vacancy, but at once amoved Willis 
under 22 George III, c. 76, and nominated Mr. 
Justice Hagerman in his place. Thereupon 
there was an appeal to the privy council on 
the ground that the amoval order was * un- 
warranted, illegal, and , ought t to be void.' 
The asnembly aided with the judge, chiefly 
because it was at that time struggling to 
make the executive ^ responsible, and to 
change the tenure of judicial office from a 
holding ' at pleasure ' to a holding ' during 
good conduct ; ' and in an address to the 
Sung it characterised the governor's action 
as "violent, precipitate, and unjustifiable.' 
The excitement in the province grew more 
intense when it was known that no positive 
neglect of duty, no actuakMalfeasance in 
office, was or could be esflublished against 
Willis. The imperial government, on report 
from the privy council, dismissed the appeal, 
confirmed the amotion order, and refused to 
reinstate the judge, as the assembly had re- 
quested. But on reconsideration afterwards 
the order of amotion was set aside, because 
the appellant had no opportunity of a hear- 
ing before the order was issued, Willis was 
then given a judicial appointment in Deme- 
rara, and afterwards in New South Wales 
(1841). He displeased the governor of this 
colony also, Sir George Gippa [3, v,] ; and he 
was again amoved in 1842 without notice* 
Appeal proceedings lasted three years, but 
finally the order was quashed for the same 
reason as in the Upper Canada case, Arreara- 




of salary and costs, amounting to near6,OOOJ, 
were awarded to Willis, but lie did not return 
to the colony, neither did he receive any other 
office in the gift of the colonial department 
He died in September 1877. 

On 8 Aug. 1824 he married Mary Isabella 
elder daughter of Thomas Lyon-Bowea 
eleventh earl Strathmore. By her lie had 
one son, Robert Bruce Willis (1826-1897). 
The union was an unhappy one, and was dis- 
solved by act of parliament in 1833. Willis 
married, secondly, on 16 Sept. 1836, Ann 
Susanna Kent (d. 1891), eldest daughter of 
Colonel Thomas Henry Bund of Wick Epi- 
scopi in Worcestershire. By her he had a 
son, Mr. John William Willis-Bund, and two 

Willis is sometimes said to have had an 
imperious temper. There ^ can be little 
question as to his ability, industry, or^the 
energy with which he carried his ideas into 
practice. The true reason for his unfortu- 
nate experience ' over sea ' may be found in 
his conception of what an English colony is 
or should be. His latest work, 'On the 
Government of the British Colonies' (I860), 
gives his idea. A colony is to be dealt with 
as an English county, presided over by a 
lord lieutenant ; on the one side ^possessing 
certain Bowers of internal taxation^ on the 
other being represented in the imperial par- 
liament a conception of self-government 
that no colonial party could adopt, and one 
which, if carried out in days when the judge's 
sphere was not confined strictly to matters 
legal, could scarcely fail to bring him into 
conflict with the local authorities for the 
time being. 

[Foster's Beg. of Admissions bo toy's Inn, 
I889,p. 414; Burke's Landed G-entry, e.v. 'Bund ; ' 
Bead's Lives of the Judges of Upper Canada, pp. 
107-20 ; Dent's Story of the Upper Canada Re- 
bellion, pp. l$2-94; Mirror of Parliament (House 
of Lords), 14 May 1829, pp. 1610-41 ; Hansard, 
new ser. xxir. 551-6 ; Accounts and Papers re- 
lating to the Colonies (5), xxxii. 51 ; Blue Book, 
Papers relating to the Amoval of the Hon. J. W. 
Willis, 1829 ; Blaekwood's Mag. (' Cabot 'J, 1829, 
pp. 334-7 ; App. to Journals of the Legislative 
Assembly of Upper Canada, Istaess., lOthparl, j 
Therry*s Benuniscences of New South Wales, 
1863, pp. 341-6 ; 5 Moore's Reports (Privy 
Council), p. 379; Kingsford's Hist of Canada, 
x. 258-79;) T. B. B. 

WILLIS, KICHARD (1664-1784), 
bishop of Winchester, the son of William 
Willis, a journeyman tanner, and his wife 
Susanna, was baptised at Bibbesford in Wor- 
cestershire on 16 Feb. 1668-4. He was 
educated at Bewdley free grammar school, 
matriculated from Waclliam College, Oxford, 

on 5 Doc. 1084, ffmduatml M.A. in 1088, in 
which year lio bocamo a follow of All Honing 
and was granted tlwdiujivo of D.I), at Lam- 
both on 27 March 1005 ( POHTMW, -4 /wwiwt 0,m*. 
1600-1714). Aft'or loaving Oxford ho bmwnm 
curate to ' Mr. Chapman at OhoHlwnt/ and 
was in lOOiJ choflenW,turroi*>S<,.(*lomot > 8, 
Strand, whore ho bocauw woll known HH a 
preacher. Nanh HpoaltH of Inn famoun <wc- 
toraporaneouB prtmchintf;' but Kitthardwm, 
with groator ^probability, of hiw Sumtuonca 
memoritor riwitandi/ llo aw-ompaniwi Wil- 
liam III to Holland in HIM in tlw capacity 
of chaplain, and on his return on 1*2 April 
1695 (HHNNHHHr, Nmm Jhywrt. jp. 448) was 
installed a prebendar of WcHtiunwtor, llw 


for Promoting Christian Knowlod^o in I (JIM), 
subscribing T;/., and in DwmnJmr 17(K) Iwro- 
cwved tho thanhH of tlw wwinty lor a tshnrity 
sermon pruaolwd at Hfc, Ann'*** VVtHttttinHtT 
(MoCLUBW, JtotnMbi w>, 6, 108). <)u SJ !). 
1701 he was promoted to tho dmucry of 
Lincoln, Four yoarn later wtw print (1 ono 
of his most olaborato wnrmonH 'pnuwhml bo- 
fore thoqwum on Uft Aug. 1705, bung the 
thanksgiving day for tlu late j^loriouM Hucttutui 
in forcing tno tniemy'H linen in ih Rpawwh 
NethorlandH, by the Duke of Marlborcwjrh,' 
A good preacher and a (rood whig, having 
opposed the sehinmbill of 1714, WiUw wa 
made bishop of Gloucester by thrg I upon 
the death of Kdwurd Fowler [q. vl Il 
WUH elected on 1 Deo. 1714, confirmed on tho 
ICth, and consecrated on 10 Jun, fillowing 
in Lambeth chapel, lie wan put upon tho 
commission for building fifty now tiuurcthnt 
in and around London, wim made a clwrk 
of the royal cloaefcj and allowed to hold hU 
deanery m oommmthm* The king wa grati* 
fied by his sermon, * Tho Way to Bfcable and 
Quiet Timea,' preached befart the court on 
20 Jan. 1714-1/5, ' being the day of thanks- 
giving for bringing 1m majesty to a peace- 
able and quiet posHusfiion of the throne, 1 which 
was tran&lateuinto French for Georgia bene- 
fit, In 1717, when William Nicolson [q.v,] 
was translated from Carlisle to Deny, ana 
had in consequence to resign the ofllc of lord 
almoner, Willis was appointed to the pout. 
After seven years at Gloucester* upon the 
translation of Talbot to Durham, Willis wne 
on 21 Nov< 1721 translated to Salisbury, and 
ihence he was on 21 Nov. 1728 promoted to 
the see of Winchester. His advancement 
was due, according to Bishop Newton, to the 
,ong and laboured! oration which he made 
against Atterbury upon the occasion of the 
third reading: of the bill to iaflict pains and 
penalties. This speech was published in 
1723, Willis, who was a martyr tp the 




gout, died suddenly at Winchester House, 
Chelsea, on 10 Aug. 1734, and was buried 
in the south aisle of Winchester Cathedral, 
a little above Bishop Wykeham. The monu- 
ment to him with a lite-size figure of the 
bishop in pontificalibm is described by Mil* 
man as the most finished in the cathedral 
(Ilist. of Winchester, i. 445 ; the long Latin 
inscription is reproduced in BALL'S Histo- 
rical Account of Winchester,^. 97). By his 
wife Isabella, who was buried in the north 
vault of Chelsea church on 26 Nov. 1727 
(cf. FATJLKWBK, Chelsea, p. 330), Willis left 
two sons John of Chelsea, who married in 
1733 the only daughter of Colonel Fielding; 
and William, who married on 11 Feb. 1744 
< Miss Read of Bedford Row, with 40,OOOJ. ' 
(Gent. Mag. 1744, p. 108), 

There is an oil-portrait of the bishop by 
Michael Dahl in thp palace at Salisbury, and 
the engravingof this m mezzotint by JT. Simon 
depicts a handsome man with the mobile 
face of an orator (SMITH, Moxxo Portraits, 
p. 1126). 

[Cassan's Lives of the Bishops of Salisbury, 
1824, iii. 202-9, and Lives of tlio Biahopa 
of WinchoHtor, 1827, ii. 215-22; Nash 'a HiHt, of 
Worcestershire, ii. 270 ; Wudham Coll. Regi- 
sters, ed. Gardiner, p. 339 ; Wood's Hist., and 
Antiq. of Oxford, ed. Gutch, p. 274 ; Lo Neve's 
Fasti Eccl. Anglicune, i, UO, HO ; Notes ntid 
Queries, 2nd wer. iv. 103, 4th spr, iv. 480; 
Nicolson's Episb. Corrosp. ed Nichols, 1780, 
ii. 477 ; NiclioWs Lit. Anocd, ix, 80 ; Willis's 
Cathedrals, ii. 82; Hourno'e Collect* ed. Doblo, 
i. 69 ; Abboy'fl EngliBli Church and its Binhops, 
1887,11.30; Noble's Continuation of G-ranger, 
iii, 76 ; Bromley's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 
p. 273.] T. S. 

WILLIS, EGBERT (1800-1875), pro- 
fessor of mechanism and arctaologist,Bonof 
BobertI)arlingWilii8(17604821)and grand* 
son of Francis Willis [a. vj was born in 
London on 27 Feb, 1800. t The tastes that 
afterwards distinguished him became mani- 
fest at a very early age. When a mere lad 
he was a skilful musician, a good draughts- 
man, and an eager examiner of every piece 
of machinery ana ancient building that came 
in bis way* In 1819he patented au improve- 
ment on the pedal of tne harp, and in 1821 
published ' An Attempt to analyse the Au- 
tomaton Chess Player ' (London, 1821, 8vo), 
a mechanical contrivance then, being ex- 
hibited in London, which 'had excited the 
admiration of the curious during a period 
little short of forty years ' fa 9). After re^ 
peated visits to the exhibition in company 
with his sister, he was enabled to show that 
there waa ample room for a man of small 
stature to be concealed within the figure 

and the box on which he sat, an explanation 
the truth of which the owner afterwards 

His health was delicate, and he was 
educated privately till 1821, when he became 
a pupil of the Rev. Mr. Kidd at King's 
Lynn. In 1822 he entered into residence 
at Qonville and Caius College, Cambridge, 
as a pensioner. He proceeded B. A. in 1826, 
when he was ninth wrangler. He was 
elected Franldand fellow of his college in 
the same year, and foundation fellow in 1829. 
He was ordained deacon and priest in 1827, 
After his election to a fellowship he devoted 
himself to the study of mechanism, selecting 
at first subjects in which mathematics were 
blended with animal mechanism, as shown 
by his papers in the ' Transactions of the 
Cambridge Philosophical Society ' * On the 
Vowel Sounds' (1828) and 'On the Me- 
chanism of the Larynx / (1828-9). The last 
has been accepted by anatomists as contain- 
ing the true theory of the action of that 
organ. In 1830 he was made a fellow of 
the Royal Society. 

In 1 837 ho succeeded William Farish [q.y.] 
as Jaclcaonian professor of applied mechanics 
at Cambridge, an ollice which he held till 
hfo death. ^His practical knowledge of car* 
pentry, his inventive gemma, and his power 
of lucid exposition made him a most attrac- 
tive professor, and his lecture-room was 
always full. Farish was a man of great ori- 
ginality, whose lectures Willis had attended 
(as he told the present writer),, and when 
he published his own ' System of Apparatus 
for the use of Lecturers and Experimenters 
in Mechanical Philosophy' (London, 1851, 
4to) ho described his predecessor's method of 
building up a model of a machine before the 
audience, and gave him full credit for 'devis- 
ing^ system of mechanical appcuntus con- 
sisting of the separate parts of winch machines 
are made, sa adapted to each other that they 
might admit of Doing put together at plea* 
sure in the forfn of any machine that might 
be required' (p* 1). This system,, as mo- 
dernised and perfected by "Willis, has been 
largely adopted both at homa and abroad* 

In 1887 Willis read a paper 'On the 
Teeth of Wheels/ (Tram. Inst., Qfo. Eng* iL 
89), with a description of a contrivance called 
an odontograph, for enabling draughtsmen 
to find at onc& the centres from which the 
two, portions of the teeth are to be struck. 
He was the first to point out the practical 
advantage o constructing oycloidal toothed 
wheels mwhat are called 'sets' by using 
the same generating circle and the same 
pitch throughout the set, with the result 
tshat any, two wheels of the set will gear 


together, This invention is in universal 

In 1841 he published his 'Principles of 
Mechanism.' In this work he reduced the 
study of what he called pure mechanism to 
a system. It is the earliest attempt to 
develop, with anything like completeness, ' 
the science of machines considered from the 
kinematic point of view, without reference 
to the forces which are at work or to the 
energy which is transmitted. A machine, 
according to him, is a contrivance for pro- 
ducing a specific relation between the mo- 
tions of one of its parts and another. To 
express this relation completely the two 
elements velocity-ratio and directional rela- 
tion are required. Accordingly he groups 
machines in three general classes : (1) those 
in which both of these elements are constant ; 
(2) those in which one (a) is constant and 
the other (b) is variable ; (3) those in which 
this variability is reversed. In each class 
there are divisions depending on the mode 
in which motion is communicated, whether 
by rolling contact, sliding contact, link-work, 
and so forth. The first part of the book 
expounds this system of classification as ap- 
plied to elementary combinations of moving 
pieces ; the second part deals with what he 
calls aggregate combinations, in which two 
or more elementary combinations co-operate 
in producing a relation of motion between 
the driving and following parts of the ma- 
chine. A second edition of this work ap- 
peared in 1870. 

In 1849 Willis was a member of a royal 
commission appointed to inquire into the 
application of iron to railway structures, 
and contributed to the report of the com- 
missioners Appendix B, ' On the effects pro- 
duced by causing weights to travel over 
elastic bars/ reprinted in Barlow's * Treatise 
on the Strength of Timber.' 

In 1851 he was one of the jurors of the 
Great Exhibition. In that capacity he drew 
up the report for the class of manufacturing 
machines and tools, and contributed a lec- 
ture to the series on the results of the exhi- 
bition, organised by the Society of Arts in 
1852. He was also a vice-president at the 
Paris Exhibition of 1855, and reporter of the 
class for the machinery of textile fabrics, 
In connection with this office he published 
in 1857 a report on machinery for woven 
fabrics, for which he received the cross of 
the Legion of Honour. When the govern- 
ment school of mines was established in 
Jermyn Street in 1853, Willis was engaged 
as lecturer on applied mechanics. In 1862 
lie was president of the British Association, 
which that year met at Cambridge ; and in 


the following yoar at. Nnymwtlo ho ; 
over tho mechanical HOC! ion. 

During nil thewe yonrn VVilliM WIIH Ht tidy- 
ing architecture and archaeology with llm 
same energy as meclwwHm, and pcrhnpH with 
even greater original 5 ty, In 1H15, after a 
rapid tour through a part of France, Uer- 
many, and Italy, ho published ' UemnrltM oi 
the "Architecture of tho Middle Ages, espe- 
cially of Italy,' a work which first on lied 
Borio us attention to thn Uothie wtyle, tuul 
which in many wayrt IB utill without a rival. 
II o treated a building n.s ho treated a ma 
chino: he took it to pie.cen; he pointed out 
what wiw Htruetural and what WHM decora- 
tive, what was mutated ami what wiw 
original; and how the mont cwnples forms 
of modiwviil invention might he reduced to 
simple elemontH. Thin publication WHM fho 
starting-point of thut portion of hit (mreer 
which was tlovotud to HtudioH conibiniug 
practical avdutnc.ture with lu'Mt.orical nntl 
antiquariati voKoarch. I'\r thene he wan 
singularly well iitted. He had noHeutiineut 
and no p'roconwivod theory, Hin tueclmni- 
cal knowledge enabled hun to itdtrjstan<l 

tiBtruction, aiul ILIH powiM'of nliNervntitm 
was BO keon t.liai }w never faihnl to HIM/O 
the meaning of tho fniutent indication thud 
fell in hirt way, Thn inthmt.ry that 1m 
brought, to bear on thone purnuitH wuHatnn/,- 
in^, lie loarnt. to decipher mediiwul hund* 
writing witli rapidity and accuracy, and 
devoted much time to the Htutly of 'mnmi- 
script authoritieH; }w wantem! not only <h 
whole literature of the Htibjeet, bttt thai- of 
the history that born tuwn it; and, un thn 
maas of not/eH bequuaUied by him to Urn 
prefient; writer ohowA, he tabula! ml thn in- 
formation thus gainful with inliiiito ^arn, MO 
as to have it always ready to hi* hand when 

The 'Hematics* were MUCGfladtirl by nn 
elaborate paper *()n the (Jonnt ruction of tlm 
Vaults of the Middle Agen 1 (Tmn*. Jutt. 
Brit. Arch, J841), an ay a rumarkuhlo 
for thorouglmesfi of treatment m for tim 
beauty of tho UluRtrationK, all drnwn by 
himself, By thi time hu* reputation for 
architectural knowledge wn etiiblihetJ,for 
in this year the dean and chapter of Here- 
ford consulted him respecting the condition 
of their cathedral, He published tlm re* 
suit of his mvestigatioim in a * Heport of a 
SurvOT of the Dilapidated Portion* of Hir.w 
ford Cathedral in the year mi * (Ilnwrfoitl, 
1842, 8voj and London, 184^, 4to t with 
plates)* In this same year he invented nnd 
described the * Oymagraph for copying 
mouldings' (EnqfawJ Journ, July 1^4)i) t a 
contrivance which he himself ued 


sively in his own researches, but which did 
not meet with general acceptance. In 1843 
he published his ' Architectural Nomencla- 
ture of the Middle Agjes ' ( Trans. Cambr. Ant. 
Soc. vol. i.), a work ot' vast research and great 
ingenuity, useful alike to a lexicographer 
and an archaeologist. 

The foundation of the Archaeological In- 
stitute in 1844 opened a new field for Willis. 
lie was one of the first members, as he was 
also one of the most energetic, and a lecture 
from him was the chief attraction at the 
annual meeting. His method, as he states 
in his ' Architectural History of Winchester 
Cathedral' (1846), was 'to bring together 
all the recorded evidence that belongs to tlie 
building ; to examine the building itself for 
the purpose of investigating the mode of its 
construction, and the successive changes and 
additions that have been made to it ; and, 
lastly, to compare the recorded evidence 
with the structural evidence aa much as 
possible.' By this compvdumHivo scheme ho 
laid baro tho ontiro history of tho structure ; 
tho history was elucidated by tho building, 
and tho oiiangoH in tho build'hijj wore made 
manifest by tho history ; while his own 
thorough knowledge of tbe diilbront styles 
of architecture cuablod him to soe through 
alterations, trans form ations, and inHortiohs 
which luidpuzxled all previous investigators 
In this way he elucidated tlio cathedrals of 
Canterbury (1844), Winchester (1,845), 
York (184*6), OliichuHtor (1853), Worcester 
(IBftii), Sherborno and (Uastoubury (18CJG). 
Those have been published; but he* also read 
papers and delivered locturon on the follow- 
ing without, however, finding ^ leisures to 
publish what ho had wild : Norwich (1847), 
Salisbury (1849), Oxford (1850), Wolte 
(1851), Gloucester (1800), Peterborough 
(1801), Rooluwtw (1803), Lichfbld (1864). 

As a lecturer Willis had extraordinary 
gifts. Ho used neither manuscript nor notes ; 
but, whether he was doHeribmg a machine or 
a building, an uninterrupted stream of lucid 
exposition flowed from his lips, carrying his 
hearers without weariness through the most 
intricate details, and making t&em grasp the 
most complex history or construction, In 
addition to his annual lectures at Cambridge^ 
in London, or to the Archaeological Insti- 
tute, Willis lectured at the Royal Institu- 
tion on sound in 1831, and on architecture 
in 1846 and 1847* He also gave special 
courses of lectures to working men in Lon- 
don between 1864 and 18B7. 

Willis also published a < Description of the 
SextryBam at Ely 9 (Trans, Cambr. Ant, 
Soc, 1848, vol i.) ; * History of the Great Seals 
of England '(Arch* Joum, 1846, vol U.)3 


Architectural History of the Church of the 
BColy Sepulchre of Jerusalem' (London, 
L849, 8vo), a remarkable achievement, as he 
iad not visited it ; * Description of the An- 
cient Plan of the Monastery of St. Gall > 
(Arch. Joum. 1848); 'A Westminster 
Fabric Roll of 1263 ' (Gent Mag. 1860); 
' On Foundations discovered in Lichfteld 
Cathedral ' (Arch. Joum. 1860) ; < On the 
Crypt and Chapter House of Worcester 
Cathedral ' (Trans. lust. JBrit. Arch. 1863) 

In tho course of these studies he edited, 
or more correctly rewrote, a cousiderable 
portion of Parker's ' Glossary of Architec- 
ture/ (5th ed, 1850) ; and published a ' Fac- 
simile of tho Sketch-book of Wilars de 
Ilonecort' (London, 1859, 4to), with a 
tot partly from the French of M. Lassus, 
partly by himself. But perhaps his most 
remarkable archaeological work is his last, 
' Tho Architectural History of the Conven- 
tual Buildings of the Monastery of Christ- 
church, Canterbury* (London, 1869, 8vo), 
lie had promised to do this in 184.4, when 
ho lectured on tho cathedral, but other en- 
g-agomonts had stood in the way of publica- 
tion. It is a minute and perfectly accurate 
exposition of tho plan of a Benedictine 
monastery, considered in relation to the 
monastic life. 

His health did not allow him to complete 
his comprehensive work on the ' Architec- 
tural History of tho University and Colleges 
of Cambridge/ which originated in a lecture 
delivered before the Archaeological Institute 
at its mooting at Cambridge in 1854 This 
was completed after his death by the present 
writer, and published by the University 
Prow* in 1886 (4 VO!B. imp, 8vo). 

Willis diftd at Cambridge on 28 Feb. 3875 
of bronchitis ; his health had been seriously 
impaired for some years previously. lie 
married, on &6 July 1832, Mary Anne, daugh- 
ter of Charles Humfrey of Cambridge. 

[Verm's Biogr. Hist, of Gotw'lle and Onius 
College, 1898, ii, 182; Arch, Joum. passim; 
private knowledge.} J. W. C-x. 

WILLIS, BOBEET (1799-1878), medical 
writer, was born in Scotland iu 1799, and in 
1819 graduated M,D. in the university of 
Edinburgh. lie became a member of the 
College of Surgeons of England in 18^^, 
then began practice as a surgeon in London, 
and was in 1837 admitted a licentiate of the 
College of Physicians. In 1827, on the sugges* 
tion of John Abernethy (1764-1881) [a.v.j,h0 
was appointed librarian of the newly formed 
library of the College of Surgeons, and held 
oitice till June 1845, after which he went to 
live at Barnes in Surrey, and there practised 



till his death. He translated in 1826 Gas- 
pard Spurzheim's 'Anatomy of the Brain/ 
Pierre Bayer's valuable treatise on 

m 18 

diseases of the skin, and in 1844 Karl F. H, 
Marx's 'On the Decrease of Disease' and 
Rudolph Wagner's ' Elements of Physiology.' 
His chief original medical works were 
'Urinary Diseases and their Treatment/ pub- 
lished in 1838; 'Illustrations of Cutaneous 
Disease ' in 1841; and ' On the Treatment of 
Stone in the Bladder ' in 1842. His practical 
knowledge of disease was small, and the pre- 
paration of works for the press his^more con- 
genial occupation. His translation of the 
works of William Harvey (1578-1657J [q.v.] 
was published by the Syctenham Society in 
1847. In 1877 he published an historical 
study entitled * Servetus and Calvin/ and in 
1878 'William Harvey: a History of the 
Discovery of the Circulation/ a work con- 
taining some facts not to be found in earlier 
lives orHarvey. He died at Barnes on 21 Sept, 
[Lancet, 12 Oct. 1878 ; Works.] N. M. 

WILLIS, THOMAS (1682-1 660?), school- 
master, was the son of Richard Willis of Fenny 
Compton, Warwickshire, and of his wife, 
whose maiden name was Blount. He waa 
born in 1582, matriculated from St, John's 
College, Oxford, on 11 June 1602, graduated 
B.A.. on 2 June 1606 and M,A. on 21 June 
1609, and was incorporated at Cambridge in 
1619. On leaving college he became school- 
master at Isleworth, and remained there 
teaching for about fifty years. He published 
two Latin schoolbooks, ' Vestibulum Linguoo 
Latinse/ London, 1651, and ' Phraseologia 
Anglo-Latina/ London, 1655, published with 
the author's initials only. Thelatter work ap- 
peared also in the same year under the title of 

copies contain the three title-pages. Prefixed 
are some Latin dedicatory verses. In 1672 
William Walker (1623-1684) fq. T.] repub- 
HshedWiUifl's book, reprinted the laudatory 
verses, omitting the headings 'To Volentius/ 
then adding his own 'Parcemiologia Anglo- 
Latina; or a Collection of English and Latin 
Proverbs and Proverbial Sayings match'd 
together/ and placed his name alone on the 
title-page. The whole book has in conse- 
quence been 

in the preface. 

W$ig died about 1660. He married Mary 
Tomlyn of Gloucester, by whom he had two 
sons aad two daughters. 

The elder eon, THOJKAB WXLMS (& 1692), 
TOS educated first in his father's school 

and aft-orwardB at St. John'** (,'olloffo, Oxford, 
whoro he was emit ml M,A. on 17 I)w, 10U>, 
by virtue of tho Id-tow of Sir Thomnn Fairfax. 
lie was poHSibly thn *Mr, Thomas Willie, 
minister, who WUH chaplain to t.ho iv^imwiti 
of CoL Payno, part, of tlw brigade uwW tlw 
command of Mnjor-^tvnwal Brown*' In HMH 
he was appointed nmuntnr of Twickenham in 
Middlesex, and WUH uttid on H Out. ! u 
1651 ho had his atijxmd ituuvuMod hy K)tM, a 
year from titliM boloNg'ing 1 to tluulonu and 
canotiH of Wmdnor, 1 In was on<* of tho oour- 
missLonorA for tho county of Midiilt'rw.K ami 
city of WiWl-miiiHtot 1 lor tho ojortiou of 
iguoraut atid fu*.an<lulo\m mmintom In 
August l(](K) tho inhabitant H of IVidlcon- 
ham potitionod parlinmont, for hin routoval 
In tlio potition ho in doncribotl OM not^having 
been oi oithor univorwty, hut ' hrtnl in Now 
England/ tiu<l not *a lawfully onlainod 
miniHto/ lu lOtH ho wan <loprivotl of tho 
living, but aftorwardn confonnmgjto wm 
inatifcutod to tho r<ctorv of I hint on in liuolt- 
inghamnluvo on 4 Fob, 1008, holding it in 
conjunction with tho vioara^i* of Kingnton- 
on-ThamoH, to whinl^ ho was MNtitntod on 
21 Aug. 1(171, At thin timo ho \vaMrhaplnin- 
in-ordumry to tho hint?, and hail boon rrontiui 
D.D. in 1CJ70. IIo <\ml on H (h^ ilJa, and 
was buriod at Kingnton, Hurrny. 

IIo WUB twice mftppiod. Hy nU flnit wifo, 
Elimbrtth,ho had four HOUK anuonodau^htor; 
and by IUH socond, HuHnnnu, who HiipvivoA 
him, three sunn and ono dau^htor. (lalamy 
says that h(i w a jjfooti mho1ar t liktt hi* 
father, 'a gravn diviuo,n solid proachor, of a 
very good pronimtm, antl a man jsoalouM for 
truth and ordor in tho chnrcho of OhriHt t of 
groat hoiinoftB of lift*, of a public npirit ttd 
much furvour in hi work, and frrfii 
ness in the county of Middlwmx/ 

He publifthed : 1, * A Warning to 
lands or a Prophacy of Panloun Timen/ Lon- 
don, 1059. 8, 'Holp for the Poor/ UWI5, 
8. 'The Excellency of Virtue dicloinpp 
itself in the Virtues of a Good Lift*,* Lon 
don, 1676. 4, 'The, Key of Knowledge/ 
London, 1682, 5, '7K1TW Clod** Court: 
wherein the dignity and duty of Judg$ ina 
Magistrates is shew'd/ London, W&8. 

[Visitation of Warwickshire (HArf.Soe, Fu!>L) 
wl ail ; Wood 1 * Athenae. d, Bliiw, iii, 40$ t iv 
698-9, Faati, ed, Bilw, ii 80, S80-7 ; 
Ahttttii Oxon, 1500-17Hj Cobbfltfc'* 
of Twickenham, TO, 110, 124 lS89j 
Environs, Uj 291*5; Palmer 1 ! Nonoonfonrnut'* 
Memorial, ii. 470; Lipscomb't Buckinghamshire, 
iii. 343; Manning and Bray*! Surrey, I S04; 
Aubroy's AfttiquStfa of Sumy, 1 25 j Eiiit,MBft. 
Oomm. 7th Bep. p. 128 j Lordi 1 Jourfiftt t fill 




physician, son of Thomas Willis and his 
wife, Rachel Ilowell, was born at Great Bod- 
win, Wiltshire, on 27 Jan, 1620-1, and 
baptised on. 14 Fob, following. His father, 
a farmer at * Church or Long Handborough,' 
Oxfordshire, was, 'according to Wood, 'a 
retainer of $, John's College/ and afterwards 
steward to Sir Walter Smith of Bodwyn, 
retiring in his old ago to North llinltsey, 
near Oxford, and losing Ida life in the aioge 
of Oxford in 1646. His mother was a 
native 'of Ilinksey. Tho son was educated 
at the private school of Edward Sylvester 
in Oxford; 'in 1086 he became a retainer 
to the family of Dr, Tho. HOB, canon of 
Christ Church^ (WOOD); and on iJ March 
1686-7 he matriculated from Christ Church, 
graduating B,A. on 10 Juno 10.M9 and M,A, 
on 18 June 1642. Ilo served th king in 
tho university lugion, and studied medicine, 
On 8 Dec. '1040 he graduated M,B, He 
began practice in a huitHO opposite Morton 
e, whero, throughout tho robe 

ho robellion, tho 

offices of tho church of Itinffland wore regu- 
larly porformod [BOO Owi-iN 1 , JOHN, UJI6- 
1C8'8]. Ho there wrote MHatribw duro 
medico-philosophicro/ono on MVmontatton/ 
and the other on 'lAwors/ which, with his 
i DissertatioEpistolaris do tlrinis/ were pub- 
lished at The Hague in 1659. To this JTOd- 
mund Meara |"q, v1 repliod in 1665 in an 
' Examon ' which called forth a defence from 
Willis's friend, Dr. Richard Lower (1631- 
1091} <i.v.], entitled ' Vindioatio Diatribro 

He published in London in 1604 ( Oorebri 
Anatome Noryorumquo desoriptio etusus,' 
with a dedication to Gilbert Sheldon [q, v.J, 
archbishop of Canterbury, and in the same 
volume ' l)e ratione motus musculorum? II e 
had dissected many brains of both men and 
animals, and worked with Dr, Richard Lower, 
Dr, Thomas Millington, and Sir Christopher 
"Wren [q, v,], and many of the admirable 
drawings in the book were the work of that 
great architect. It was the most exact ac- 
count of the nervous system which had then 
appeared, and in chapter viii, the anatomical 
relations of the main cerebral arteries were 
for the first time accurately set forth, whence - 
the anastomosis at the base of the brain 
between the branches of the vertebral and 
internal carotid arteries is to this day known 
as the circle of Willis, He was concerned 
in the meetings at Oxford which in part led 
to the formation of the Royal Society, and 
became a fellow after the society was esta- 
blished, In December 1064 ho was elected 

5 Willis 

a fellow of the College of Physicians, and 
in 1666, on the invitation of the archbishop 
of Canterbury, came up to London and took 
a house in St. Martin's Lane, near the church 
of St, Martin's-in-the-Fields. He soon at- 
tained a large practice. Bishop Burnet states 
that when consulted about a son of James II, 
thon^Duke of York, he expressed his dia- 
gnosis in the words * mala stamina vitee/ 
which gave such offence that he was never 
called for afterwards. His resolute attach- 
ment to the church of England was perhaps 
a stronger reason that he was not favoured 
at court. He endowed a priest to read 
prayers at early morning and late evening at 
bt, Martin's-in-the-Fields for the benefit of 
working people who could not attend at the 
usual hours. In 1667 he published at Ox- 
ford ' Pathologic cerebri et norvosi generis 
syecimon/ a treatise containing many valu- 
able roports of cases of nervous disease 
observed by himself ; and in 1670, in Lon- 
don, ' Affoetionum quca dicuntur hysterics 
ot hypochondriacs pathologia spasmodica/ 
which discusstjs the treatment of hysterical 
affections at great length, and also contains 
a few well-aoscribed cases. In the same 
volume are separate essays 'Da sanguinis 
Oflconsiona * and ' Do motu musculari/ He 
published at Oxford in 1072 * De anima bru- 
torum/ and in 1674 * Pharmaceutice ratio** 
nalis,' He was the last English physician 
to quote with approval the practice of John 
of Gaddesden [q. vj 

t The ancjonts ana all physicians up to the 
time of Willis included all diseases in which 
the quantity of urine was increased, under 
the term * diabetes/ and Willis in this last 
book was the first to notice that cases of 
wasting disease in which this symptom was 
associated with sweetness of tie urine 
formed a distinct group, and thus may 
justly be regarded as the discoverer of dia- 
betes mellitus* His views as to the effects 
of sugar on the body were attacked by Pre- 
dericE Blare [q.v/j in his 'Vindication of 
Sugars against the Charge of Dr, Willis/ 
London, 1715, 8vo, Willis died of pneu- 
monia at his house in St. Martin's Lane, 
London, on 11 Nov. 1675, and was buried in 
Westminster Abbey on the 18th, an honour 
which he well deserved on account of his 
anatomy of the brain and his discovery of 
saccharine diabetes. The funeral charges 
came to 470J ; 4. 4<, which his grandson 
Browne Willis complains did not include a 
gravestone. His portrait was drawn by 
V ertue and engtaved by Enapton, There is 
another engraving by Loggan. 

Willis married, first, at St. Michael's, 
Oxford, on 7 April 1657, Mary, daughter of 



Dr. Samuel Fell fa, v.] and sister of Dr. 
John Fell [q. v.l ; she died on 31 Oct. 1670, 
and was buried in Westminster Abboy on 
8 Nov. A son Kichard died on 2 May 
1667, and was buried in Merton College 
Chapel. The only surviving son, Thomas 
Willis (1658-1699), was father of Browno 
Willis [q.v.J the great antiquary, whoso ac- 
count of his grandfather's life and charities, 
in a letter to White Kennett, is printed in 
Wood's 'Athene,' ed. Bliss (iii. 1048-50), 
Willis married, secondly, on 1 Sept. 1072, 
at Westminster Abbey, Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of Matthew Nicholas, dean of St. 
Paul's [see NICHOLAS, SIB EDWABD, adftn.], 
and widow of Sir William Galley of Bur- 
derop Park, Wiltshire. After Willis's death 
she married, as her third husband, Sir Thomas 
Mompesson (d. 1701) of Bathampton, Wilt- 
shire, whom also she survived, dying in hot 
seventy-fifth year on 29 Nov. 1709, and being 
buried in Winchester Cathedral. 

A collected edition of Willis's works, en- 
titled ' T. W. Opera omnia cum , . . multm 
figuris esneis/ appeared at Geneva in 10HQ 
(2 torn. 4to) ; an improved edition was pub- 
lished by G-erard Blasius in six jjarts at 
Amsterdam (1682, 4to). An English ver- 
sion, entitled 'The remaining- Medical Works 
of . . . T. W. , .,* was published in Lon- 
don in 1681, folio, several of the treatiaos 
being translated by Samuel Pordage [q, v.] 

[Works j Hunk's Coll, of Phys. i. 338 ; post- 
script to Pharmaceutics Rationales, 1679, pt ii. ; 
Burnet's History of his own Time, London, 1724, 
p. 228; Wood's Athene Oxon. iii. 1048; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oxon. 1 500-1 7H; Burrows'e Park 
Visit. (Camden Soc.); Chester's Keg. Wosfc. 
Abbey, passim.] N. M. 

WILLIS, TIMOTHY (ft. 1615), writer 
on alchemy, was the son of Richard Willis, 
leather-seller of London, He was admitted 
to Merchant Taylors* school on 22 April 
1575, and thence was elected to a fel- 
lowship at St. John's College, Oxford, in 
1578. He matriculated on 17 Nov, 1581, 
but^was ejected from his fellowship the fol- 
lowing yea* 'for certain misdemeanours.' 
He proceeded B.A. from Gloucester Hall on 
10 July 1582, and was afterwards readmitted 
to St. John's at the reauest of William Cor- 
dell, and by favour of Queen Elizabeth made 
* doctor bullatus,' and sent on an embassy 
to Muscovy. He published : 1. * Proposi- 
tiones Tentationum, sive Propsedeumata de 
Yitiis et Fceeunditate composftorum natura- 
lium/ London, 1615. 2. 'The Search of 
Causes; containing a TheosophicalUnvesti- 
gation of the Possibilitie of Transmutatorie 
Alchemie,' London, 1616, On tho title 

of t/ho latter worlt )i diwribon himself 
us * Appri nitino iu Phirtii'lti*/ 

r'B Alumni Oxon. J/iOO 1711; WtmdV* 
. l*liHH,voh i, rnlN, IWlK I ; Hi'tf.oftlmv* 
of Oxford (Oxford Hist, ^<i< 4 ,), 11. ii, >H, iii* 1 06; 
[tol)iMon*H Jloir. of MtM't'htmt- Tiiylor* >S'hul, i. 
24,] B, t, 

WILLISEL, Tl f< >M AS ( f /. 1 cffr* j ) f nut u- 
liHt, wtm a tutttvo of Ntir!lmwpt<WMhM, 
according 1 t-o Auhroy, or, mu'iMMliijg 1 tn l},ny, 
of LaueaHhiri), Ho WTVIM! UH a tuiit-Hiihiur 
under Cromwell, * l^vitt^ ut Si, JfiuuH*H (a* 
hon f ihitiko), In* hit (1(11^1^1,* wrift^ 
Aubr<\y, M.o g'o nlon^ with 8mn Nttn|tloiu 
lla lilted it. HO \vtll tlii IIM <l*sitvul t,n ^'to 
with ilitmi UB oftt'ii HH tlii^y wt'iii, wiul t<wKo 
Much a fancy ^ fo fhni. In a nhnrt ihni* 1m 
bocatno a gontl liotuntMt, lit* WUM a lunty 
follow, and had an admirable Hi^hl^wh'u'h IM 
of ptSMtt UHO for a mnmlnr; wiw UK hnrdy HH 
alughlantlur; till luMtvtuathoNtw his hnt*it not* 
worth ton ^wit-oH, an ojf*illont; mnrliNtnan, 
and would maintain lihnHtlfi with hin *lu$ 
and liin gtnti unit IUN riHhiH^iitM, Tho 
of London tlid nuH'h n<'opn^o 
him, and twmloywl him nil ovm' j^t^liuul, 
Hcotlaml, ami jfooti purt of 1 wlttm), if not nil ; 
hn mmlo hravo ttiHCovorii 4 H, lor whitfh 
his namowill ovnrhorotHimh*rd in lurnnllH, 
if ho Haw a MtranffM fowh* ttf hinl, nr a linh, 
lie woul<l liavw it. tintl O.IIHO it. ' ( A u IUJKY, AV/ 
*/ WUtahiM) oil. Hritttm, p. 
4B), 1J wan wploy*M by Mrrot for II vo 

hit* * 

that in October HltHMVilltHMl, who 
had btM^n tm^a^od by tho Hwwty it* volloot 
zoological and bot,anit*ul p<H*im**n in Kiitf* 
land and Hcotlaml, poiurnott tt LmuUm wit.h 
a largo collection of nut* HtMiilwli birdn antl 

and dried plant H (Jlwturynfthfi ttuyttl 
i. SJ^-i). llo aim) prinin th wnlni 
iou givon by tho mwit*ty to Willwut. 
Evelyn, who wan jrumnt at tlui of 
th Royal Hcwiuty in ()<,tobtr l(J(JU f writow: 
'Our HngliHh itinonmt prtwontiHlnn amount 
of his autumnal pon^nnufcioim about Knjf* 
land, for which wt) hlmd him ' (7^V/^ vol. i.) 
In his * CaUlofruN Plantafnm Anulim, 1 pub- 
lished in U570, Ray Htylow Wiliimd * a porwm 
employed by tlio Itoyat Hotuoty in tht mmnth 
of natural rontutt, bath animtUH, plantu, and 
minerals f tho fitttwt man fornuou apurpoH 
that I know in England, both for hi* Uill 
and industry/ In Wi tlm grwit natufalint 
took WilUsol with htm tm a tour through 
the northern count lea (Mmorfak </ Jftftfj/. 
ed. Lankoster p. SJO). Pultttnoy 8tty: *i 
believe he was onco sent into Imand by Dr. 
Sherard, * . Tha emolnmtmt aming from 
these omploymenta -was probably among 1 tho 



principal moans of his subsistence ' (Sketches 
of the Proj/refts of Botany, i, 349). Afl Aubrey 
records that ' all the profession lie had was 
to make podges for shoes' (Ipc. ceV;,), this 
last supposition of Pulteney's is highly pro- 
bable. Aubrey is our authority for all else 
we know of WilliseL ' When,' ho says, ' ye 
Lord John Vaughan, now Earle of Carbery 
[aee under VAITGIIIAN', I&OKA.KD, second KAKL 
OF CAKjsHErel, was made governour of Ja- 
inaica [in 1(>74], I did recommend him to 
his excellency, who made him his gardiner 
there. lie dyed within a yoare after his 
being there, but had made a ilno collection 
of plants and shells, which the Earlo of 
Oarbery hath by him ; and had ho lived ho 
would have given the world an account of 
the plants, antmaln, and fishes of that island, 
He could write a hand indifibnmt legible, 
and had made himself master of all the 
Latino names : ho pourtrayod but un- 
towardly ' (lw., tit,) Some plants collected 
"by WiilUol aro preserved in Sir Hans 
Sloano's herbarium. 

[Authorities above oittul.] <3K 8, ,B. 

WILLISON, GEORGE (1741-1797), 
portrait-painter, born in 1741, was a son of 
i)avid Willison, an Edinburgh printer and 

Eubltflhor, and a pandsou of John Willison 
.j, v.] In 1750 ho was awarded a prise for 
a drawing of flowers by the Edinburgh So- 
ciety for the Encouragomtwt of the Arts and 
Sciences, and in tho two following years his 
name again figures in the priasolist. After 
this his undo, George Dmnpmtor [q.v/] of 
Dunnichon, sont him to Homo to continue 
his studios, and on his return he sottlfld m 
London, where, between 1707 and 1777, 1m 
exhibited some sk-and-twonty portraits at 
the Itoyal Academy* But meeting with 
little encouragement, ho went to India and 
painted many portraits, including those of 
some native prmces, one of which (that of 
the nabob of Areot) is now at Hampton 
Court. Ho possessed a certain knowledge of 
medicine, and cured a wealthy person of a 
dangerous wound of long standing, in grati- 
tude for which he had some time afterwards 
a considerable fortune bequeathed to him* 
Then he returned to Edinburgh, whore he 
continued to paint, and where he died in 
April 1797* Ilis pictures are pleasant in. 
colour and rather graceful in arrangement, 
his characterisation fair, his handling easy; if 
somewhat thin, A number of his portraits 
were engraved by Valentine Green and 
James Watson, 

A medallion portrait of Willison (dated 
1792) by QuiUame is in the Scottish Portrait 

[Scots Magazine, 1755-8; Millar's Eminent 
Burgesses of .Dundee, 1887; Oat. Scottish Na- 
tional Portrait G-allory; Ernest Law's Hampton 
Court ; Bodgrave's, Bryan's, and G-ravea's Die- 
tionariefl.1 J. L. C. 

t WILLISON, JOI-IN (1680-1750), Scot- 
tish ^ divine, was born in 1080 at or near 
Stirling, wliero his family had been long 
settled and possessed considerable property, 
Jlo was the eldest son of James Willison 
Mill of Graigforth and Bothia Gourlay, his 
spouse, lie entered the university of Glasgow 
in 1695, and, though sometimes styled M,A,, 
his name does not appear in the list of 
graduates* lie was licensed by the presby tery 
of Stirling in 1701 , appointed to the parish of 
Brochin by the united presbytery of Brechux 
and Arbroath in 1703, and ordained in De- 
comber of that year. Many of his parishioners 
wore Jacobites and episcopalians, and he 
oneountored much opposition from them. In 
1705 ho reported to the presbytery that the 
formor op'iBCopal minister had retaken pos* 
soHHion of tho pulpit for tho afternoon ser- 
vice on Sutulayw, that tho magistrates refused 
to render him any a&sintanco, and that he was 
told that he would be rabbled if he tried to 
oust tho intruder. In 1712 he published a 
pamphlet entitled 'Queries to the Scots Inno- 
vators in Divine Service, and particularly to 
tho Liturgical Party in the Shire of Angus, 
By a Lover of the Church of Scotland ; ' and in 
17 14 ' A Letter from a Parochial Bishop to a 
Prelatical Gentleman concerning the Govern- 
ment of the Church/ In 1716 Willison was 
translated from Brechinto the South churcli, 
Dundee, In 1719 ho published an ' Apology 
for the Church of Scotland against the Ac- 
cusations of Prelatists and Jacobites/ and in 
17^1 a letter to an English M,P, on the 
bondage in which the Scottish people were 
Irept from the remains of the feudal system. 
In 1726 he preached before the general 
assembly, and from about this time he took 
a prominent place among the leaders of the 
popular party in the church. In his own 
presbvteryhe strenuously opposed John Glas 
fg, v, J minister of Tealing-, who founded the 
Glassites/ otherwise called Sanderaaniana, 
and in 1729 Wiilison published a treatise 
against his tenets entitled 'A Defence of 
the National Church, and particularly of tlxe 
National Constitution pi the Church of 
Scotland,against the Cavils of Independents/ 
During the controversy which ended in 
the deposition of Ebenezer Brskine [q. v.] and 
his followers, Willison exerted himself to the 
utmost to prevent a schism, At the synod 
of Angus in 1788 he preached a sermon 
xirpfing conciliatory measures, which was 
puolimed under the title *The Church's 



Banger; 7 and after the seceders had formed 
presbytery of their own, it was through th 
influence of Willison and his friends tha 
the^ assembly of 1734 rescinded the act 
which had given them offence, and authorisec 
the synod of Stirling to restore them to thei 
former status. This assembly also sen 
Willison and two others to London to en 
deaTour to procure the repeal of the act o 
1712 which restored the right of patronag 1 
to the former patrons. For five years mor 
the assembly persevered in its efforts to re 
claim the seceders, and when at length 11 
resolved to libel them, Willison with others 
dissented. As the seceders now declinec 
the authority of the church and declarec 
that its judicatories were ' not lawful nor 
right constitute courts of Christ/ the as- 
sembly found that they deserved deposition 
but, on the earnest solicitation of Willison 
and his friends, the execution of the sentence 
was postponed for a year to give them a 
further opportunity of returning from their 
'divisive' courses. They still stood out, how- 
ever, and it is said that 'the failure of 
Willison's efforts to prevent a schism so 
overwhelmed him with grief that he did not 
take an active share in church courts after 
that time/ In 1742 Willison visited Cam- 
tmslang to see for himself the nature of the 
celebrated religious revival there which is 
associated with the name of Whitefield, and 
on his return journey he preached a sermon 
at Kilsyth which was followed by a like 
movement in that parish. In 1744 he pub- 
lished 'A Fair and Impartial Testimony ' (to 
which several ministers and elders adhered) 

w 6 oMou uuoueueuiaujisujt Lne national cjiurca, 
tne lamentable schism begun and carried on 
by the seceders, the adoption of liturgical 
forms and popish practices by Scottish 
episcopalians, and other innovations. In 
1745 he published < Popery another Gospel/ 
which he dedicated to the Duke of Cumber- 
land, Curing the rising of 1745 Highlanders 
belonging to Prince Charles's army twice 
entered his church and threatened to shoot 
him if he praved for King George, so that 
he was obliged for a time to close the church 
and to officiate in private houses, Besides 
his controversial works, Willison published 
numerous treatises on devotional and practi- 
cal religion, many of which were translated 
mto Gaehc and were great favourites with 
the Scottish people, Willison was one of 
the most eminent evangelical clergymen of 
his time. He was remarkable for his com- 
bination of personal piety with public spirit, 
tod, though frequently engagecl in contro- 
versy, < there was no asperity m what he said 
or wrote. Faithful in every department of 

duty, he was specially notod for Im diligtmco 
in catechising 1 tho young and in vimting tlw 
sick. lie died on tf May 1750 in tho wwmi- 
tieth year of his ago, and was buriotl in the 
South church, Dundee. On 11 Nov. 1714 
he married Margarot, daughter of William 
Arrot, minister ol'Afontrosn, and had A ndrmv, 
a physician in Dundno; a daughter, who 
became tho wife of VV, Ball, inituMtw of Ar- 
broath, and otihor childnm, t-luorgo Willi- 
son [q, v,] was hin gpandwn. 

Wlllison'fl principal works, IwmdoH thono 
mentioned abovft, aro; 1. 'Tho Hanctifloa- 
tion of the Lord's Pay/ 1.71.3, & * A Harm- 
mental Directory/ 17 Ml. ,1. * Sormcnm bnforo 
andaftrthLord f HHuppr/ I7tia* 4, 'Tim 
Mother's CatwohiHitt : an Ifixampln of" l*Inin 
Catechisintr on tho Shorf<orOat<u!hiHHh f 17*il 

fc* trrn. .. \r n i . . *. . V 

.., /*. 

6. 'The Young (Jommumoant'H OatochiHm/ 
1734 tf, 'Tho Afflicted Man'n Ommwnimi ' 
1787. 7. < Tho Jklmof (HhMid/ 1743. H. * Ha 
cramcmtai Moditationw and Adviww/ !7^<7. 
9. 'Goflpol llymnH/ 179K Mcmt. of thorn 
have boon oftwn wptiWinhml, and t\nw havo 
beonsovoralcolkctiid (sditionn of JUH practical 

[Life by Dr, Ifrthflriaftton prJia t mlitton 
of WorH 1B44; Lifo pruiko.l ttt htN (^lltiptttfi 

works, Aberdoon, 1817 and to wlition f the 
Affliotod Mnn'n Oommnltm ! Ohatubo 
Diet. VOL iv. ; Morroii's Amwln of <lmi, 
1739-62; WodmVs l^itfcuw, vol. in, j 
Fiwti,iu.ii. 002,81 3 j ItolmonKftvivalHj 
Bwchin j information fmn Willmm'* 
dianta and from Mr* W, U. Cook, Siirlinff/l 

a. w, 

L800 at Erthngton,nwir Hawhworth. wnrn 
his father, Jamos Wiilmoro^ wa a manufac- 
turer of silvor aHicLui. Ho waa appron- 
iiced at Birmingham to William Kadclyttb 
.q. v. J and, marrying at tlm ago of twtwty- 
:wo, came to London, whore ha worked ror 
;hree yearn as UBsintftnt to Oharlim 1 loath 
N 178W848J fq. v.J The mrlimt important 
workson which ho was cmgftgml wor<^ Tuma A 
England and Walca/ 1H97-H8, and Brocku- 
don's < Passes of the Aip/ 1 H98-0 j and hit 
awt largo plato was oxooutod from Kat- 
,5f fl Picture of 'Byron's Drtmm/ 18D4. 
Wmmore was extremely suee8ful in tran 
ating the worfcr of Turner, who greatly ap* 
preciated his abilitios, and hig plates from 
hat art we < Mercury and Arirui/ ' Anoiont 
taly/ The Goldoii i Bough * ' OberwS 
The Old Temeraire/ ' Venice* (ongravad for 
he Art Union, 1858), and * Child? Harold'* 
Pilgrimage ' (Art Union, 1801), areamone 

Ko TIVtAftd" AWA.u.^.l.^ ^.J ... 1 ' , ** 

, , mong 

he finest examples of modum landscape 
Some of those he re*cmgt*nvod on a 



smaller scale for the * Art Journal/ The 
' Mercury and Argus ' was a joint specula- 
tion on the part of Turner and Willmore. 
Ilia other largo works include 'Bains of 
Carthage/ after W. Linton (for Findon's 
' Gallery of British Art ') ; * Crossing the 
Bridgcy after E, Landseer, 1847 ; * High- 
land Ferry, 1 after J. Thompson, 1848 ; < Villa 
of Lucullua,' after Leitch (Art Union, 1851); 
'Wind against Tide/ after C. Stanliold; 
* Harvest in tho Highlands/ after Landseer 
'and Callcott (Art Union, 1850) ; and < Nearest 
Way in Summer Time, after Oreswick and 
Ansdell, 18CO. Willmore's small book illus- 
trations are also very numerous and beauti- 
ful, In 1848 he exhibited at the Eoyal 
Academy a proof of his i Ancient Italy/ 
and was then elected an associate engraver, 
Throughout his life he was one of the most 
active members of the Artists' Annuity 
and Benevolent funds. "Willmore died on 
12 March 1863, and was buried in the High- 
gate cemetery, 

ATRTIIUB WILLHOEU (1814-1888), born 
at Birmingham on 6 June 181 4-, was a bro- 
ther of James TibbittB Willmore, by whom 
he was trained. ^ lie became t an able line 
engraver, excelling chicly in landscape 
work. He was extensively employed on 
book illustrations, and also executed many 
plates for the ' Art Journal ' from pictures 
by Collins, Cooke, Oroswick, Bubens, Stan- 
field, Turner, Van Dyck, and others, His 
most important work was ' The Boturn of 
the Lifeboat/ after E. Duncan, engraved for 
the Art Union, 1878. Willmore frequently 
exhibited at the Koyal Academy between 
1858 and 1885. He died on 8 Nov. 1888. 

[Art Journal, 1883 j Bedgrave'a Diet, of Ar- 
tiste; Gravos's Diet, of Artist*, 1700-1898; 
Bryan's Diet of Painters and Engravers, od. 
Armstrong] If. M. (XIX 

1868), author he invariably; dropped his 
second Christian name of Eldridge was son 
of a solicitor who married about 1808 Mary- 
Ann (&. 1861), the only child of the Rev. 
John Oleeve of Ilingwood, Hampshire, and 
a few years later moved to Bradford in Wilt- 
ehire, where Robert was born on 80 Jan. 1 809, 
The father, of a somewhat impracticable dis- 
position, went to London, andCafterwards be- 
came involved in pecuniary trouble. In 
October 1819 the boy was admitted at Mer- 
chant Taylors* school He was entered at 
Harrow school in January or February 
1825, There in March 1828 ne brought out 
the first number of the 'Harrovian/ which 
ran to six numbers. At the close of 1828 he 
became tutor to Thomas Green, and remained 

so for about two years. Already in 1829-30 
tie was contributing to the < Church of Eng- 
land Quarterly Review,' i Eraser's Magazine/ 
bhe 'London Magazine,' and the 'Asiatic 
Journal/ He was entered at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1832, but his matriculation 
was deferred until 17 Feb, 1834. While at 
Cambridge he earned his living by his pen. 
He graduated B.A on 26 May 1841. 

Willmott, on Trinity Sunday 1842, was 
ordained deacon by Bishop Blomiaeld to the 
curacy of St. James, RatclifFe, and he was 
ordained priest on 11 June 1848. After 
serious illness he took leave of St. James's 
on 2 June 1844, his farewell sermon being 
printed* For three months he was stationed 
at Chelsea Hospital, and in June 1846 became 
curate to the Rev. T. W. Allies at Launton, 
Oxfordshire* The church of St. Catherine, 
Bearwood, which had been erected through 
tho munificence of John Walter (1770-1847) 
[q, v.], was consecrated on 23 April 1846, and 
vVillmott was appointed by him as its first 
incumbent. For many years he- received 
much practical kindness from Walter and 
his successor in the property ; but about 1861 
differences arose with the patron, and Will- 
mott resigned the benefice in May 1862 on 
a pension of 160/. per annum. His publica- 
tions included funeral sermons for John 
Walter (<&. 1847) and for Mrs. Emily Frances 
Waiter (d. 1858). 

Willmott retired to Kettlebed in Oxford- 
shire, and began writing for the * Church- 
man's Family Magazine/ He was engaged 
in the preparation of three new books, in- 
cluding an edition of the works of Cowley, 
when he was incapacitated by an attack of 
paralysis. He died at Nettlebed on 27 May 
1868. He was buried, with his mother and 
sister (Mary Oleeve Willmott, who died at 
.Richmond on 9 May 1854, aged 47), in the 
churchyard of Bearwood. 

Willmott's literary work showed -tfide 
reading and a pleasing imagination, and 
he was an admirable preacher. His most 
popular productions were : 1* A Journal of 
Summer-time in the Country,' 1849; illus- 
trated ed. 1858 ; 4th ed., with memoir by bis 
sister, 1864. 2. 'Pleasures, Objects, and 
Advantages of Literature,' 1851; 5th ed. 
1860; by 1858 five editions of it had ap- 
peared m German. His other works in* 
eluded: 8, 'Lives of Sacred Poets,* 1884; 
2nd ser. 1888, 4, * Conversations at Cam- 
bridge' (anon.),1836, 5. 'Letters of Eminent 
Persons, selected and illustrated/ 1889. 6. 
' Parlour Table Book : Extracts from various 
Authors/ 1840, dedicated to his old friend, 
James Montgomery. 7. ' Pictures of Chris- 
tian Life,' 1841. 8. < Poems,* 1841 j 2nd ed,, 


much altered and enlarged, 1848. 9. ' Life 
of Jeremy Taylor/ 1847; 2nd od. 1848 (of, 
PHILUPS, Essays from ihe. Times, ihidHw,, 
pp. 103-17). 10. 'Precious BtonoB from 
Prose "Writers of the Sixteenth, Koveniounth. 
and Eighteenth Centuries,' 1850. 1 ] . * Poots 
of the Nineteenth Century/ 1857, an interest- 
ing collection ; the original edition is finely 
illustrated by engravings by tho brothorn 
Dalziel, after Foster, Gilbert, Tonniul, Mil- 
lais, and other artists. 12. * English fckerod 
Poetry/ 1862 ; 2nd ed. 1883. 

Willmott edited for Koutlodge's ' British 
Poets ' the poems of Gray, Parnwll (cf 
and Queries, 2nd ser., x. 141-2), Oollhw, 
Green, and Warton (1864 and 1883), tho 
works of George Herbert in proso and vorno 
(1854; Herbert's poems, with Willmott's 
memoir and notes, were also published at; 
Boston, U.S., in 1856), the poems of Alton- 
side and Dyer (1855),'Cowper (1855), Burns 
(1856 ; reissued in 1866), Percy's * JRelitjuoH* 
(1857; also published with a slightly alturod 
title-page), and Fairfax's translation of 
Tasso's 'Jerusalem Delivered 1 (1858), Ho 
edited selections from the poetry of Words- 
worth (1859) and James Montgomery (1850), 
and the poems of Goldsmith (18(fO), Kin 
'Dream of the Poets at Cambridge, from 
Spenser to Gray/ is inserted in J. J, Smith's 
'Cambridge Portfolio' (i. 47-58), and ho 
contributed notes to Pete's ' Anecdotes of 
the English Language ; (1844 ad.) 

An engraved frontispiece of Willmott, by 
H.B. Hall, is in Ohristmas's ' Preachorn ami 
Preaching '(1858). 

[Q-ent. Mag. 1861 ii. 338, 1863 ii, 24U2> 
Welch's Harrow School Keg. p. 71 ; Ktittltft 
Memoirs of C, Boner, 1871, i 100; information 
from Mr. W. Aidis Wright of Trinity Colhw, 
Cambridge, and from the Bev, C. A. Whittwfc 
of Bearwood,] W. p. Q, 


^y^ous hero of < Willobies Aviaa, 1 [Hou 


ttn<] M . 

to r(U , tiH( , 

at Kni. ,. m W(1Hl ^, , , 
and win m l-Wi, Im w w H()ll( , to S( . llUllI1( | 
on a cninmiNHijm to Ui, qnwm r , wmt 1V(im 
tho i)ueh<w ol. 1'fuwluu,! but anSmlliiK to 
Kox Inn - 

land \vn, * t , 

to him mhtrtuiLtivt 
Whilo tin TO lio wan 
in tho IUJUNO *if John 
[<{, v.|, laird uf Hun, 
was comi to by ih 
at. the 

th ,, , 



w,' h ( 

mtutmm with Hny.-m of { | 1H JU ,i,iii t , Vi , )W(m 

l . 1(1 '"! 1 '!!""; r' l " lim Kl'h.,r(.ii. K ir)m 
iH tMtil '(<*. p, iini!)! andiwoortliuf tx. Ktutt, 

t ' 1 "; 1< . IU '' 1 ! lril '" 1IW t il oxLrtatkwH 
wA ui Piuubin t that 

in Ht. John'n 
, wn in( iiet,l 

Si JOHN (tl 

Scottish reformer, wafi a native of 
Ayrshire, but nothing is known of bin 
parentage. He was educated at tho urn* 
verity of Glasgow, and for some time was 

q?* ^ Til a ? ora * n to Awhbwhop 
Spotiswoad of the BwsSawm.but aooordinj 
to Bishop, Leshe of the Dominican ordo? 
Becoming however, a convert to the 

HOIH.I imlihc n'i.t 

to thn iiiuxm nfP'nt nn lomUtm d ,.. 

titm' (in tin* mili|iMit (lA, ji, jjyJA t * 

AI'tiTwunln WiUnfilt wont, t<i 'Ayr whom 
ulw thn im.fiM'tfmi of , K(lr f ,J f ulm) .' 
mm, 1m t>nhi" 
Utirdt. Ou S I'.- ,. 
lop hcivHy ljlB' th 

wmtu-tl, and lar fiultiw t, , wmir ttl , a , 
tinmiw to jm-m-l, |, A h,, ^ w ,a tt wnd 
<m lUMy lutliiwtng. In March 1WKI a <U. 
mitttlmn WHH BM|Hw4 l WlW .Mtn him au<l 
Client m KLitnt-ily, u f (> tl Hp.iifuil, n), 
Ayr, but MM by Imldil ,, (lgPlJI( %, ' thw 

iBllMMtJiitt.rjirtm)(wrijt,mH( ii, did not, 

( it . 


*' outlawry of Jam 

m/fi??/y), Tho .. 

and othorn WHH juinn..w, "ubwittiNUinfiinir thd 
ftMNttinhly of u Inrffo hotty of mm{ \ ^i\^ mm 
at t orUif to whwu ti pruiuimi }^\ btujti made 
that Willm-ii tttiilhw frittndit woiUU not t 

^^.tt!r^* ti ^^fW>t 

hau comn to 

where he bAw. w 

Jane Grey. On the accession of Mary te in 

- -*.; " ^ '!-..,.. ' *iH!!K ftoft cnmft 
rrth m mimtmtiy with ttaKarlof Olnnmum, 
ami wmJo th*n* nu and Knox had an intr- 
vmwwith Ar^ylittntl Urd Jamas Htwart 
(aft,arwanl Kurl of Monty), from whom th<w 
mwivnd an mwumncH thatihoold tho queen 
rtitftwt anptrt from her gnQmt)nt thy would 
with thulr whdlH pew'aMit and concur 
' with their brothm m all time to 

Aftw lb lltwtnWtlon Of thn wuHmnnnm 

at Mirth, which rollfiwad tht, broach of 
and Knox ti>wrtl tie dose of 



entered Edinburgh along- with the lords of 
tho congregation. Shortly afterwards Knox 
was elected minister of St, Giles ; but after 
a truce had been completed with the queen 
regent it was deemed advisable that Knox 
fthould for a while retire from Edinburgh, 
Wiilock acting as his substitute in St, Giles. 
During Knox's absence strenuous efforts 
were made by the queen regent to have the 
old form of worship re-established, but Wil- 
lock firmly resisted her attempts ; and in 
-August he administered the Lori's supper for 
the first time in Edinburgh after tue re* 
formed manner. 

After the queen regent had broken the 
treaty and begun to fortify Leith a conven- 
tion of the nobility, barons, and burghers 
was on 21 Oct. hold in the Tolbooth to take 
into consideration her conduct, and Willock, 
on being asked his judgment., gayo it as his 
opinion that she * might justly be deprived 
of the government/ in which, with certain 
provwoa, he was seconded by Knox (ib. pp. 
44S-JJ). The result was that her authority 
was suspended, and a council appointed to 
manage the affairs of the kingdom until a 
meeting of parliament, Willock being ono of 
the four ^ ministers chosen to assist in the 
deliberations of the council. Not long after- 
wards Willock left for England, but ho re- 
turned with the English army in April 1560, 
and at the request of the reformed nobility 
the queen regent had an interview with him 
on her deathbed in June following, when, 
according to Knox, ho did plainly show her 
as wdl the virtue and strength of the death 
of Jesus Christ UB the vanity and abomina- 
tion of that idol the luww (5& ii. 71). By 
the committee of parliament ho was in July 
1500 named superintendent of the west, to 
which lie was admitted at Glasgow in July 
1 561. He WOH alwo in July 1 560 named one 
of a commission appointed by tho lords oJ 
the congregation to draw up the first book 
of discipline, 

As a Scottish reformer Willock stands 
next to Knox in initiative and in influence ; 
but it is possible that the risrid severity of 
Knox became distasteful to him, and, appa- 
rently deeming tho religious atmosphere pi 
England more congenial, he about 1502 in 
which year he wa, however, in June and 
December moderator of the general ( assembly 
became rector of Loughborough in Leices- 
tershire, to which he was presented by his 
old friend the Duke of Suffolk, Neverthe- 
less, by continuing for several years to hold 
-the office of superintendent ^ of the west, he 
retained his Connection with the Scottish 
chuioh, and%e was elected moderator of the 
general jftembly on 26 June 1564, 25 June 

C65, and 1 July 1568. While he was in 
Scotland in 1565 'the queen made endeavours 
,o have him sent to Ate castle of Dumbar- 
ton, but he made his escape (CaL State 
Papery For. 1504-5, No. 1510). IE January 
15(57-8 the general assembly of the kirk 
sent him. through Knox a letter praying- him 
to return to his old charge in Scotland 
(KNOX, Works, vi. 445-6) ; but although he 
did visit Scotland and officiated as moderator 
of the assembly, he again returned to his 
charge in England. According to Sir James 
MCelville, the Earl of Morton made use of 
Willock to reveal to Elizabeth, through the 
Earls of Huntingdon and Leicester, 
ings of the Duke of Norfolk with the regent 
Moray, for an arrangement by which the 
duke would marry the queen of Scots (Me- 
motrs, fc. 218)* 

Willock died in his rectory at Lough- 
borough on 4 Dec. 1585, and was buried the 
next day, being Sunday; his wife Catherine 
survivea him fourteen years, and was buried 
at Loughborough on 10 Oct. 1599 (FLETCHER, 
Parish Xteffinter* of LouyhborougK), Though 
Demster ascribes to him ' Irnpia qusedam,' 
it does not appear that he loft any works. 
Chalmers, in his ' Life of Ruddiman/ seeks 
to identify Willoclc with one ' John Wil- 
lokis, descended of Scottish progenitors/who 
on 27 April 1590 is referred to in a state 
paper as being in prison in Leicester, after 
having been convicted by a jury of robbery* 
The supposition of Chalmers, sufficiently im- 
probable in itself, is of course disposed of by 
the entry of the rector's death in the parish 
register, but there is just a possibility that 
tho robber may have b*een the rector's son. 

[Wodrow's Biographical Collections (Maitiand 
Glib), i. 99, 448 sq. ; Histories by Knox, Koith, 
and Calderwood; Col. State Papers, Por, 1561- 
1562, and 1564-5; Cal, State Papers, Scottish, 
1547-1563; Wodrow Miscellany, voL i, ; Mait- 
land Miscellany, vot iii, ; Sir James Melriltf s 
Memoirs in the Banwatyae Olub; Ghalraers'a 
Lifo of Ruddiman; Nichols's Leicestershire; 
Hew Scott's Fasti Eeeles, Scoticanse, ii. 375-6.] 

T. F. H. 

BA&ON. [See V^BKBY, UIOHAEJ), 1621- 

, 1656-1601,] 

w PASHAM (16 

son of William, third baron Willoughby of < >t 
Parham, by Frances, daughter of John Man- 
ners, fourth earl of Butland, was born about ^ 



1613, His great-great-grandfather, Sir Wil- 
liam Willoughby of Parham, was nephew 
of William Willoughby, ninth baron Wil- 
loughby de Eresby, whose daughter Katha- 
rine, duchess of Suffolk, married as her second 
husband Richard Bertie, and was mother of 
Peregrine Bertie, eleventh baron Willoughby 
de Eresby [a. v.] Sir William was created 
first baron Willoughby of Parham in Suffolk 
on 20 Feb. 1546-7, and died in August 1674 
His son Charles, second baron, is frequently 
confused (e. indexes to CaL State Papers, 
Dom., Cal. Ratfield M88., and Leicester 
Correspondence) with his cousin, Peregrine 
Bertie ; he was grandfather of William, third 
baron Willoughby of Parham, who died on 
28 Aug. 1617,and was succeeded by his eldest 
son Henry. Henry died about 1618, when 
little more than five years old, and the title 
passed to his younger brother, Francis (OoL- 
Lnre, Peeerage, ed. Brydges, vi. 618). 

In 1636 Francis Willoughby complained of 
partiality in the levying of ship-money in 
Lincolnshire ; in 1689 he answered with a 
great lack of zeal the king's summons to serve 
against the Scots; in the summer of 1640 
his name was attached to some copies of 
the petition of the twelve peers to the king 
which led to the calling of the Long parlia- 
ment. Though not at all conspicuous among 
the opposition, it is evident he was disaffected 
to the government (Cal. State Papers. Dom, 
1636-7, 1638-9 p. 435, 1640 p. 641). When 
the breach between the king and the parlia- 
ment widened, Willoughby was appointed by 
the latter lord-lieutenant of the district of 
Lindsey in Lincolnshire, and, iu defiance of 
the king's direct orders,put into execution the 
militia ordinance (Lords' Journals, iv. 687, 
v. 115, 127, 155). He was given command 
of a regiment of horse under the Earl of 
Essex, but arrived too late to take part in 
the battle of Edgehill (PBACOOK, ArmyZists, 
p. 48 ; WHITBLOOKB, Memorials, i. 187). On 
9 Jan, 1643 he was made, by a special ordi- 
nance, lord-lieutenant and commander-in- 
chief in Lincolnshire (HUSBAND, Ordinances. 
1643, p. 834). Ou 16 July 1643 he surprised 
Gainsborough and took prisoner the Earl of 
Kingston, but was immediately besieged there 
by the royalists. Cromwell and Sir John 
Meldrum [q. v.] defeated the besiegers 
(28 July) and threw some powder into the 
town, but Willoughby was obliged to sur- 
render on 30 July (Mercurius Aulious, 
27 July-8 Aug. 1643 ; Life of Col HutcMn- 
son t i. 217, 223 ; CA.ELTXB, Cromwell, letters 
xii. xiv.) A few days later he was forced 
to abandon Lincoln also, and to retire to 
Boston, which he expected to be unable to 
hold. Without we be masters of the field/ 

he wrote to Cromwell, * wo shall be 
out by the ars one after another* (of. 
actions of the lloyal Hwtvritvil titwfoty, 1 
p. 63). Lincolnshire was added It) the cmatorn 
association, on 20 Sept. J(U.% and rocovnrod 
by Manchester's victory at Wincoby on J I Oct., 
Willoughby joinod ManohoHtw iuHt buforo 
the battle, andcapturod Boltngbrolw Ciuttlo in 
Lincolnshire on 14 Nov. 14B ( VIOMIH, 6W* 
^tr^pp.44, (57). In March 1644 ho took 
part in Six* JolmMoJdrumVaborUvtMittompt 
to capture Newark, andtlw ill mietwHH of the 
siege was froely attributed to tho rofuflal of 
Willoujyhby'B men to obny Muldrmn (A 
Brief J&vlation of tM %<? <tf jtft*uwrk t 
1643, 4to). 

Willaugliby's military caroor cloned in a 
series of quarrels. On $% Jan. 1014 Oromwoll 
complained to tho JlouHO of OnmmtmR of the 
license which Willoughby toioratod among 
his troopfl (SANifOKDi tfhtdiw and 7/te^m- 
tions of thf Owat JifMlimi^ p, 5HC) ; M**r* 
curiufs Aulicufi, % April 1 01 4 ). A ntf ry at< th w, 
and at his fluporoNBi<m by MatwhnHtef, Wil- 
loughby flout Mftttcshtwtt ( <ff a o.halbmgo, for 
which, as a bnnich of privih^n, 1m wa 
obliged to nak tli pardon of tlw MOURO of 
Lords (lords 1 Journal*, vu 405, 4<M) f 418). 
He fluccoodd in ffoUwff Liut(naut-<w>I(ml 
Bury censured and Oolonol Ktlward Kinpr 
committed to N^wpto forthtnr eriticmmH of 
hia conduct aa a Amoral ; but Kiiitf wu re- 
leased by ordor of th UouKt) of Ootumont 
(ft. vi, tm t m, fi/57, 571-0, fifi, (X), (105, 
6 IS), In oonsonuflnco of t\wm pnrfional 
sligntB h bocamo mttwly diAHiitmfliul. * W 
are all haBtinff to an oarly ruin,' wan IUM viow 
of public afftjiw in IH44, 'Nubility and 
gentry are going down * (//W. MM&* 
Comm. 4th'ttep, p SHB; WHTTJMOCIKI!}, ii. 
366). In Becembor 1645 parliament votfid 
that the king should bo a*Kd to malw Wil* 
loujafhby an earl, and mplyed him o onft 
of its commissioners to the 8coUw*h army 
(WHITB^OOKU, i, 541, 54B). Olanmdon de 
scribes him a of great wteum among the 
preabyterians, * though not tainted with thmr 
principles ' (Jf^W/ton, xi, B5) In 1647 b 
was one of the Iead<tf8 of that party in par- 
liament, and on #0 July 1647, after tha 
secession of the independent member* of the 
two Houses, he waa elected speaker of th 
lords in place of Manchester cItxraKWOETH* 
vi, 652). When the independent* and thu 

..., ._ 

19 Jan, 1648 the lords released the accused 
peers on the ground that no charge had ben 
presented against them, Article of im- 
peachment were sent up to the Hou*e of 




Lords on 1 Feb. 1648, which ordered Wil- 
loughby to give bail for his appearance to 
answer them. He declined to give bail 
(Feb. 6), fled to Holland, and openly joined 
the royalists (Lords' Journals,].*. 667, x. 11, 
34 ; WHIQSBLOCKB, ii. 270). 

In May 1648, when the fleet in the Downs 
revolted from the parliament,Willoughby was 
made its vice-admiral by the Duke of York, 
and continued in that office by the Prince 
of Wales, * though he had never been at sea 
or. was at all known to the seamen.' This 
appointment, which was attributed either to 
an intrigue of Colonel Bampfield or to the 
designs of Lord JTermyn, greatly dissatisfied 
the royalists, but was welcomed with joy by 
the presbyterians (CLAUBNpoiT, Rebellion, 
xi. 34-6 ; Nicholas Papers, i. 97 ; Hamilton 
Papers). ' Willoughby is most honest and 
wholly Scots/ wrote Lauderdale ; ' he solely 
engaged on our interest/ The prince also 
commissioned Willoughby to command in 
five of the eastern counties where it was 
hoped that a landing would be effected. 
But the crews were insubordinate, the fleet 
ill provided, and the prince's council torn 
by dissensions. ' He stayed on board/ says 
Clarendon, ' purely out of duty to the king, 
though he liked neither the place he had nor 
the people over whom he was to command, 
who had yet more respect for him than any- 
body else/ and he was glad to resign his 
post to Prince Rupert (3November 1648 j M, 
pp, 221, 229, 249 5 CLAKENDON, xi. 139, 149). 
Willoughby's estates were sequestered by 
parliament (25 Doc, 1649) for his adherence 
to the king's cause, and 2,000/. voted for his 
arrears of pay was converted to other uses 
(Cal, of Committee of Compounding, p* 1838; 
Lords 1 Journals, ix, 38, 57, 378). < Since all 
is gone at home/ said he, ' it is time to pro- 
vide elsewhere for a being 1 / and turned to 
the colonies. On 26 Feb. 1647 he had made 
with the second Earl of Carlisle, the pro- 
prietor of Barbados, an agreement by which 
Carlisle leased to him for twenty^one years 
the profits arising from the island, half oj 
which were to go to the payment of Carlisle's 
debts, and the other half to Willoughby 
himself. Carlisle promised also to endeavour 
to get him a commission as governor from 
the king, which was now procured. Wil- 
loughby arrived at Barbados on 29 Aprl 
1650, was received as governor on 7 May 
and caused Charles II to be proclaimed th< 
same day (Cat, State Papers, American anc 
West Indies, 1574-1660, p. 327 j CLAKBKDOIT 
Continuation, 1287; DATEOTLI.DAVIS, Cam 
Hers and Roundheads of Barbadoes, p, 159) 
He found the colony half ruined by the dis 
sensions of the two parties, pursued a con 

ciliatory policy, ousted the extreme royalists 
irom power, ' and was welcomed as a bless- 

ng sent from God' [cf. art. WAXEOND, 

HUMPHREY]. Hearing that parliament was 
sending an expedition to reduce the island, he 

published a remarkable declaration (18 Feb. 

i.651) denying the right of a body in which 
the islanders were not represented either to 
make laws- for them or to restrict their 
commerce. * If ever they get the island/ he 
wrote to his wife, ' it shall cost them more 

;han it is worth. , . , Let me entreat thee 

10 leave off persuasions to submit to them 
who so unjustly, so wickedly, have ruined 
me and mine/ Already he contemplated 
establishing himself in Surinam as a last 
refuge, and sent men to found a settlement 
there, who reported it * the sweetest place 
that ever was seen ' (id. p. 197 ; CART, Me~ 
mortals of t'he Civil War^ ii, 312; GREY, 
Answer to Neal's Puritans, iv. 27, appendix). 
In October 1651 Sir George Ayjscue arrived 
with a parliamentary fleet, and in December 
effected a landing. Defections followed, 
and in January Willoughby was forced to 
treat, for fear, as he said, lest further fight- 
ing ' should turn the face of a country so 
flourishing and such an honour to our nation 
into desolation.' By the treaty, signed 

11 Jan. 1652, Barbados acknowledged the 
sovereignty of the parliament, and by the 
sixteenth article Willoughby was pro- 
mised the restoration of his estates in Eng- 
land and the free enjoyment of his property 
in Barbados, Antiffua, and Surinam. But 
an act of the assembly passed on 4 March 
1652 required him to leave Barbados 
within eight days, and not to return to it 
again (DABNTOL DAVIS, pp, 220-66), 

Willouffhby arrived in England in August 
1C52, and his estate was duly discharged 
from sequestration (1 Sept, 1652), though 
he could not obtain bis back rents or his 
arrears of pay (Cat* of Committee of Com- 
pounding, p. 1840). 

In 1654 the king wrote urging him 'to 
be ready upon any great occasion/ and in 
the spring of 1655 he took an active part in 
the preparations for a general royalist rising 
(Cal. Clarendon Papers, ii. 845, 418; M- 
cholas PaperSj ii. 218-22). Imprisoned for 
plotting in June 1655, and again in March 
1656, he was offered ids liberty in November 
1656 if he would give security to the amount 
of 10,000/. that lie would embark for Suri- 
nam within six months, but, though released, 
he never went (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1655 p, 588. 1655-6 p. 580: ft. Col. 1574- 
1660, H;. 414, 461, 4B7). In June 1659 be 
was again eagerly promoting a new rising, 
and promising for nis part to secure Lynn 




for the king* (Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Hep. 
vi. 206-11). 

At the Restoration Willoughby was paid 
the 2,0002. still due to him for his services 
to the Long parliament, and obtained the 
reversion of some crown lands in Lincoln- 
shire from the king (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1660-1, pp. 502, 578 ; Lords 1 Journals, 
. xi. 149). In spite of some opposition from 
the colonists themselves, he was restored to 
the government of Barbados, and also made 
governor of St. Kitts, Nevis, Montserrat, 
and Antigua. Half the crown revenue 
from Barbados and half that from the 
Caribbee Islands were granted to him. He 
received also, jointly with Lawrence Hyde, 
a grant of the wnole of Surinam in free 
eocage, excepting thirty thousand acres re- 
served for the king (Cal. State Papers^ Col. 
1574r-1660 pp. 483, 486, 489, 1661-8 pp. 114, 
131, 139, 140)- Wmoiiihbf arrived at Bar- 
bados <oa 10 Aug. 1663. His government 
was vigorous and arbitrary. One of his first 
acts was to arrest Walrond, the president of 
the council, for embezzlement, and to appro- 
priate WatoadVa house as his own official 
residence, He deprived Sir Robert Harley, 
the keeper of the seal, of his post on the 
ground of extortion and negligence. "With 
the assembly of Barbados he carried on a 
long struggle, in the course of which Wil- 
loughby dissolved the assembly, arrested 
Samuel Farmer, its speaker, *a great Magna 
Oharta man/ and shipped hi home to be 
punished. Petitions against his conduct met 
with no countenance in England, Charles 
gave him his full confidence, and Clarendon's 
flteady support of his arbitrary acts was one of 
the charges against the chancellor at his im- 
peachment (ib. 1661-8,pp. 295, 309, 317, 339, 
364; CLAKEKDOff, Continuation, 1287- 
1308). On the other hand, by his persistent 
representations of the hardships which the 
Navigation Act inflicted upon Barbados, 
Willoughby succeeded in getting its non- 
observance connived at by the home govern- 
ment (Gal State Papers, Col. 1661-8, pp. 
167, 17, 234, 264). In spite of the limited 
means at fala disposal, he maintained and 
even attended British possessions in the 
contest with Holland and France. He 
occupied for a time both St, Lucia and To- 
bago, though neither could be permanently 
held, Barbados beat off an attack from 
DeBuyterwa. April 1665, but the English 
part ox St. Kitts fell into the hands of the 
Ecench in April 1666. Willoughby got to- 
gether a small expedition and started to re* 
take it, but was lost at sea on board the 
ship Hope about the end of July 1666 (ib 
16&L-8, pp. 410, 412, 414). 

Willoughby married, about 1628, Elim- 
Deth, third daughter and coheir of Edward 
lecil, viscount Wimbledon [q. v] She died 
n March 1661, and was buried at Knaith 

Lincolnshire (see A Saint 1 s Monument, 

., by WILLIAM FIBTH, chaplain to Lord 
Willoughby, 1662, 12mo). Of their two sons, 
Robert, the elder, died in February 1030, and 
William, the second, on 13 March 1661. Of 
their three daughters, Diana became the wife 
of Heneage Finch, second earl of Winchilsea 
[o^ v.l and died without issue ; Frances mar-' 
ned William, third lord Brereton, of Loudx- 
glinn,co. Roscommon; Elisabeth married Ki- 
chard Jones, first earl of Banelagh (COLLINS, 
Peerage, iii. 384, vi. 613 ; DALXOK, Life of Sir 
Edward Cecil, ii, 366). By his will, dated 
17 July 1666, Willoughby left the greater 
part of his property in the colonies to the two 
last-named daughters and their children. 

He was succeeded in the peerage by his 
brother, WILLIAM WILLOTJOEBY, sixth 
* My brother/ said the latter, * hath dealt un- 
kindly with me, but I forgive him ; he has 
done so by himself by giving large legacies 
out of little or nothing ; I shall only say he 
was honest and careless, for he hath left 
little behind him' (Cal State Papers, Col. 
1661-8, pp. 398, 466), On 3 Jan. 1667 Wil- 
loughby was on his own petition appointed 
to succeed his brother as governor of Bar- 
bados and the Caribbee Islands (ib* p. 437). 
He arrived there in April 1667, and by his 
firm and conciliatory conduct gained imme- 
diate popularity. Antigua and Montserrat 
were regained, the French expelled from 
Cayenne, and Surinam recaptured from the 
Dutch. In 1671 Willoughby, being in Eng- 
land, defeated an attempt to impose an addi- 
tional duty on sugar, which would have 
ruined Barbados, and he was praised by the 
representatives of the colony in London as 
' wonderfully affectionate and zealous in all 
their concerns/ He returned to Barbados 
in October 1672, despatched an expedition, 
which recaptured Tobago from the Dutch in 
December 1672, and died on 10 April 1673 
(ib. pp.437, 454, 619, 1669-74 pp, 213, 866, 
463, 493), Bjr his marriage with Anne, 
daughter of Sir Philip Gary of Hunslet in. 
Yorkshire, &e left a numerous family, of 
whom the eldest, George, became seventh 
Baron Willoughby, and John and Charles 
were the ninth and tenth holders of that 
title. Another son, Henry, was lieutenant- 
general under his uncle and his father in the 
West Indies, retook Surinam in October 
1667, was subsequently governor of Anti- 
gua, and died in December 1669 (ib. p. 204 ; 
COLLINS, Peerage, vi. 613). 




[Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges; Darnell 
Davis's Cavaliers and BoiindheadsofBarbadoes, 
Georgetown, British Guiana, 1887; Schom- 
burgk's History of Barbadoes, 1848, pp. 268- 
294 ; Calendars of Colonial State Papers ; Addit. 
MS. 11411, ff. 55-63.] C. E. F. 

HENRY (1574 P-159GP), the eponymous 
hero of the poem called ' Willobies Avisa/ 
was second son of Henry Willoughby, a 
country gentleman of Wiltshire, by Jane, 
daughter of one Dauntsey of Lavington, 
Wiltshire. A younger brother was named 
Thomas, The father's ^father, Christopher 
Willoughby, was illegitimate son of Sir 
William Willoughby, the brother of Sir 
Robert Willoughby, first baron Willoughby 
de Broke, [q, v.] (cf. HOABE, Modern Wilt- 
shire, i. i. 38-9). Henry matriculated as a 
commoner from St. John's College, Oxford, 
on 10 Dec. 1591, at the age of sixteen. Ac- 
cording to the report of a 'friend and cham- 
berfellow,' he was * a scholler of good hope/ 
He maybe the 'Henry Willoughbie' who 
graduated B.A, from Exeter College on 
28 Feb. 1594-5 (Oxford Univ. Rea. Oxf. 
Hist, Soc. II. ii. 187, iii. 189). Soonafter that 
date, ' being desirous to see the fashions of 
other countries for a time,' he * departed 
voluntarily to her maiestie's service ' ( Wilr 
lobies Avisa, ed, Q-rosart, p. 5), Before 
30 June 1596 he is reported to have died (ib* 
p. 149). 

On 3 Sept. 1594 there was licensed for the 
press * a bookentitledWilloby his Avisa^or the 
True Picture of a Modest Maid and of a Chaste 
and Constant Wife ' (ABBBR, Stationers' JK$- 
gister*, ii. 659), and shortly afterwards the 
work issued from the press of John Windet. 
In this volume, which mainly consists of 
seventy-two cantos in varying numbers of 
six-line stanzas (fantastically called by the 
author 'hexameters'), the chaste heroine, 
Avisa, holds converse in the opening sec- 
tions as a maid, and in the later sections as 
a wife with a series of passionate adorers. 
In every case she firmly repulses their ad- 
vances^ Midway through the book ' Henry 
Willobie J is introduced as an ardent admirer, 
in his own person, chiefly under the initials 
' H. W/ It is explained in a prose interpola- 
tion that Willobie has sought the advice of 
a friend, i W. S./ who had lately gone through 
the experience of a severe rebuff at the hands 
of a disdainful mistress. After ' W.S/ light- 
heartedly offers some tantalising advice in 
verse, 'H.W./ in the twenty-nine cantos 
which form the last portion of the volume, 
is made to rehearse his woes and A visa's ob- 

Two prefaces, one addressed to 'all the 

constant ladies and gentlewomen of Eng- 
land that feare God/ and the other to * the 
gentle and courteous reader,' are both signed 
' Hadrian Dorrell/ The second is dated trom 
DorrelTs < chamber in Oxford this first of Octo- 
ber/ Dorrell takes responsibility for the 
publication, stating that he found the manu- 
script in his friend Willobie's rooms while 
he was absent from the country. Dorrell 
says that he christened the work ' Willobie 
his Avisa ' because he supposed it was Willo- 
bie's ' doing and being written with his own 
hand/ He explains that the name * Avisa ' 
was derived from the initial letters of the 
words f amans vxor inviolata semper amandaf 
and that there was 'something of truth 
hidden under this shadow,' 

In 1696 Peter Colse produced a poem on 
the same model as ' Willobies Avisa,' which 
he called 'Penelopes Complaint/ Golse de- 
clares that ' seeing an unknowns author 
hath of late published a pamphlet called 
Avisa ' concerning the chastity of a lady of 
no historical repute, lie deemed it fitting to 
treat of the chastity of Penelope. Oolse 
speaks approvingly of the unknown, author's 
style and verse, which he closely imitates. 

To Colse's effort ' Hadrian Borrell ' at once 
replied in 1590 in a new edition of ' Avisa, 1 
to which he prefixed an ' Apologia shewing 
the true meaning of " Willobie his Avisa/'' 
This was dated from Oxford 'this 30 of June 
1596/ Dorrell, in contradiction to his former 
statement, declares that the whole of Avisa* 
was a poetical fiction which was written 
'thirty-five years since, and long lay among 
the waste papers in the author's study, 
with many other pretty things of his devis- 
ing/ including- a stul unpublished work called 
' Susanna/ The name ' Avisa ' he now aiHrnm 
either means that the woman described had 
never been seen, * # ' being the Greek priva- 
tive particle, and *wsa' the Latin participle; 
or was an irregular derivative from avu t a 
bird. At the close of the ' Apologio ' ho 
remarks that Willobie is lately dead, 

Dorrell's general tone suggests that hia 
two accounts of the origin and intention of 
the book are fictitious, while the conflict be- 
tween his statements respecting the author 
renders it unlikely that either is wholly true* 
But that Dorrell had ground for He claim 
of intimacy with Henry Willoby, the Oxford 
student, seems supported by the fact that he 
adds to this edition of 1596 a poem in the 
same metre as 'Avisa,' headed * The Victoria 
of English Chastitie under the fainted name 
of Avisa/ and signed ' Thomas Willoby frate* 
Henrici Willoby nuper defuncti/ The Os- 
ford student Henry Willoby undoubtedly had 
a brother named Thomas. The name of 



Hadrian Dorrell was apparently assumed. No 
Oxford student "bearing that appellation is 
known to the university registers. It is pro- 
bable that ' Hadrian Dorrell ' was sole author 
of A visa/ and that he named his work after 
his friend Henry Willoby, in the same man- 
ner as Nicolas Breton named a poem, 'The 
Countess of Pembrokes Passion/ 'after the 
patroness in whose honour and for whose 
delectation it was written. 

The chief interest of the poem lies in its ap- 
parent bearings on Shakespeare's biography. 
In prefatory -verses in six-line stanzas, which 
are signed l Contraria Oontrariis : Yigilan- 
tius: Dormitanus/ direct mention is made of 
Shakespeare's poem of l Lucrece,' which was 
licensed for the press on 9 May 1594, only 
four months before 'Avisa/ This is the 
earliest open reference made in print by a 
contemporary author to Shakespeare's name. 
The notice of Shakespeare lends substance 
to the theory that the alleged friend of Wil- 
loby, who is known in the poem under the 
initials ' W.S./ may be the dramatist himself. 

* W.S.' is spoken of as * the old player.' If 
this identity be admitted, there is a likeli- 
hood that tne troubled amour from which 

* W.S.' is said in the poem to have recently 
recovered is identical with the intrigue that 
forms one of the topics of Shakespeare's son- 
nets. The frivolous tone in winch 4 W.S.' 
is made in 'Avisa' to refer to his recent 
amorous adventure suggests, moreover, that 
the professed tone of pain which characterises 
the poet's addresses to a disdainful mistress 
in his sonnets is not to be interpreted quite 

'Willobies Avisa' Droved popular, and 
rapidly went through six editions, but very- 
few copies survive. Of the first edition, 
published in 1594, two perfect copies are 
known one in the British Museum, and the 
other in Mr. Christie Miller's library at 
Britwell ; a slightly imperfect copy is in the 
Huth Library. No copy is now known either 
of the edition of 1596, containing for the 
first time Dorrell's ' Apologie ' and Thomas 
Willoby's contribution, or of a third edition 
published after 1596 and before 1605. A 
fourth edition ('the fourth time corrected 
and augmented') was issued by Windet, the 
original printer and publisher, in 1605; & 
unique copy is at Britwell. Bagford, Ben 
jamin Furley, and other collectors noted an 
edition of 1(309, which was probably a ' re- 
mainder ' issue of the fourth edition. The 
work was reprinted in 1685 by William 
Stansby,andwas described on the title-pag 
as ' the fifth time corrected and augmented ; 
a copy, said to be unique, is in the Britis' 
Museum. Dr. Grosart reprinted privately in 

880 the first edition, with extracts from the 
dditions first published in 1596, although 
now only accessible in the editions of 1609 
and 1635. The portion supposed to refer to 
Shakespeare was reprinted in 'Shakspore 
Allusion Books ' (pt. i. ed. C. M. Ingleby, 
New Shakspere Society, 1864, pp. 69 et seq.) 

[Grosartfs reprint of "Willobie his Avisa, 
880 ; Sidney Lee's Lifo of Shakespeare, 1898.] 

S. L. 

ea-captain, was the grandson of Sir Hugh 
Willoughby of Wollaton, Nottinghamshire, 
and youngest son of Sir Henry Willoughby 
of IVtiddleton, who was made a knight-ban* 
neret at the battle of Stoke in 1487, and 
died in 1528* He served in the expedition 
to Scotland in 1544, and was knighted by 
the Earl of Hertford (afterwards Duke of 
Somerset) at Leith on 11 May. He after- 
wards had a commission on the border, and 
was captain of Lowther Castle in 1548-9 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. Addenda, 1547- 
1565, p. 402), but the downfall of Somerset 
materially altered his position, and the friend- 
ship of some persons connected with the navy 
is said to have turned his thoughts towards 
the sea. It would seem that Sebastian Cabot 
was one of these. It may be, too, that he 
was known as a capable commander, and at 
that time rank and authority were more con- 
sidered than seamanship and navigation, 
He was appointed captain of the ship Bona 
Esperanza and captain-general of the fleet 
for the intended voyage to Cathay j Richard 
Chancellor [q. v.] was captain of the Edward 
Bonaventure and pilot-general of the fleet ; 
and with him, as master of the Edward 
Bonaventure, was Stephen Borough [q. vj, 
who was accompanied by his younger bro- 
ther, William Borough fa, v.l There was 
a third ship, the Bona Uonfidentia (cf. ib, 
p. 432). The object of the voyage, as laid 
down by Cabot in the instructions dated 
9 May 1558, was to search for a north-* 
eastern passage to Cathay and India, and on 
the next day the ships left -Ratcltfte, They 
dropped down the river by easy stages, wet 
detained for several weeks off Harwich, arxd 
did not finally get away till 23 June* On 
27 July they anchored at one of the Lofodeu 
Isles, and remained there three days, On. 
2 Aug., in latitude 70, a boat came oif from 
the shore and promised to get them a pilot for 
Vardohuus, apparently the only place they 
knew by name. But the wind blew them 
off the shore and freshened into a violent 
gale, in which the ships were separated. The 
Esperanza and Conndentia met. again the 
next day, but they saw nothing more of the 




Edward, which, as we now know, got into 
the White Sea and to St. Nicholas. 

On 14 Aug. the ships discovered land, ap- 
parently uninhabited, in latitude 72, but 
were unable to reach it by reason of the 
shoal water and the ice. From this position 
they ran seventy leagues S.S.E., then steered 
N.W. by W. for a day, then for two days 
W.S.W., and on the 23rd they saw land, 
trending W.'S.W. and E.N.E. ; then, before 
a. strong westerly gale, they ran to the 
N. by E. thirty leagues. It is well to note 
these positions and courses, as they show 
more clearly than is otherwise possible the 
extreme ignorance of all the responsible 
officers, Chancellor and Borough being ab- 
sent, not only of the pilotage but of the 
most simple navigation. If the latitude 72 
is to be accepted as anything like correct, 
they had been blown over to the coast of 
Novaya Zemlya, but the courses sailed after- 
wards are incomprehensible. On 14 Sept. 
they again found themselves in with the 
land, rocky and high, where were good har- 
bours. For the next three days they ex- 
amined the coast, and on the 18th went 
into one of the harbours, afterwards known 
as Arzina, near to Kegor, where Norwe- 
gian Lapland marches with Russian. It 
was described as running * into the mainland 
about two leagues, and in breadth half a 
league ; wherein were very many seal fishes 
and other great fishes ; and upon the main 
we saw bears, great deer, foxes, with divers 
strange beasts , . . to us unknown and also 
wonderful/ Here, considering the lateness 
of the season and the badness of the weather, 
they resolved to winter. But for wintering 
in an arctic climate they had no provision. 
The country was entirely desolate and unin- 
habited, and Willoughby and his companions 
perished miserably. When, some few years 
afterwards, the ships and bodies were found, 
there were found also Willoughby's journal 
and will, by which it appeared that he and 
most of the party were still alive in January 
1554. The journal is printed in Hakluytfs 
< Principal Navigations' (i. 232-7), and a 
manuscript copy of it is in the Cottonian 
manuscripts (Otho E.yiii. 10), but the original 
has disappeared. Neither it nor the will can 
now be traced ; nor is anything clearly known 
of their discovery or of their being brought 
to England. All that can be said is that the 
commonly received stories (Fox BOTJKNTB, 
English Seamen^ i. 99) are directly contra- 
dicted by positive evidence (HAKWJTX, i, 
288, 294, 297) that nothing certain was 
known in the summer of 1557. 

By his will (Porch, 34), proved 1 July 
1528, Sir Henry left to Hugh all my lands 

and tenements in Mapurley in the county 
of Derby, Brokistow, and Basseford in Not- 
tinghamshire, and a parcel of land at Wal- 
sall in Staffordshire ; ' and further directs, 
as to certain sums due to him, * that iny sou 
John shall receive the same, to the uso to 
purchase or buy a marriage for my son Hugh, 
if the same Hugh will bo guided and ordered 
by my said son Sir John Willoughby ; or 
else the same sums of money to bo disposed 
for the wealth of my soul.' Of the marriage 
so bought there does not aoom to bo any 
direct record ; but in tho will of Sir John 
(Populwell, 22), proved 22 Jan. 1548-9, 
mention is made of ' my niece ItoHe, daughter 
of my brother Hugh,* as well ua a logacy of 
61. IBs. &d. yearly ' to my brother, Sir Hugh.' 
In the Wollaton accounts them is H!RO nmn- 
tion of 20/f. a year paid out of the Wollaton 
property to Henry, son of Sir Hugh (Coi> 
VILH, p. 813). 

A portrait, full length, prosorvod at Wolla- 
ton, was but by Lord Middltiton to the 
Tudor Exhibition of 1890 aud to tho Naval 
Exhibition of 1891. 

[Hakluyb's Principal Navigation, i. 226-87 ; 
Thoroton'ia Hiafc, of NottinglmuiBhirA, 1797 
209 ; Colvilo's Warwickshire Worthies, p. #13 ; 
Brown's Worthies of Nottrnghanwhiro, p* 118; 
Beas!loy'$ John and Sebastian Onbot, 1808, pp. 
182, 186, 195; information from LiuJy Middle- 
ton.] J, K. &, 


(1777-1849), rear-admiral, descended from 
a younger branch of the Wollaton family, 
and son of Bobert Willoughby of Gossan, 
Nottinghamshire, by his second wifo, Bar- 
bara, daughter of James Brucjfl of Kinloch, 
was bom on, 29 Aug. 1777, Ilia Christian 
names suggest some connection with tho 
family of Lady Nelson's first husband [soa 
NELSON], but there does not appoar to bo 
any record of it- lie entered tho navy in 
May 1790 on board the Latona, with Oap- 
tain (Sir) Albemarle Bertie ; he was aftflp- 
wards in the Edgar and other ships on the 
home station, and in January 1798 went 
out to the coast of Africa in the Orpheus 
frigate, which, after a successful crime 
against the French trade, was sent round to 
the East India station, whore she captured 
the French frigate Duguay-Trouin on 5 May 
1794. At the reduction of Malacca in 
August 1796 Willoughby had command of 
a boat, and in February-March 1796 waa 
present at the occupation of Amboyna. and 
Banda (JAMBS, i. 414-46), from which even 
a midshipman's share of the prize-money 
must have been considerable, lie was after- 
wards in the Heroine and m the Suffolk, 



flagship of Rear-admiral Peter Rainier [q.v.l, 
by whom he was promoted, on 13 Jan. 1798, 
to be lieutenant of the Victorious of 74 guns, 
then commanded by Captain William Clark. 
On 30 June Clark suspended him from duty 
and placed him under arrest for disrespect- 
ful behaviour. Afterwards he remitted the 
punishment and ordered him to return to 
his duty. This Willoughby declined to do 
withput an acknowledgment that the arrest 
was unjust; and as Clark refused this, he 
applied for a court-martial. It was nearly 
twelve months before a court could be as- 
sembled, and Willoughby was then con- 
victed of having ' behaved to Captain Clark 
in. a contemptuous and disrespectful manner; ' 
but, in consideration of his long confinement, 
onlv^ sentenced 'to be dismissed his ship/ 
Bainier, thinking probably that twelve 
months 7 confinement in the tropics had fully 
punished him, appointed him the next day, 
14 June 1799, to command the Arnboyna 
brig ; but the imprisonment had told severely 
on Willoughby's health, and he was obliged 
to invalid, taking apassagein the Sceptre for 
the Cape of G-ood Hope. On the way thither 
he piloted the ship's boat through a reef of 
rocks at Rodriguez, and captured a French 
privateer brig which had sought safety 
within it. On 5 Nov. the Sceptre was 
blown from her anchor and driven on shore 
in Table Bay, with the loss of her captain 
and a great part of her crew. Willought 
with many of the officers, was at a ball < 
shore, and so escaped. 

In August 1800 he was appointed to the 
Russell, one of the fleet which went to the 
Baltic in the following spring, and of the 
squadron which, under the command of 
Ifelson, fought the battle of Copenhagen on 
2 April. In this, WiHoughb/s conduct in 
boarding under a heavy fire and taking pos- 
session of the Danish ship Provesteen was 
highly commended ; and as he returned to 
his ship on the next day he was loudly 
cheered by his shipmates, on the order of 
the captain. But the captain was not a 
pleasant man to work with, and Willoughby 
repaid his overbearing conduct with studied 
insolence. Each applied for a court-martial 
on the other. The captain was, tried for 
tyranny and oppression on 22 June, and 
was, notwithstanding the evidence, ac- 
quitted, the charges being pronounced 'fri- 
volous, scandalous, malicious, and totally 
unfounded, tending to lessen the dignity 
and to subvert the good order and discipline 
. of his majesty's naval service.' The next day 
Wlloughby in turn was tried * for treating 
his captain with insolencie and contempt/ 
and, as this was proved by the evidence, he 

was dismissed the service ; his previous trial 
For a similar offence and the judgment of 
the court on the previous day certainly tell- 
ing against him (Courts Martial, vol. xcvi.) 

On the renewal of the war in 1803 Sir 
John Thomas Duckworth [q. v.], then going 
out to the West Indies as commander-in- 
chief, ^ received Willoughby on board his 

gship as a volunteer ; and on his report 
the sentence was remitted and Willoughby 
repromoted to be lieutenant on 26 Oct. 1803. 
In November Duckworth's flagship, the 
Hercule, to which Willoughby belonged, 
was sent to join the squadron under Com- 
modore Loring, then blockading Cape Fran- 
$ais, in co-operation with ^the revolted 
negroes under Q-eneral Dessalines, By the 
end of the month the garrison had concluded 
a treaty with Dessalines, by which they 
were to embark on board their ships in the 
port and put to sea on or before the 30th. 
But as Loring would not accept anything 
but absolute surrender, and they could not 
elude his vigilance, they were obliged to 
capitulate. The ships were to como out of 
the harbour with their colours flying, fire a 
complimentary broadside, and strike thoir 
flags. M. Montalan, commanding tho French 
frigate Clprinde, is described as refusing to 
accept this convention, and attempting to 
escape (TKOTTBE, iii. 300). In doing this 
his ship took the ground under the negro 
batteries, t which were preparing to set her 
on fire with red-hot shot, or, as an alterna- 
tive, put to death every soul that landed 
from ner. Willoughby, who was in com- 
mand of the Hercule's launchone of the 
boats which had been towing the other ships 
out of the mole seeing the Clorinde's im- 
minent danger, went on board her, persuaded 
Montalan and the officer commanding the 
troops to surrender at once, hoisted the 
English flag, and eventually succeeded in 
bringing the ship off, to be added to the 
English navy. The preservation of nine 
hundred lives was thus owing, Duckworth 
wrote, to Willoughby's uncommon exertions 
and professional ability (JAMBS, iii. 206 ; of* 
thinks that it was for his conduct on this 
occasion that Willoughby was restored to 
his rank ; but if so, the commission would 
have been dated 30 Nov, ; it was, in fact, 
more than a month earlier, though he had 
not yet had the news of it. 

In the operations against Curacoa, in 
February 1804, Willoughby was in com- 
mand of an advanced battery, exposed to 
the frequent assaults of vastly superior 
numbers, in repelling which and by sickness 
his little force was almost exterminated* 




Willoughby distinguished himself through- 
out by his daring and the reckless exposure 
of himself; frequently, it was said, taking 
his meals sitting in a chair upon the ram- 
parts or breastwork of the battery ( JAMES, 
iii. 295). "Willoughby seems to have denied 
the chair, and to have maintained that in 
the circumstances the example was neces- 
sary. This was perhaps an afterthought, for 
during the whole 01 his service danger, 
whether from storm, the sea, or the enemy, 
seems by itself to have been sufficient lure ; 
but the instances of this are far too nume- 
rous to be even named here. In February 
1805 Duckworth hoisted his flag in the 
Acasta frigate and appointed Willoughby 
her first lieutenant, intending to promote 
him on his arrival in England. The circum- 
stances of his quarrel with Captain (Sir 
James Athol) Wood [q. v.] and the coxirt- 
martial arising out of them prevented this ; 
and Willoughby was appointed to the Prince 
on 8 July 1805, but was not able to join 
her till 8 Nov., eighteen days after the battle 
of Trafalgar. 

Willoughby was afterwards in the For- 
midable, and in 1807 was in the Boyal 
George, Duckworth's flagship, on the occa- 
sion of his forcing the passage of the Dar- 
danelles ; on 14 Feb., when the Ajax was 
destroyed by fire [see Bi^OicwooD, SIB 
HBSTBY], he, in the Royal George's cutter, 
was one of the first to go to her assistance, 
and succeeded in saving many lives, but at 
the greatest personal risk. In July 1807 
he was discharged to the Otter sloop for a 
passage to Monte Yideo and the Cape of 
Good Hope, where he was promoted to the 
command of the Otter on 10 Jan. 1808, 
though the commission was not confirmed 
by the admiralty till 9 April. The Otter 
was then sent tor a cruise off Mauritius 
and to Bombay under the orders of Cap- 
tain .Robert Corbet [q. v.] of the N6r6ide ; 
and on her return to Cape Town in the 
following January, Willoughby was broughl 
before a court-martial on charges of ' cruelty 
and unoificer-like conduct' preferred againsi 
him in a letter to the admiral, signed ' The 
ship Otter's company, one and all/ It ap- 
peared from the evidence that there hac 
been a great deal of flogging and starting 
promiscuous beating with a stick or rope's- 
end and that it had been commonly accom- 
panied by violent threats j that Willoughby 
had said that ' it was as much pleasure to 
him to punish a man when he comes to the 
gangway as it was to go to his breakfast, 
and that i he would flog like hell and start 
like hell/ The trial lasted over five days 
9-14 Feb., and in the end Willoughby wa 

cquitted, but was recommended 'to adopt 
more moderate language on future occa* 
ions ' ( Courts Martial, vol. cxxv.) In view 
jf the evidence, the acquittal appears strange, 
or the punishments had certainly been ex- 
cessive and irregular; still more open to 
censure seems the fact that one of the cap- 
;ains sitting on this court was Corbet, who, 
on the days immediately preceding, had boon 
iried for a similar offence, and had been simi- 
arly acquitted with a slight reprimand. 

After refitting, the Otter was again sent 
off Mauritius, and on 14 Aug. Willoughby, 
n the sloop's boats, brought out a vessel 
jtrongly anchored under the batteries of the 
Black river. On 21 Sept. he commanded 
ihe seamen who were put on shore at 

3t. Paul's with the troops, and had an 
important share in the happy success of the 
operation [see ROWLEY, SIB JOBIAB], For 
ais exertions at this time the Commander- 
in-chief at the Capo, his old patron Alba- 
marie Bertie, promoted him to command 
the N6r6ide frigate; but Ins commission as 
post-captain was not confirmed till nearly a 
year later (5 Sept. 1810), and them for 
another piece of service the landing with 
a party of a hundred men ou the night of 
80 April, destroying two Frtmeh battorins 
at Jacotel, and utterly routing a atrtmff 
body of militia, Willoughby himnolf leading 
the onslaught in full-dress uniform. A few 
weeks after this (15 June) he narrowly 
escaped being killed by the accidental burst- 
ing of a musket Urea in exorcise. As it 
was, his right lower jaw was shattered, and 
his neck so lacerated that the windpipe was 
laid bare* For nearly three weeks m lay 
between Hfe and death, but on 7 July he 
took part in the capture of Bourbon, and, 
with his face and neck still bound up, 
superintended the landing of the troops* 

In August 1810 he was with Captain (8ir 
Samuel) Pym [q. v,] at the seizure of tha 
Isle de la Passe on the 18th, and was left 
there when Pym went round to Port. Louis, 
On the 20th the French sq uadron came w 
sight four large ships and a sloop ; and 
though two of the former proved to DO East 
Indiamen prizes, the other two were 40*gun 
frigates, which, by going round to Port Louis 
to join tho French ships there, would have 
plaeedPym in a position of very great danger, 
with equal good judgment and boldness 
Willoughby, by hoisting French flags and 
signals, decoyed the enemy into the passage j 
wnen they found out their mistake they 
were no longer able to turn, and were obliged 
to go into the Grand Port, after a sharp 
interchange of broadsides with the N4r6ida. 
At the very first Willoughby had sent oft' 



the news to Pym, who joined him on the 
' 22nd -with three powerful frigates ; the force 
was overwhelmingly superior to the French, 
and Pym resolved to go into the port and 
take or destroy them. IJut as he attempted 
to do so on the 23rd two of his ships ran 
aground and could not be moved j a third, 
going on the wrong side of a shoal, was 
unable to get close enough in ; the Ne"r6ide 
alone succeeded in reaching her allotted 
station, and found herself the target for the 
whole French force. After one of the most 
obstinate defences on record, being reduced 
to a shattered wreck and having lost 222 
men killed or wounded out of a total of 
281, she struck her colours on the morning 
of the 24th. The terrible loss of men was 
partly explained by the fact that the upper 
works of the ship a French prize were 
lined with fir, which, on being broken through 
by cannon shot, gave off showers of dangerous 
splinters. At the very beginning of the 
action one of these struck Willoughby on 
the left cheek and tore the eye completely 
out of the socket. The first lieutenant was 
killed; the second lieutenant dangerously 
wounded; the lieutenant of marines was 
also wounded j two lieutenants of soldiers 
were killed. When, after the capture of 
the Isle of France in December, Willoughby 
recovered his liberty and was tried for the 
loss of the N6r6ide, the court declared that 
the ship had been ' carried into battle in a 
most judicious, officer-like, and gallant man- 
ner/ and formally expressed ' its high admira- 
tion of the noble conduct of the captain, 
officers, and ship's company during the whole 
of the unequal contest.' The sentence, con- 
cluding with a ' most honourable ' acquittal, 
has been correctly described as i unprece- 

On Ms return to England Willoughby 
was surveyed by a medical board, and on 
their report was awarded (4 Oct, 1811) a 
pension of 300 per annum, which was 
afterwards (1 July 1815) increased to 660/ 
Meantime, m 1812, having no immediate 
prospect of employment, he obtained leave 
to go abroad, and went to the Baltic, where 
he offered Ms services as a volunteer to Sir 
Thomas Byam Martin [q. v.], then com- 
maading in the Gulf of Riga. Learning 
however, from Martin that there was no 
immediate prospect of any active operations 
he went on to St. Petersburg, where hi 
offer to serve with the Russian army was 
accepted. He was then sent to Biga, from 
which, on 26 Sept., he accompanied Court 
Steinheil, who, with a force of fifteen thou 
sand men, was marching to join Wittgenstein 
at Polotzk Before this could be effecte 

teinheil was surprised by a very inferior 
Crouch detachment, and utterly routed with. 
be loss of some two thousand men killed or 
aken prisoners, A mong these latter was Wil- 
oughby, who had put a wounded Kussian 
n his own horso, and was himself loading 
; when he fell into tho Lancia of a party of 
French hussars, A Dutch oillcor in tho 
French service bofrinndod him awl supplied 
lim with money, so that he was abfo to 
make tho terrible retreat from Russia with 
omparative comfort. Even BO, however, 
he hardships he underwent told severely on 
i constitution already tried by wounds and 
a tropical climate, and at KomtfBbm'g ho was 
eized wit.h a fever which confined him to 
jed for seven weeks. Special representations 
lad been made on hin behalf by order of 
,he czar, but Napoleon reluaod to exchange 
lim, and on his return to Franco ordered 
lim to be confined au *6crct in tho Oh&teau 
de Bouillon. Her he remained for nine 
months, till, on the advance of the allies, 
he waft moved to Pennine, whence he 
managed to escape. 

On 4 Jan. 1815 Willoughby was nomi- 
nated a 0,B. ; from 1818 to 1823* he com- 
manded the Tribune frigato on the coast of 
Creland and in tho Wont Indiow ; on 80 June 
1827 he was knighted at the instance of ^ the 
Duke of Clarence, them lord high admiral, 
and again, by a curious blunder of tho 
king's, on 21 Aug, 18tt2, when he was in- 

iri ^j-i ji * * & tf f*\ t"i *.** 

vested with the insignia of a JECOJl.j on 
14 Jan. 1839 he was awarded a good-service 
pension, and on 30 Nov* 1841 was appointed 
a naval aide-de-camp to the queen* He 
was promoted to be rear-admiral on 28 April 
1847, and died, unmarried, at his house in 
Montagu Street, Portman Beware, after a 
fortnight's suffering} on 19 May 1849, It 
is said that by the seamen of his day he 
was known as * the immortal* 

A portrait of "Willoughby is at Wollaton, 
the property of Lord Middlaton, by whom 
it was lent to the Naval Exhibition of 1891. 

[The Memoir in Mawihall'fl Boy. Nav. Biogr, 
vi. (euppl. ptu.) Ill is unusually long (eighty- 
four pages), written apparently from notes sup- 
plied by Willoughby himself; that in O 1 Byrne'* 
Nav. Biogr, Diet, is merely an abstract of Mar- 
shall's. See also Gent Hag, 1849, iu 648; 
James's Naval Hist, (1801 edit., in vol. vi, is 
an engraving of theWollaton portrait); Troude's 
Batailles Na vales de la France ; official docu- 
ments in the Public Becord Office, more espe- 
cially the Minutes of Court* Martial! 

J. JL L, 

1362), judge, was the son of a Bichard de 
Willoughby who acted as justice in eyre 



under Edward II, and purchased the manors 
of Wollaton in Nottinghamshire and Eisley 
in Derbyshire. The original name of the 
family was Bugge, They took the name of 
Willoughby from their lordship of that name 
in Nottinghamshire. In 1324 the younger 
Richard was substituted for his father as 
knight of the shire for that county, and was 
about the same time appointed chief justice 
of the common pleas in Ireland (Parl. Writs, 
i. 306, 312, 314 ; Cal. Hot. Pat. pp. 78, 94, ' 
&7). He is mentioned as one of the justices 
appointed for the trial of the persons who 
had spoiled Henry le Despenser's lands in 
1322 (Parl. Writs, ii. 189). On the acces- 
sion of Edward III he was removed from 
his office and appears in the year-book of 
the first year of that reign as an advocate. 
On 6 March 1328 he was made a justice 
of the common pleas, and on 2 Sept. 1329 
became second justice. On 15 Dec. 1380 
he was removed into the court of king's 
bench; and when Geoffrey le Scrope [q.v.], 
the chief justice, went abroad with the king, 
Willoughby occupied the chief seat during 
his absence, at different times from 1832, 
till Geoffrey le Scrope ultimately resigned in 
the middle of 1338, From this time he 
presided in the court until he was displaced 
on 24 July 1340 (Foss). 

In 1331 he was captured journeying 
towards Grantham by a certain Bichard de 
Folville, and compelled to pay a ransom of 
ninety marks (KaaaHOOT, i. 460). ,In No- 
vember 1340 he was arrested by order of 
the king, and imprisoned in. Oorfe Castle 
(French Chronwk of London, p, 84), He 
was tried on several charges at Westminster 
on 13 Jan, (ib. p. 87). tfut he was restored 
to office as one of the justices of the com- 
mon pleas on 9 Oct. following, and continued 
to hold the office of judge till 1857, but pro- 
bably retired in that year (DTJG-DALB, Origins 
Jurididales, $.&). He died in 1802. His 
extensive estates were situated in the coun- 
ties of Nottingham, Derby, and Lincoln, but 
he also had a house in London in t le Baly ' 
(Cal Ing, post mortem, ii. 256). He married, 
first, Isabel, daughter of Sir Eoger Mortein; 
secondly, Joanna,- and thirdly, Isabella, and 
had several children. Later members of the 
family were Sir Hugh Willoughby fa. v,l, 
Sir Nesbit Josiah W illoughby Jq. v.J, and 
Francis Willughby, the naturalist [q. v,] 

[Toss's Judges of England, and authorities 
cited in text] W. E. B, 

BiBoar WiiLOtro-HBY DB B*to:o (1452-1502), 
born in 1452, was son and heir of Sir Johr 
Willoughby, and great-great-grancUon 

Robert, fourth baron Willoughby de Ereeby 
(d, 1396). His father was probably tho John 
Willoughby who was sheriff of Somerset in 
1455. The ancestral seat was at Glutton hi 
that county, where Sir Robert afterwards 
acquired other estates. His mother wa 
Anne, daughter and coheir of Sir Edmund 
Cheney or Oheyne of Broke, Wiltshire, and 
Up-Qttery, Devonshire. In or before 1 475 lie 
married Blanche, daughter and coheir of &ir 
John Ohampornpwne of Beer terrors, Devon- 
shire, and Oallington, Cornwall Through 
her he became possessed of tho Beer Ifyrrora 
estate. His mother died in or before 1479, 
in which year he was found to bo cousin ana 
coheir, in her right, of Humphrey Sfcaflbrd, 
earl of Devon [q. v] His motto's family 
were strong Lancastrians, and Willoughby 
joined them as one of the loaders in the 
abortive rising of Henry Stafford, Hecond 
dulce of Buckingham [q. v.], in October 
1 488, After the dispersion of the insurants 
Willoughby, with thrco of tho OlunwyH, 
escaped to Brittany (Pofcyixwfl V*Mein,, 
p. 700"), whcro they joined 1 1 miry Tudor, 
earl 01 Itichmoud (Henry VII). An act 
of attainder was immediately paHBod, in 
which Willoughby is described as ' lato of 
Byerferrya, knight' (Hot. Parl. vi. 240). 
Probably under a grant following on this 
act, Humphrey Stafford of Grafton seised 
Willoughby's estates [flee under 

Willoughby doubtless returned with Bich- 
mend whoa he landed at Milford on 7 Aug. 
1485. He is mentioned by the ^Groyland 
Oontinuator J (p. 574) amonff the fourteen 
leading generals of ItichmondPs army at Bos- 
worth. Immediately after the victory Henry 
detached him from the main army to marcn 
from Leicester to Sheriff Hutton in York- 
shire, and sefoe the person of Edward, earl 
of Warwick, son of GTeorge, duke of Clarence, 
and nejphew of Edward IV, and his cousin, 
the Princess Elisabeth, who had both been 
imprisoned there by Eichard III, Sheriff 
Hutton apparently surrendered without re- 
sistance, and Willoughby marchod with 
Warwick to London 

p. 718). 

On 24 Sept. in the same year Willoughby 
was granted the receivership of the duchy 
of Cornwall and the office of steward of all 
manner of mines in Devonshire and Corn- 
wall in which there was any proportion of 
gold or silver, He was appointed high 
steward of the household preparatory to 
Henry VIFs ^ coronation on 50 Oct. (Q*.m* 
BELL, Mat. ii, 3, &c.) Parliament met on 
7 Nov, 1486, and at once repealed B,i* 
chard Ill's act of attainder against Wil* 



loughby and other Lancastrians (Rot. Parl. 
vi. 278), Humphrey Stafford was attainted, 
but his lands were exempted from forfeiture 
to the crown, and Willoughby, who appears 
to have seized them on his march to Sheriff- 
Hutton, retained them in peaceful posses- 

Willoughby is first styled 'knight for the 
king's body' in a grant dated 26 Dec. 1486 
(CAMPBELL, Mat. i. 222, 442). He was 
also granted on 20 June 1486 the manor of 
Gary, and lands in Stokegolamptpn and 
Bruton Weyokale, Somerset, forfeited by 
John, lord Zouche. In this grant he is 
styled for the first time a king s councillor 
(CAMPBELL, Mat. i. 467; see POLYDORE 
VEE&IL, p, 719). It was perhaps with the 
hope that the new king's favourite would 
exert his influence to maintain her in her 
estates that Cecilia, duchess of York, mother 
of Richard III, soon after the battle of Bos- 
worth, granted to Willoughby by letters 
patent, dated 1 Oct. 1485, the offices of 
keeper of the great park of Fasterne and of 
lieutenant of the forest of Bradon, Wiltshire, 
and steward of all her possessions in that 
county (CAMPBELL, Mat. i. 468). Of these 
grants he was fortunate enough to obtain a 
confirmation on 20 June 1486 by Henry VII 
($.) On 7 Feb. 1487 he was appointed a 
commissioner of assize for Devonshire and 
Cornwall (tf>. ii. 117), being sheriff of Devon- 
shire for 1487-8 (RISDON, Survey, App. p. 3 ; 
CAMPBELL, Mat. ii. 461). After the reversal 
of his attainder Willoughby seems to have 
made his mother's seat of Broke, near West- 
bury, Wiltshire, his residence. He is for the 
first time described as Robert Willoughby 
de Brooke (sic) in commissions issued on 
23 Dec. 1488. 

At the same time Willoughby was ap- 
pointed a commissioner of musters of archers 
in the counties of Somerset, Dorset, Wilts, 
Devon, and Cornwall, for the proposed ex- 
pedition for the defence of Brittany (ib. pp. 
385, 386 j cf. ib. p. 417). On 1 March 1489 
he was appointed, jointly with Sir John 
Cheyne, to lead the expedition (ib. p. 419 j cf, 
fasten Letters, iii. 350). The army consisted 
of eight thousand men, and was destined 
to avenge the destruction of Edward, lord 
Woodville, and the English auxiliaries of the 
Bretons at the battle of St. Aubin-du-Cor- 
mier on 28 July 1488. A' number of inde- 
cisive actions followed, and, after a five 
months' fruitless campaign, theforce returned 
to England in the winter of 1489 (HALL, 

Chron. p. 442). Henry next tried negotia- 
tions, his object "being to prevent the mar- 
riage of Anne, duchess of Brittany, with 
Charles VIII. He despatched WiUoughby 

as his envoy to Brittany. Willoughby's in- 
structions were to promise aid against the 
French if the duchess would refuse the 
French king's proposals* Willoughby was 
at the same time (16 July 1490) appointed 
admiral of the fleet (RxiOR, Jfe^m, xii, 
455), and left England on 18 Aug. (MA- 
OH ADO, Journal, p. 212), at the head of a 
thousand arcliors, whom ho threw into the 
town of Morlaix. On 21 Sept* he had audi- 
ence of the duchess at Kennes (ib. p. 220). 
Thefruitleasneas of Ida diplomacy was proved 
by the marriage of the duchess to Charles VIII 
on the following 6 Doc., and the incorpora- 
tion of Brittany with Franco. 

As a reward for his services Willoughby 
was summoned to parliament by writ dated 
12 Aug. 6 Henry Vll (1491); (see 'Crea- 
tions/ 1483-1640 in Dap.-jffiwpr Public 
Records, App. 47th Hop. ; other authorities 
give 12 Aug. 1492). The defeat of Henry's 
diplomacy and his engagements -with tne 
Emperor Maximilian, to whom Anne had 
been betrothed, impelled htm to an invasion 
of France. Willoughby was relieved of 
actual command of the iloet, though retained 
in his office as admiral and nominated mar- 
shal of the army* The campaign was 
short. An unsuccessful siege was laid to 
Boulogne, and on 3 Nov. a treaty of peace 
was signed at Etaples, a formal request to 
that efect having ooen made to Henry by 
the military commanders (1 Nov. 1492, w. 
p. 490). On the following 18 Feb. Wil- 
loughby received a grant of the office of 
seneschal of the lands in Wiltshire belonging 
to the earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury 
(Pat. Eoll, 8 Hen. VII, pt, ii, m, IB). At 
about the same time* the exact date being 
unknown,he was made a knight of the 
Garter. He was present as lord steward on 
1 Nov. 1494 when Prince Henry (Henry 
VIII) was created Duke of York, and toot 
part in the reception of Catharine of Arragon 
in 1501 (G-iiBDOTR, Letter* and Papm, I 

w illoughb/s next employment was against 
Perkin Warbeck, who landed in Cornwall on 
7 Sept. 1497. When news arrived that he 
was threatening the coast with a few ships, 
"Willoughby, as admiral, took command or 
the fleet (see ANSTIS, ii. 216). He took part 
in the relief of Exeter a few days later 
(BACON, p. 191). 

Some proceedings in the exchequer in 1607 
disclose the exact date of "Willoujmby's death 
as 23 Aug. 1502 (MS. It 0, 28 Hen. VII, 
M. T. nil dors.) Mis will, dated 19 Aug., 
was proved on 26 Dec, 150& He left a eon 
and heir, Sir Bobert, second baron Wil- 
loughby de Broke, and a daughter Elizabeth, 




married to John, lord Dynham. On Robert's 
death in 1522, without surviving male issue, 
the barony fell into abeyance between the 
two daughters of his son Edward : Eliza- 
beth, wife of Sir Pullie Greville [see under 
and Blanch, wife of Sir Francis Dawtrey. 
A descendant of the elder daughter, Richard 
"Verney, successfully claimed the barony in 
1696 [see VEBETBY, RIOHABD, third BABOH 

[Histories Croylandensis Continuatio in Gale's 
Scriptores (Oxford, 1684), pp. 461-078 ; Poly- 
dore Vergil's Historia Anglica (od. Loyden, 
1651) ; Hall's Ghron, 1809 ; Macliado's Journals 
in ftairdner's Memorials of Henry VII (Bolls 
Ser. 1858); Patent Bolls of Honry VII, MS. 
B. 0. ; Bymer's Itodera (ed. 1741) ; Botuli Par- 
liamentorum, vol. vi. ; G-airdner's Letters and 
Papers of Richard III and Henry VII (2 vols. 
1861); Campbell's Materials for a Hist, of 
Henry VII (2 vols. 1873); Bacon's Hist of 
Henry VII, ed. Ellis and Spedding, 1858 ; Works, 
vol. vi.; Ashmole's Order of the Q-arter, 1672; 
Anstis's Kcgister of the Garter, 2 vols. 1724; 
Beltz's Order of the Q-arter, 1841 ; Collineon's 
Hist, of Somerset, 3 vols. 1701 ; LyHons's 
Magna Britannia, vol. vi. ' Devonshire' (1822); 
Bisdon's Survey of Devonshire, 1SU ; Hoard's 
Modern "Wiltshire, vol. iy. ; Collins's Peerage, 
ed. Brydges, 1812, vol. vi. ; <5K B* CtokayneJ's 
Complete Peerage, 1898 ; Busch's Konig Hoin- 
rich VII (Stuttgart, 1802).] L S. L. 

WILLS, SrE CHARLES (1666-1741), 
general, son of Anthony "Wills of St. 
Gorran, Cornwall, Tby ' Jenofer ' (Guinevere), 
his wife, was baptised at St. Gorran on 
23 Oct. 1666 (Parish, Register)* Hia fathor, 
whose family had been settled in Cornwall 
since early in the sixteenth century, farmed 
his own land, and, having encumbered 
his estate with debts, quitted the same 
at the revolution and offered his ser- 
vices and those of six of his sons to the 
Prince of Orange, who, it is said, gave them 
all commissions (Parochial Kst. of Corn* 
wall) pp. 11, 101)* Charles "Wills appears 
to have been appointed a subaltern in 
Colonel Thomas Erie's foot regiment (dis- 
banded ^ in 1698), with which corps he 
served in the Irish campaign. On I July 
1691 he was appointed captain in the regi- 
ment known as the 19th foot, the colonelcy 
of which had been bestowed on Erie on 
1 Jan. 1691. Wills served several campaigns 
in Flanders, including the battle of Landen, 
On 6 Nov. 1694 he was appointed major to 
Colonel Thomas Saunderson's foot regiment, 
and on 1 May 1697 was promoted lieute* 
nant-coloneL A few months later Saunder- 
son's foot was disbanded and the officers 
placed on half-pay. On the formation of 

Viscount Charlemont's foot regiment in Ire- 
land (28 June 1701), Wills was ^ appointed 
to the lieutenant-colonelcy, and in the fol- 
lowing spring embarked with his corps for 

Thence Charlemont's rejpiment was eont to 
the West Indies, where Wills gained diHtinc- 
tion in the island of Guadeloupe, and several 
towns were burnt after the French troops 
had been defeated. In the action at La 
BaylifFe ' Colon el Wilk behaved himself with 
great bravery' (London Gazette, 10 May 
1703. He succeeded to the* command of the 
troops on shore in April 1703 ; and, after 
burning and destroying the French towns 
and fortifications along the coast, he om** 
barked his troops on board the squadron on, 
7 May 1708, bringing away all the captured 
French guns. After losing many olHcers 
and men in tbo West Indies, Oharlemont's 
regiment (80th foot) returned to Ireland 
in the winter of 170&-4 

In 1705 Wills accompanied the Karl of 
Peterborough to Spain a qarfcrmitt.r- 
general, ana served almost xmiutorruptodly 
in the INminftula until .December 1710, Ho 
was at the taking of Barcelona on 4 Oct. 
1705, and nine days later was appointed 
colonel of a jregiment of marintm ($0th 
foot), vice Thomas Pownall. "Wills was 
subsequently second in command in. the 
district of Lerida { and rendorod -valu- 
able service in tho important action at Bon 
Estevan, where lie commanded afto Major* 
general Conyngham was mortally wounded 
(26 Jan* 170(i)j again distinguiabod him* 
self at the defence of the town of Lerida, 
which capitulated after ^an obstinate de- 
fence $ was appointed a brigadier-general on 
1 Jan* 1707; commanded 1,600 marines and 
a Spanish regiment in Sardinia (1708), and 
reduced Ca#liari. He was promoted major- 
general on 1 Jan. 1709, and appointed com- 
manderiu**clxief of the forces on board Ad- 
miral Baker's fleet on 17 June in the same 

Wills fought at Almenara in 1710, and 
commanded an infantry brigade at the battle 
of Sarugosea. He was thereupon recom- 
mended to Queen Anne for promotion to 


JDespatefaB, v 168), which rank had been 
already conferred on him in Spain by 
Charles III, the titular king, In the unfor- 
tunate action at Brihuega on 1 Dec* 1710, 
Wills earned fresh laurels, and was men-* 
tioned in General Stanhope's despatches as 
having been. * during the action at the pn&t 
which was attacked with most vigour and 
which he as resolutely defended/ After 
suffering a rigorous imprisonment of some 

Wills 44 

months, Wills was allowed to return to 

When Preston was taken by the Jacobite 
forces in 1716, Wills, who was then com- 
manding in Cheshire, assembled his troops 
at Manchester, and then marched to Wigan, 
where he arrived on 11 Nov. He had at 
his disposal the cavalry regiments of Pitt, 
Wynne, Honey wood, Dormer, Munden, and 
Stanhope, and Preston's foot regiment. At 
Wigan Wills received intelligence that 
Lieutenant-general George Carpenter [a. v.j 
was advancing from Durham by forced 
marches with about nine hundred cavalry, 
and would be ready to take the enemy in 
flank Early on 12 Nov. Wills marched 
towards Preston, and at one in the after- 
noon he arrived at the bridge over the 
Bibble, and found there about three hundred 
of the rebel horse and foot who upon the 
approach of the royal troops withdrew 
hastily into the town, where barricades had 
been erected. On coming before Preston a 
reconnaissance was made by Wills in per- 
son, and, in consequence of his party being- 
fired upon and two men killed, he ordered 
an ^ immediate assault by Preston's foot 
regiment, which corps behaved with great 
bravery. At the same time Wills ordered 
the whole town to be surrounded, to the 
right and left, by the cavalry. The rebels, 
being well posted behind the barricades, in- 
flicted great loss on Preston's regiment (the 
Cameronians), which was commanded by 
Lieutenajit-colonel Lord Forester. After 
two barricades had been gallantly charged, 
and the troops repulsed with equal courage, 
Wills drew off his men, and, all the avenues 
to the town having been effectually secured, 
the cavalry were ordered to stand at their 
torses' heads all that night* At nine o'clock 
next morning General Carpenter arrived 
with three dragoon regiments. The rebels 
witnessed the arrival of the reinforcements 
from the church steeple, and, losing heart, 
their commander was anxious to capitulate. 
'Unconditional surrender* were the only 
terms that Carpenter and Wills would give 
and after stormy debates within the be- 
leaguered town the rebels laid down their 
jmd surrendered next morning [see 



---* *-. wvu.J.^>JJ.VfcOAQV4. JUDA-O 'Ull 

FOBSTER, THOMAS, 16767-1738; ana ui- 

BTTEfrH, Emm:]. 

A good deal of friction occurred between 
Carpenter and Wills on this occasion, the 
former being the senior officer, and it 
was increased by George I bestowing the 
rank of lieutenant-general on Wills 
directly news of the surrender of the rebels 
at Preston reached London, no notice beine 
then taken of Carpenter's share in the success. 

In January 1716 Carpontor sent a challenge 
by General Churchill to Wills (Life of 
George, Lord Carpenter), but the duel was 
honourably compromised by tho generous 
intervention of tho Dukes of Marlboro ugh 
and Montagu* Wills waa appointed 
colonel of the 3rd foot on 6 Jan. 1710, 
governor of Portsmouth 1717, luwtonant- 
general of tho ordnance on $3 April 17,18, 
3LB. on 17 Juno 1,725, colonol of the 
grenadier guards on 2C Aug. 172(J, general 
commanding the foot in 17JJ9, M.P. for 
Totnes (1714-41), and one of George Ps 
privy council. 

"Vfalls died unmarried in London on 25 Doc, 
1741, and was interred in Wtsntmmstor Ab- 
bey ; there is a memorial inscription in the 
Guards' Chapel, WeatminHter)* 

It appears from tho ' Political State of 
Great Britain/ for September 1726 that 
there was an intention, unrealiaocl owing to 
George I's death, of crwitiing Wills a pw 
with the title of Baron Proton. With the 
exception of a few legacies and an annuity 
of 200J. per annum to his nophaw Ttichard 
Wills, Sir Charles bttquoatixod all Lie for- 
tune, which was a very considorabltt one, to 
his t executor, General Sir Kobort Rich, bart. 
This will was unsuccessfully contested by- 
Sir Richard Wills in tho probato court* 

[John Burchott'a Hist, of the most remark- 
able Transactions at Soft; Life of George Lord 
Carpenter; Balton's English Army Lista, 1681- 
1714, vol. iiu ; Dr. Jo-Ira ffroIndYi Wtomoir of the 
Earl of Peterborough j G-eorgian Knt ; Hamilton's 
Hist, of the aronadior Guards; Hist. MS& 
Comm, llth Kop, App, pt, iv., wherein arc 
several letters Minting to Preston flffht, 1715; 
London Gazettes, especially those for 10 Mar 
1703 and 4 Oct. 1708 ; Boyer'a Queen Anne, 
1735, pp. 205, 418, 405 ; Lord Hahon's War of 
the Succession in Spain; Parochial Hist, of 
Cornwall, vol ii,; Rapin's Hiot of England; 
Visitations of Cornwall, ed. Vivian (1887), 
which, contain a pedigree of the Wills family 
drawn up by the Rev. J, V. Wills; Warburton'a 
Memoir of the Earl of Peterborough ; Begisteri 
of Westminster Abbey.] 0. D-N, 

WILLS, JAMES (1790-1868), poet and 
man of letters, born on 1 Jan- 1790, was the 
younger son of Thomas Wills of Willsgrove, 
co. Eoscommon, a country gentleman be- 
longing to afamily of Cornish extraction long 
settled in Ireland, who had married as his 
second wife a daughter of Captain James 
Browne of Moyne, co. Roscommon, He re- 
ceived Ms education at Dr. Miller's school at 
Blackrock, co. Dublin, and from private 
tutors. He entered at Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, on 1 Nov. 1809, taking a high place at 
entrance. During his university career he 




formed one of a brilliant circle of undergra- 
duates, which included Charles Wolfe [q.v.], 
John Sydney Taylor [q/vQ, John Anster 

&. v.], and Samuel O'Sullivan [see under 
SULLIVAN, MOETIMBE]. He inherited as 
joint-heir with his brother a very consider- 
able estate, which came into his family 
through his mother; and in early manhood 
was in very easy circumstances. B ut shortly 
after leaving the university the improvidence 
of the elder orother, who managed to squan- 
der the property of both, left the younger 
with very slender resources, and Wills was 
obliged to abandon the notion he had formed 
of embracing the profession of the bar, though 
he had taken the first steps towards getting 
called, and had entered at the Middle Temple 
in 182L 

wrote many of his subsequently published 
poems at this period. Here also he met 
Charles Robert Maturin [q. v,], and wrote 
his well-known t>oem, ' The Universe,' which 
was published by, and long attributed to, 
Maturin, and the authorship of which was 
long a subject of literary controversy (cf. 
Notes and Queries, 5th ser, iil 20, 172, 240, 
280,340; Dublin Univ. Mag. October 187/5; 
Irish Quarterly eww, March 1852). For 
this poem, wlxich is now proved to have 
been entirely the composition of Wills, Ma- 
turin received 600/. from Colburn, 

In 1822 Wills married Katharine, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. W. Gorman, niece of Chief- 
justice Charles Iendal Bushe [jl.vA and 
grandniece of Sir John Dovle t<l' v *J 
took orders on his marriage in the expecta- 
tion of receiving a presentation to a crown 
living through the chief justice, a hope 
which was defeated through a change of 
government. From the -date of his marriage 
until 1888 he resided in Dublin, 

In 1881 he published ' The Disembodied, 
and other Poems,* in Dublin, and became a 
constant contributor to 'Blackwood's Maga- 
zine/ the 'Dublin University Magazine,^ the 
'Dublin Penny Journal/ and other periodi- 
cals. To the 'Dublin University Magazine/ 
his connection with which originated in 
review of George O'Brien's criticism of 
Petrie's 'Kound Towers' [see O'BBi 
HBNBZ], he was one of the earliest contri- 
butors ; and later in his career he was asso- 
ciated with Ceesar Otway [q, v*] in founding 
the ' Irish Quarterly Review.' IE 1885 he 
published the ' Philosophy of Unbelief/ a 
work which was afterwards republished, and 
which acquired considerable popularity in 
America. Wills combined with a strong 

literary instinct a remarkable aptitude for 
metaphysical analysis. Of several essays 
read by him before the Royal Irish Academy, 
one on the ' Spontaneous Association of Ideas ' 
was said by Archbishop Richard Whately 
[q. v.] to overturn Dugald Stewart's theory 
on the same subject. In 1885 Wills was 
nominated to the sinecure curacy of Suir- 
ville, co. Kilkenny, of which parish he was 
appointed vicar in 1846. In 1849 he waa 
further advanced to the living of Kilmacow 
in the same county, and ultimately, in 1860, 
to that of Attanagh in co, Kilkenny. In, 
1846 Wills published ' Dramatic Sketches 
and other Poems/ which were followed in 
1848 by 'Moral and Religious Epistles.' But 
his most important literary venture was the 
valuable biographical work known as 'Lives 
of Illustrious and Distinguished Irishmen/ 
of which the first volumes were published in 
1889 and 1840. This work, which was com- 
pleted in 1 847 and for which its author re- 
ceived 1,0002., aims at giving a history of Ire- 
land in a series of biographies ranging from 
the earliest to the most modern times, and is 
divided into six periods, to each of which 
Wills prefixed a valuable historical intro- 
duction. It was reissued subsequently under 
the title of 'The Irish Nation/ the con- 
cluding volumes of the revined edition ap- 
pearing after the author's doath, under the 
editorship of his son, Mr* Freeman Wills, 
The work has been accorded by a very com- 
petent authority, John Thomas (afterwards 
Lord~chaneellor) Ball, in the 'Dublin Uni- 
versity Magazine/ the praise of ' great re- 
search, patient investigation and sound judg-* 
ment, free alike from sectarian and political 
prejudices/ and as ' the most elaborate and 
the most complete record of the history and 
biography of Ireland as yet (1847) given 
to the Irish public/ The book is, however, 
very deficient in point of style and arrange- 
ment, and, like all works of reference on so 
large a scale by a single hand, is in parts 

Wills was appointed Donellan lecturer in. 
the university of Dublin for 1855-6, and 
delivered a course of sermons, published in 
1860 under the title of 'Lectures on the 
Antecedent Probability of the Christian B~ 
ligion/ He also edited Chief-justice Bushe's 
posthumously published * Summary View of 
the Evidences of Christianity.' In 1888, 
shortly before his death, he published ' The 
Idolatress, and other Poems/ which, like the 
' Dramatic Sketches ' of an earlier date, was 
a collection of scattered contributions to 
various ^periodicals. His verse is not with- 
out merit ; the shorter pieces breathe a strongf 
spirit of Irish patriotism of the best kind j 


and a famous Irish nationalist is said to have 
embraced the old clergyman on learning that 
he was the author of ' The Minstrel's Walk.' 
He died at Attanagh in November 1868. 

Wills was an unusually brilliant conver- 
sationist, and some of his more ambitious 
poems show much of the dramatic power 
which descended to his son, William Gorman 
Wills [q.v.] 

[Webb's Compendium; Dublin University 
Magazine; W.G-. Wills, Dramatist and Painter, 
by Freeman Wills ; Irish QuarterlyEeview, March 
1852 ; Ailibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Todd's Gra* 
duates of Dublin University; Burke's Landed 
Gentry; Brooke's Recollections of the Irish 
Church, 2nd ser.] C. L. P. 

WILLS, JOHN (1741-1806), benefactor 
of Wadham College, Oxford, the only son of 
John Wills of Seaborough, Somerset, was born 
at Seaborough in 1741. He matriculated 
from Hertford College, Oxford, on 18 March 
1768, aged 17, graduated B.A. in 1761, be- 
coming a fellow of the society in 1765, In 
the same year he proceeded M.A. He was 
preferred to the college rectory of Tyd St. 
Mary in 1778, and in 1779 was presented to 
the rectory of Seaborough by Adam Martin j 
five years later he rebuilt the parsonage of 
his native village. Wills was elected fifteenth 
warden of Wadham College on 7 July 1788, 
in succession, to Dr. James Gerard. He took 
the degree of D.D. in the same year, and the 
office of vice-chancellor devolved upon him 
in 179S. After an uneventful headship he 
died at Wadham on 16 June 1806, aged 66. 

In Wills Wadham found its greatest bene- 
factor since its foundation. He left 400J. a 
year to augment the warden's stipend, at the 
same time bequeathing his books and furni- 
ture to his successor, Dr. William Tournay. 
He left 1,000/. to improve the warden's 
lodgings ; two exhibitions of 100J. each an- 
nually to two fellows of the college, students 
of law and physic; two scholarships of 20& 
each for ^ the same faculties; stipends of 
thirty guineas yearly for a divinity lecturer 
and preacher, and annuities of 76Z. and 602. 
to superannuated fellows, besides a reading 
prize and minor benefactions. He also left 
an estate at Tyd St. Giles, worth about 1602. 
per annum, to the vice-chancellor for the 
time being, * in aid of the great burthens of 
his office ; ' 100J. per annum to the senior 
Bodleian librarian; 100/. per annum to the 
theatre, and 100 per annum to the Oxford 
Infirmary. After some private bequests he 
made the residue of his estate over to the 
college for the purchase of livings. Owhur 
to WiUs's l^erality the Wadham gardens 
reached their present extent, the parterres 
and clipped yews and statuettes of Dr. 

6 Wills 

Willdns'stime,as described by John Evelyn, 
giving place to the ' romantic 7 garden de- 
signed by Shipley. Tho portrait of Wills 
by Hoppner, in the hall at Wadham. was 
painted m 1793. 

[Jackson's Wadham College, pp. 121, 147, 
184, 187, 215; Oo&t. Mag. 1800, I 589-00; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1716-1886.] T. 8. 

WILLS, RICIIABD (ft t 1668-1573), 

author. [See WIILJHS,] 

WILLS, THOMAS (1740-1802), evan- 
gelical preacher, born at Truro, Cornwall, 
on 26 July 1740, was the eon of Thomas 
Wills of St. Issey ^a descendant of Jonathan 
Wills, ejected minister in KK& from Lanto- 
glos-juxta-Camelford), who married Mary 
Spry. Tho mother and twin-sister, both of 
wlom were buried in Truro church, died at 
his birth. The father died a year or two 
later, and was also buried there. The two 
surviving sons were adopted by the oldest 
aunt, Lucy Spry of Truro, who died in 1756, 
leaving most of her fortune to Thomas. The 
elder boy, John Wills (d 11 Oct. 1764), bo- 
came a lieutenant in the navy undor his 
relative, Admiral Spry, The youngor son, 
after his aunt's doath. was put under the 
care of her brother-in-law, Thomas Micholl 
of Croft West, near Truro, and placed at 
Truro grammar school, whore he attended 
the ministry of Samuel Walker [q, v.] 

Wills matriculated from Magdalen Hall 
Oxford, on 28 March 1767, and graduated 
B.A, 11 Dec. 1760. While at the university 
he became friendly with Thomas Hawcns 
fa, v.], a brother Corniahman and pupil at 
Truro school, and was numbered among his 
religious associates. He was ordained doa 
con by the bishop of Oxford in 1762, and 
priest by the bishop of Exeter on Trinity Sun- 
day 1764. In 1764 he was appointed to the 
curacy of Perranzabuloe and St. Agnus, two 
parishes on the north coast of Cornwall, of 
which James Walker, a brother of Samuel 
Walker, was vicar. Ilia connection with 
Perranaabuloe ceased in 1765, but he re- 
mained at St. Agnes until January 1778. 

In the autumn of 1772 Wills made the 
acquaintance of the Countess of Huntingdon 
at Bath and frequently preached in her chapel 
In the autumn of 17/4 he was again in that 
city, and on 6 Oct. 1774 he married Belina 
Margaretta, third daughter of the Eev, Gran* 
ville Wheler of Otterden Place, near Faver* 
sham, Kent, by bis wife, Lady Catherine 
Maria Hastings. Lady Huntingdon, his 
wife's aunt, visited them at St. Agnes in 
the autumn of 1775, and established her 
chapels in Cornwall Wills was appointed 




her chaplain in January 1778, and thereupon 
resigned his curacy. 

Wills next proceeded to Lady Hunting- 
don's college at Trevecca, and then to Brigh- 
ton, For his irregular conduct in preaching 
at the Spa Fields chapel in 1781 he was 
served with a citation "by the Bev. "William 
Sellon of St. James's, Olerkenwell. Next 
year he took the oath of allegiance as a dis- 
senting minister, and was appointed mini- 
ster of Spa Fields chapel. He officiated 
there and in the several chapels of Lady 
Huntingdon's connexion throughout Eng- 
land for several years, and on 9 March 1783 
he and another minister held ' the primary 
ordination' of Lady Huntingdon's con- 
nexion in Spa Fields chapel. He took tem- 
porary leave of that congregation on 12 Aug. 
1787. Differences ensued between him and 
Lady Huntingdon, and he did not minister 
there again until 30 March 1788. He preached 
his last sermon in the chapel on 6 July 1788, 
and a few days later was dismissed by her. 

After preaching occasionally at Surrey 
chapel and elsewhere Wills was engaged by 
the proprietors of Dr. Pechwell's chapel, in 
the Great Almonry at Westminster, and 
also by those of Orange Street chapel, 
Leicester Square, to officiate in their re- 
spective buildings. The chapel at Silver 
Street, near Aldersgate Street, was let to 
him from Michaelmas 1789 for a lecture on 
Thursday evenings, and at the following 
Christmas he took the building on ( lease, 
Its interior was then altered, and the liturgy 
of the English church, an organ, and the 
Lymns of tne Countess of Huntingdon were 
introduced. He ceased in 1789 to preach 
in Orange Street chapel, and in 1791 he 
gave up Westminster chapel ; but in 1793 
he began preaching in Islington chapel. 
There and at Silver Street chapel he re- 
mained preaching the doctrines of Calvinism 
with unabated popularity for several years. 
About 1797 his congregation dwindled, 
through the popularity of an Antinomian 
preacher in Grub Street, and his own health 
began to decline. His mental faculties 
gave way, and in 1799 a stroke of paralysis 
incapacitated him from preaching. He took 
leave of his congregation at Silver Street on 
23 Feb. 1800, and retired to Boskenna in 
the parish of St. Buryan, Cornwall, the seat 
of James Paynter. He died there on 12 May 
1802, and was buried on the north side of 
Buryan churchyard in a vaulted grave 
which he had constructed for himself and 
his wife. A monument to his memory was 
placed in the church by his widow, who 
died at Boskenna on 3 April 1814. 

As a popular preacher Wills was second 

only to George Whitefield, and his preaching 
in the open air, especially on Tower Hill, 
attracted great crowds. lie was the author 
of: L < Remarks on Polygamy in answer to 
Madan's "Thelyphthora/ 7 ; 1781. 2. 'Au- 
thentic Narrative of the Primary Ordination 
in Lady Huntingdon's Chapel, 9 March 1783 ; * 
2nd ed, 1786. 3. < The Spiritual Register/ 
1784-95, 3 vols. ; he had previously sent some 
of the cases to the 'Protestant Magazine.' 
4. * A Farewell Address to the Countess of 
Huntingdon's Chapels, and especially Spa 
Fields/ 1788. He also published some single 
sermons, and edited several religions works, 
including e Letters from the late Rev* 
William Romaine to a Friend/ which passed 
through many editions. 

A portrait, by Sir Thomas Lawrence, of 
Wills was engraved by H, E. Cook, and on 
a larger scale by Fittler. A print of him, 
drawn and engraved by Goldar, is prefixed 
to the 'Spiritual Register' and the 'New 
Spiritual Magazine/ voL L Another print, 
by Ridloy, published by T. Chapman on 
1 May 1799, is in the ' Evangelical Maga- 

[Memoir of the Rev. T. Wills, by n friend, 1 804 ; 
Life of the Countess of Huntingdon, i. 310, 393- 
304, ii. 68-0, 76, 203-4, 310-16, 43 4-33, 479-81; 
Life of S. E. Pierce, pp.^962, 02-0 j Wilson's 
Dissenting Churches, Hi. 110-23; Nelson's 
Islington, pp, 273-5 ; Bennett's Silver Street 
Church, pp. 21-2; Poster's Alumni Oxon.; 
Gent Mag. 1774 p. 494, 1802 i 685, 1814 i, 
51 ; Parochial Hist of Cornwall, i, 162; Boaae 
and Courtney's BibL Cornub, ii. 800-1 ; Will- 
cocks' s Spa fields Chapel, pp, 34, 38/1 

W. P. 0. 

1891), dramatist, son of James Wills [. v*] f 
was born at Blackwell Lodge, Kilinurry, on 
28 Jan, 1828, He was educated at Water- 
ford grammar school under Dr, Price, and at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he entered 
on 6 Nov. 1846, his college tutor being Dr* 
Frank Sadleir [4v.] He aid not proceed to 
a degree, but established a reputation among 
the students by his goem on l Poland/ for 
which he won the vice-chancellor's medal 
in 1848. He showed a strong bent for por- 
trait-painting, but received no training in 
art beyond that which the Hoyal Hibernian 
Academy, then in a very decrepit state, 
could afford. Like Goldsmith when an mx-* 
dergraduate, he seems to have rioted upon 
a minute allowance^ earning a precarious 
guinea now and again by a portrait or by 
contributing to an ephemeral magazine called 
' The Irish Metropolitan/ tbrou0 the pages 
of which ran his first serial story entitled 
' Old Times/ published in volume form some 

Wills 4 

years later, in 1857. At Dr, Anster's house he 
met with a fellow-contributor and congenial 
spirit, the brilliant university Bohemian, 
Charles Pelham Mulvany [q, v.] 

In 1862, after several years of very desul- 
tory occupation, or, as he styled it, ' daisy- 
picking ' in Ireland, Wills settled in London. 
He took rooms with his friend Henry Hum- 
phreys in Clifford's Inn. His efforts to make 
alivelihood by his pen were not encouraging. 
In 1863 appeared his ' Notice to Quit/ a story 
conceived after the manner of Eugdne Sue, 
which was praised for its dramatic situations 
but met with little success. IB. October of 
this same year Wills obtained the Royal 
Humane Society's medal for a brave at- 
tempt to rescue a drowning lad near Old 
Swan Wharf. ' The Wife's Evidence ' (1864, 
reissued 1876), a story of considerable melo- 
dramatic power, gained him. an introduction 
to the magazines, and he wrote t David 
Chantrey ' (1865) for ' Temple Bar/ and for 
* Tinsle/s Magazine ' ' The Three Watches ' 
1865), and 'The Love that Kills 7 (1867), 
in which he remanipulates material already 
used in ' Old Times* 

His father's death in 1868 impelled Wills 
to undertake the support of his mother. He 
reverted to portraiture as his best means of 
earning money, took a studio at 15 The 
Avenue, Eulhani Eoad, and worked very 
successfully in pastel drawings, mainly of 
children. He exhibited in the Grosvenor 
Gallery, and was soon asking twenty guineas 
for a. small picture finished m three or four 
sittings ; and for a time there was no lack ot 
fashionable sitters. Incurably unconven- 
tional, Wills, in response to a command to 
visit Osborne to draw the royal grand- 
children, pleaded a prior engagement. The 
Princess Louise was interested in Wills's 
methods and amused "by his Bohemian ways, 
but other patrons were repelled by the filth 
of his studio, which was haunted by stray 
cats, by monkeys and other unclean animals, 
and also by numerous parasites and loafers, 
attracted by the painter s easy-going habit of 
inviting visitors to stay, and keeping his 
spare change in a tobacco jar on the chimney- 
piece, Absent-mindedness, inherited, it is 
said, from his father, who once boiled his 
watch in mistake for an egg, grew upon 
Wills to an extent which prejudiced his 
career. He became oblivious of social en- 
gagements, asked people with the utmost 
cordiality to meet Mm at dinner and then 
could not be found to receive them, for- 
got or travestied the names of people 
who entertained him, and prided Hmself 
In being as dispassionate as Dr. Johnson 
on the subject of clean linen, In his 

i Wills 

later years ho did most of his composition 
in bed. 

Meanwhile Wills was turning his attention 
to writing for the wt.ago* A first dramatic 
attempt, an adaptation from the German 
of Van Holti, entitled *A Man and his 
Shadow* (1865), was followed by the pa- 
thetic ' Man o' Airlio/ which was put on at 
the Princess's in July 1867, with Mr. Her- 
mann Vezin in the title-part. Though the 
receipts were small, the play rarely failed 
to move its audience, and the author was 
encouraged to write two other plays, sug- 
gested and produced by Mr. Voxin ; < LCinko, 
or the Heaclsmati'B Daughter' (founded upon 
Ludwig Starch's historical novel), produced 
at the Queen's Thoatro in Hwjjtembor 1871, ; 
and 'Broken Spellfl,* written in conjunction 
with Wostknd Marston, and produced at 
the Court in April 187& A short time 
before this date Wills was introduced by 
Vezin to the Batomans, and after the ap- 
pearance of 'Umko' In wa retained by 
Colonel Bateman as ' dramatuBt to the Ly- 
ceum ' at a yearly salary of *JOO/> Upon this 
endowment ho produced in turn ' Medea in 
Corinth' (July 1872), 'Charles I* (28 Flopt. 
1872), and 'faugene Aram' (April 1873), 
The first two of those plays contain Wills's 
best work. < Charles I/ though inferior to 
its predecessor in form, caught the taste of 
the public, and enabled Mr. (now Sir) Henry 
Irving to confirm th reputation which he 
had made for himself in the ' Bells/ The 
portraiture of Charles was in harmony with 
Van Dyck, and the suggestion of calm and 
dignified suffering that disdained to rejwnt or 
protest is decidedly effective. Like Scott, 
Wills was a staunch cavalier, and he was as 
little concerned with historical accuracy an 

In his next historical play, * Marie Stuart* 
(Princess's, February 1874), he caricatured 
John Knox with the same gusto with which 
he had defamed Cromwell He was now in 
great demand as a verse playwright, and 
produced in quick succession ' Sappho,* given 
at the Theatre Boyal, Dublin, in 1876 ; 
' Buckingham' (Olympic, November 1875); 
'Jane Shore' (Princess's, September 1876); 
and < England in the Days of Charles II' 
(Drury Lane, September 1877). His second 
great success was with ' Olivia ' (based upon 
Goldsmith's < Vicar of Wakefield '). of which 
the best that can be said is that it has rarely 
been surpassed as an adaptation of a novel 
It was produced at the Court Theatre in 
March 1873 under the management of Mr, 
Hare, with William Terriss fa. v.l as Squire 
ThornhiU and Miss Ellen Terry -as ttvyj 
both players were seen in their original parts 




when the piece was successfully revived at 
the Lyceum in 1885. 

The dramatist now produced with great 
rapidity a quantity of very inferior work. 
'Nell Gwynne/ given at the Royalty in May 
1878 j < Vanderdecken/ based upon the legend 
of the ' Flying Dutchman ' (Lyceum, June 
1878); 'Ellen,' afterwards called 'Brng' 
(Haymarket, April 1879) ; 'Bolivar' (Theatre 
Koyal, Dublin, November 1879); 'Ninon' 
(Adelphi, February 1880); 'Forced from 
Home ' (Duke's Theatre, February 1880) ; 
'lolanthe' (Lyceum, May 1880) ; 'William 
and Susan' (St. James's, October 1880); 
'Juana' (Court, May 1881); 'Sedgmoor' 
(Sadler's Wells, August 1881) ; and Jane 
Eyre' (Globe, December 1882). In 1882 
Henry Herman, Mr. Wilson Barrett's 
manager, provided a ' plot ' on which Wills 
was coaxed into basing the play ' Claudian ' 
(successfully produced at the Princess's in 
December 1883), a strange compound of 
tinsel and hollow columns, in which the old 
legend of the Wandering Jew is turned to 
melodramatic purpose. 'Gringoire/ givon 
at the Prince's Theatre in June 1885, was 
followed in December by Wills's version of 
'Faust' for the Lyceum. In this, as in 
* Claudian/ he appeared merely as the text 
writer to a series of scenes and situations ; 
his sub-archaic verbiage was not devoid of 
romantic resonance and was scrupulously 
cut into blank- verse lengths. Like qualities 
are conspicuous in his ' Melchior/ a blank- 
verse poem in thirty-two cantos, dedicated 
to Robert Browning and published in 1886. 
The long-drawn descriptions are often mero 
pinchbeck, but Wills had some of the faculty 
of an Irishman as a balladist, clearly shown in 
Such songs as 'I'll sing thee songs of Araby * 
and ' The Ballad of Graf Brom.' 

In the intervals of dramatic work Wills 
spent much time at Etretat and a few weeks 
occasionally at Paris, where he rented a 
studio. His real interest was still in oil- 
painting; his oil-painting of Ophelia is now 
in the foyer at the Lyceum. His plays were 
a by-product, in which he took little interest 
after he had furnished the manuscript. He 
seldom ^attended rehearsals, and his recom- 
mendations, even when feasible, were gene- 
rally unheeded by the actors ; he was never 
present at the premiere of one of his own 

On 3 April 1887 Wille's mother died, and 
her loss removed one of the few incentives 
he had to exert himself. He moved his 
'studio' to Walham Q-reen, was henceforth 
little seen by his friends at the Garrick Club 
or elsewhere, and wrote little. His health 
began to break, and at the close of 1891 


he was by his own request removed to Guy's 
Hospital, whore he died on J3 Dec. 1891* 
Many of the leading actors and playwrights 
of the day were present at his interment 
in Brompton cemetery. His last piece, ' A 
Royal Divorce,' was being played at the 
Olympic at the time of his death, A previous 
play, on the subject of ' Don Quixote/ was 
produced at the Lyceum with very modorato 
success in May 1895. ' Charles I ' and his 
adaptation of the first part of ' Faunt 9 are 
the only plays by Wills which wero issued 
in printed form. 

wills was a born writer of dramatic 
scenes, but his gifts were neutralised to a 
large extent byliis inability to concentrate 
and by^ the essential lack of firm tasto and 
self-critical power. He is ably summed up 
in the acute judgment of M. Filon: Ml is 
Bohemian life, his impassioned character, 
his hasty methods of production, gave him in 
the distance the look of genius. But it wa 
a misleading look .... his pieces are founded 
upon conceptions which crumble away upon 
analysis, and the versification is too poor to 
ydl or redeem the weakness of the dramatic 

[' W.a Wills, Dramatist and Painter/ a woil- 
wntton biography by the dramatics brother, 
Freeman Wills, appeared in 1898, with a good 
portrait and facsimile autograph. 800 alno 
Archer's English Dramatists 'of To-day, 1888, 
pp. 352-80; ArchHr's About tho Thonteo, 188rt, 
pp. 240 sq. ; Fikm'fl fitagliflh Mtago, 1807; Fitz- 
gerald's Henry Irving, 1893, chapn, ait, acv.j 
O'Donoghuu's Pootti of Ireland, p. 201 ; An 
Evening in Bohemia (Templti Bar, Juna 1896); 
Celebrities of tho Ccmfcury j Times, U Dec, 1891 ; 
The Theatre, 1 Feb. 1892 (with portrait) ; Kra, 
10 Doc. 1891 J 4, a. 

1880), miscellaneous writer, was barn at 
Plymouth on 18 Jan. 1810* His father, at 
one time a wealthy shipowner and pme- 
agent, met with misfortunes, and at his 
death the chief care of supporting his family 
devolved upon William Henry, or Harry 
Wills as he was always called. Wills bo- 
came a journalist, and contributed to 
periodical publications such as tho { Penny * 
and ' Saturday * magazines, and McCulloch's 
i Geographical Dictionary/ He waa onw of 
the original literary staff of < Punch/ and 
had some share in the composition of the 
draft prospectus. He contributed to thw first 
number (17 July 1841) the mordant epi- 
gram on Lord Cardigan called <To the 
Blackballed of the United Service Glub,' 
He was for some time the regular drama tic 
critic, in which capacity he ridiculed Jullien, 
the introducer of tho promenade concerts at 



Drury Lane, and severely criticised the act- 
ing of Charles Kean. Among- his other 
contributions in prose and verse were 
' Punch's Natural History of Courtship ' 
(illustrated by Sir John Gilbert), ' Punch's 
Comic Mythology/ 'Information for the 
People/ and skits such as ' The Burst Boiler 
and the Broken Heart/ and ' The Uncles of 
England/ in praise of pawnbrokers. In 
1846 he wrote for the ' Almanac/ but his 
contributions were thenceforth infrequent. 

Wills began his lifelong association with 
Dickens in 1846, when he became one of 
the sub-editors of the ' Daily News * under 
him. Soon afterwards he went to Edinburgh 
to edit ' Chambers's Journal/ but two years 
later returned to London to become Dickens's 
secretary. In 1849, on John Forster's sug- 
gestion, Wills was made assistant editor of 
' Household Words/ and was given the same 
position by Dickens when, ten years later, 

* All the Year Bound ' was incorporated with 
it. His business capacity was invaluable to 
Dickens, and he was one of the most inti- 
mate friends of the novelist in later life. At 
the end of 1851 Wills accompanied Dickens 
on his theatrical tour in connection with 
the Guild of Literature and Art, to the 
temporary success of which his exertions 
largely contributed. 

In 1868, while Dickens was in America, 
Wills suffered concussion, of the brain from 
an accident in the hunting field, and was 
disabled from his duties as editor of ' All 
the Year Bound.' He never recovered^ and 
retired from active work. The remaining 
years of his life Wills spent at Welwyn, 
Hertfordshire, where he acted as magistrate 
and chairman of the board of guardians. 
He died there on 1 Sept. 1880. 

Wills edited, in 1850, ' Sir Roger de Cover- 
ley by the Spectator/ illustrated by en- 
gravings from designs by Frederick Taylor 
(1851, 16mo; Boston, Massachusetts, 1851, 
12mo ; reissued in the 'Traveller's Library/ 
1856, 8vo), 

Wills also published 'Old Leaves gathered 
from Household Words' (1860, 8vo), dedi- 
cated to Dickens. The book consists of thirty- 
seven descriptive sketches of places and 
events* In 1861 he issued a quarto volume, 
'Poets' Wit and Humour/ illustrated by 
a hundred engravings from drawings by 
0. Bennett and G. H. Thomas. Two pieces, 

* A Lyric for Lovers' and an ' Ode to Big 
Ben/ the latter of which originally appeared 
in * Punch/ were from his own pen. The 
book was republished in 1882, Wills also 
republished under the title ' Light and Dark ' 
some of his contributions to ' Chambers's 
Journal/ He was a fluent writer both in 

prose and verse, with a faint tinge of pedan- 
try, which afforded Dickons much amuse- 
ment. Douglas Jorrold wan fond of exer- 
cising his wit at his expense, and Wills 
had enough humour to enjoy the situation. 
The Baroness Burdettr-Cout.ts had for many 
years the advantage of Willa's judgment and 
experience in the conduct of her philan- 
thropic undertakings. 

Wills married Jaunt, youngest sister of 
William and Robert Chambers, the Edin- 
burgh publishers, She wa a woman" of 
strong character, and n groat favourite with 
Dickens, in whose corroanondtwitto hor name 
frequently appears. .She hud an extensive 
knowledge of Scottish literature, and a large 
fund of anecdotes, and was for many years 
the centre of a wide literary and social circle. 
She died on 34 Oct. Wife. At her death 
the sum of 11,0001. accrued to tho newspaper 
press fund, in which Wills had interested 
himself after the failure of the Guild of 
Literature and Art. 

[Athonseum, 4 Sept. 1880, 29 Oct. 1802, and 
12 Nov. 1802; Forntor's Lift) of Dickons, ii.422, 
iii. 227, 45-Ufi ; DiekonsVi Lottow, od. Dickens 
and Hogarfch, passim; Bpiolmann'e Hist, of 
Punch, pp. 19, 26, 218-10, m-8 ; Knight's 
Passages of a Working Life, iii. 121 ; Fox* 
Bpurue'H EngL Nownpaporn, H. 148; Allibono's 
Diet, Kngl. Lit. ; P, Jhitsspfomld'H Memoirs of an 
Author, chap, iii,, and Bocroations of a Literary 
Man, i. 74.] G, LH GK N. 

WILLS, WILLIAM JOHN (1834-1801), 
Aiistralian explorer, tho on of William 
Wills, o^medieal man, was bom at Totnos, 
Devonshire, on 5 Jan. 1884, and educated 
at Ashburton school till 1880, when ho was 
articled to his father, and at intervalfl from 
1850 to 1852 studied medicine in London, 
both at Guy's and St. Bartholomcvw's hos- 
pitals* On 1 Oct. 1852, carrying out an 
idea which his father had already formed, 
he emigrated with his brother to Victoria, 
and started life as a shepherd at 30/. a 
year and rations. In 1853 he was joined 
by his father, and settled at Ballarat, where 
for^ almost a year he acted an his father's 
assistant* lie was, however, always pining 
for the open air and the bush, and in 1855 
he^ obtained admission as a volunteer to the 
office of the surveyor of crown lands for the 
district. Here his aptitude for astronomical 
work and surveying was soon recognised. 
In 1868 he was employed on his first field 
survey for the department. In November 
1858, on the institution of the magnetic and 
meteorological observatory at Melbourne, he 
was appointed to the staff* 

In 1860 Wills was appointed third in 
command of the exploring expedition sent 



out from Victoria to discover a route to the 
north across Australia. The party left Mel- 
bourne on 20 Aug. I860, and proceeded 
slowly as far as the Darling river, where a 
difference occurred between the leader, Kobert 
O'Hara Burke [q. v,], and Landells, the 
second in command, resulting in the retire- 
ment of Landells and the appointment of 
Wills to be second in command. On 19 Oct. 
Burke and Wills, with a portion of their 
men, left Menindie with sixteen camels and 
fifteen horses, to push on in advance of the 
rest of the expedition. Travelling about 
twenty miles a day, they made Torowoto on 
29 Oct., whence they sent back a despatch 
with a report by Wills, This was the only 
direct message ever received from them, and 
in it Burke remarks, ' I consider myself very 
fortunate in having Mr. Wills as my second 
in command. He is a capital officer, zealous 
and untiring in theperformance of his duties/ 
After leaving the Torowoto swamp the party 
proceeded by way of Wright's Creek to 
Cooper's Creek, which was reached on 11 Dec. 
A depot was formed, and on 16 Dec. Burke 
and Wills started northward with six camels, 
a horse, and three months' provisions, Their 
route was for the most part through a pleasant 
country and along- good watercourses, and 
they reached the tidal waters of the Flinders 
river on 12 Feb. 1861. Wills's own diary 
is the source from which we learn the details 
of their advance, and he tells the tale in 
a simple and modest fashion. On 21 April 
they arrived at the depot on their return 
journey, but only to find it abandoned. 

On 23 April they started down Cooper's 
Creek for Adelaide ; but after losing their 
remaining camels they began to feel the 
anxieties of their position, without proper 
conveyance, and dependent on the natives 
or their own exertions for supplies. Between 
27 May and 6 June Wills made a journey 
on foot and alone to the depot at Coopers 
Creek and back to the camp on the road to 
Mount Hopeless. JSTo help had come, and 
they were all in a desperate position. Wills's 
journal tells the tale of gradual starvation 
during the month of June; the last entry 
is on 26 June, when he records that Burke 
and King, the only other Englishmen re- 
maining, are to leave him in the search for 
help from the natives, and that he does not 
expect to last more than four or five days. 
King, the only eventual survivor of the 
party, returned within that time, and found 
that Wills had already died, probably on 29 
,or 30 June. 

It was the opinion of many that if only 
Wills had been in chief command of the 
expedition its success would have been 

attained without such loss of life. It is in 
evidence that Wills on more than one occa- 
sion advised a course which would have 
certainly been rewarded by the safety of the 
party (lIowiTi). 

Wills has been described by one of his 
friends as 'a thorough Englishman, self- 
relying and self-contained.* He was modent 
yet strong of purpose, persevering, and to 
the last degree trustworthy. His passion 
for astronomy was remarkable, but study of 
all kinds was a part of his life. He was 
thoughtful and religious, 

A national memorial of him and his 
leader stands in front of the Parliament 
House at Melbourne. There is also a me- 
morial of him at his native town of Totnes, 
and a tablet in his old school at Ashburton. 
One of the streets in Ballarat is called aftor 
him. A print of a good portrait is given in 
his father's memoir of his journey. 

[Wills's Exploration of Australia, London, 
1863; must. Lpnd. News, 1862, pp. 1^6-7, 
167; Howitt's Hist, of Discovery in Australia, 
ii. 191 sqq.; Parl. Paper on the Burke and Wills 
Exploring Expedition, House of Commons, 1862, 
No. 139.] C. A, H. 

1862), bart., general, born at Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, on 24 Aug. 1789, was the eldest sur- 
viving son of Captain John Willshire by 
Mary, daughter of William Linden of Dub- 
lin. The father was son of Noah Willsliirw, 
a merchant, and, as the latter would not buy 
him a commission, he enlisted in the SBtli 
foot. He was made quartermaster iu 1790, 
lieutenant and adjutant in 1793, and pay- 
master in 1801. He obtained commissions 
in the regiment for three of his sons while 
they were still children: that of Thomas 
Willshire was dated 25 June 1795, and on 
6 Sept. following he became lieutenant, 

Thomas Willshire joined his regiment at 
Saintes in the West Indies in January 1798. 
It returned to England in 1800, and it wa 
probably then that he went to school, at 
King's Lynn and Kensington. He was pro- 
moted captain on 28 Aug. 1804, when a so- 
cond battalion was raised. The first hatta* 
lion went to the Cape in 1805, but he re- 
mained behind, and was second in a duel 
fought at Nottingham on 1 Jan. 1806, He 
joined the first battalion in South America 
m 1807, and took part in the attack on 
Buenos Ayres. He went with it to Portu- 
gal in 1808, and was present at Boli$a. Vi~ 
miero, and Goruna. He served with it in 
Walcheren, where his father died on 26 Sept, 
1809. * 

In June 1812 the first battalion of the 
38th again embarked for the Peninsula, 



Willshire commanding the light company. 
It joined the army three days before the 
battle of Salamanca (22 July), and was 
brigaded with the royals and the 9th in 
the 5th (Leith's) division. Willshire re- 
ceived two wounds in the battle. He com- 
manded the light companies of the brigade 
in the action on the Carrion on 25 Oct. 
during the retreat from Burgos. In 1813 
the division formed part of Graham's corps 
at Vittoria, and at the siege of San Sebastian. 
In the first assault the 38th was assigned 
the lesser breach. In the second assault it 
was at first in reserve, but was soon brought 
up in support of the stoppers. Willshire's 
youngest brother was killed; he himself 
was given a brevet majority on 21 Sept. 
He commanded the light companies of the 
brigade at the passage of the Bidassoa, 
which he is said to have been the first man 
to cross, and in the actions on the Nive 
(9-11 Dec.) and the repulse of the sortie 
from Bayonne (14 April 1814). He received 
a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy, and after- 
wards the Peninsular silver medal with 
seven clasps. 

In 1815 his battalion was sent to the 
Netherlands, but was too late for Waterloo. 
It went on to Paris, and Willshire was em- 
ployed for a short time on the staff. In 
December he returned with the battalion to 
England, and in June 1818 went with it to 
the Cape. On his way out he wrote t a 
manual of 'light company manasuvres in 
concert with battalion manoeuvres/ which 
was sent to Sir Henry Torrens [q.v.], and was 
probably used by him in preparing the drill- 
book of 1824. Early in 1819 Willshire was 
sent to the frontier as commandant of 
British Kaffraria. A quarrel between the 
chiefs, in which the British authorities 
intervened, led to an attack on Grahamstown 
by Mokanna with six thousand Kaffirs on 
22 April. Willshire had only his own 
company of the 38th, with 240 local troops 
and five guns. The attack was well planned 
and determined ; but it was skilfully met 
and repulsed with loss. Willshire followed 
tip the Kaffirs, and forced Mokanna to sur- 
render. The territory between the Fish 
river and the Keiskamma was added to the 
colony, and Fort Willshire was built in it 
He was highly praised by the governor, Lore 
Charles Somerset, who was also commander 
of the forces, and by the Duke of York. 

In 1822 the 38th went to Calcutta, and 
Willshire was strongly recommended by 
Somerset to the governor-general, Lore 
Hastings. He could not afford to purchase 
his majority in the regiment, and on 10 Sept 
1823 he was given a majority without pur 

shaso in the 40 th. lie had command of it 
or some tnno at Ballary, and in December 
,824 he commanded a brigade in the force 
under Colonel Deacon which retook the 
brt at Kittoor. On 80 Aug. 1827 he was 
made lieutenant-colonel without purchase 
of the 2nd (ejueon'w), atationod at Poona. 
3.e florvod with it nearly ton yeans, and 
Sir Lionel Smith, after inspecting the regi- 
ment in IHttO, report* sd that ho had 'never 
p et mot BO perfect a commanding officer/. 

On 10 Jan. 18J57 ho was made brevet 
colonel, with the local rank of brigadier- 
jenoral in India. In 1888, while command- 
ng a brigade at Poona, he waw given one 
n the * army of the Indus/ formed for the 
invasion of MghaniHtan. In February 1889 
the army was reorganised, Koaut) becoming 
Commander-in-chief, and WillHliiro succeed- 
,ng him in the command of the Bombay 
division of infantry. HIB troops wore the 
ast to cross the IMan, and wore harassed 
^y the tribesmen; but ho reached Quetta 
on 30 April, and Kandahar on 4 May* ^ He 
took part m the storming of Ghazxxi on 
23 July, and went on to Kalml. 

On 18 Hept. the day after a grand in- 
vestiture of the Durum order, of which he 
received the Bocond claw he began his 
inarch back to the Iiidun with the Bombay 
division. After pawning Oliaziu ho marched 
direct on Quotta, pumBhinp ^somo of the 
tribes on IUB way, and arriving there on 
31 Oct. lie had been told to depose Mehrab 
Khan of Kelat, and stmt a column from 
Quetta for that purpose on S^Noy. Learn- 
ing from Major (afterwards Hir James) Out- 
rani that resistance waft likely, he joined it 
himself two days afterwards. It consisted 
of the queen's and 17th foot, the Blat Bon- 
gal native infantry, some local horse, six 
uns, and some Bombay engineers, number- 
ing in all 1,106 men. 

lie reached Kelat on the 18th, and found 
the khan's troops (about 2,000 men) posted 
on three hills north-west of the fort. He 
drove them from thoao lulls, captured their 
guns, and tried to enter tho fort along with 
the fugitives. The gate was closed before 
his men could roach it, but it was soon 
opened by his guns, and after a determined 
resistance the fort and its citadel were 
stormed, with a loss of 188 men killed and 
wounded* Mehrab Khan died fighting; at 
the head of his men (Lond, Ga& JEfctfr, 18 Feb. 

The governor-general, in forwarding Will- 
shire's romrt, commended his 'decision, 
great military skill, and excellent disposi- 
tions ; ' and Outturn speaks of * the cool 
and determined demeanour of our veteran 




general/ He had been made O.B. in 1838. 
For the campaign in Afghanistan he received 
the thanks of parliament, and was made 
KO.B. on 20 Dec. 1839 ; and for the cap- 
ture of Kelat he was created a baronet on 
6 June 1840. 

After installing a new khan, who was 
soon displaced, Willshire. left Kelat on 
21 Nov. 1839, and resumed his march to 
the Indus. His division was broken up on 
27 Dec., and he returned to the command 
of his brigade at Poona. In October 18-10 
a sunstroke obliged him to resign this and pro 
to England. On 27 Nov. 1841 he- exchanged 
from the queen's regiment to half-pay, being 
appointed commandant at Chatham, tto 
remained there till 1846, when he was pro- 
moted major-general on 9 Nov. lie was 
afterwards unemployed. He was made 
colonel of the 61st loot on 126 June 1849, 
lieutenant-general on 20 June 1854, general 
on 20 April 1861, and G.O.B. on 28 Jnno 
1861, He died on 31 May 1802 at Hill 
House, near Windsor. On 11 May 1848 he 
married Annette Lnotitia, eldest daughter of 
Captain Berkeley Maxwell, H. A., of Tupjum- 
dene, Kent; he had two sons and throe 

Willshire was a tall, athletic man, with 
aquiline features. His portrait, painted by 
T. Heaphy, was lent by Lady "Wlllfllure to 
the Victorian Exhibition. In the 88th he 
had the sobriquet of * Tiger Tom.' As a 
disciplinarian he * was strict, indeed severe, 
but always impartial and just.' 

[Low's Soldiers of the Victorian A#o, i. 1-104 ; 
Gent. Mag, 1862, ii. 631 ; Kennedy's Campaign 
of the Army of tbe Indue ; Goldflmid's Life of 
Outram ; Durand's First Afghan War ; Buvko'a 
Peerage.] JK. M. L* 

WILLSON. [See also WiteoMr.] 

1854), antiquary and architect, born at Lin- 
coln on 21 June 1787, was the eldest son of 
William Willson of Lincoln by his wife 
Clarissa, daughter of William Tenney. Bo- 
bert William Willson [q.v.1 was his younger- 
brother* He was brought up a Bonrnn 
catholic, and, after education at the grammar 
school, began to learn business as a builder 
under his father, who had unusual know- 
ledge of theoretical construction, In a few 
years he abandoned building for the study 
of architecture, in which he obtained help 
from a local architect. He was engaged by 
Archdeacon Bayley in 1828 in the restora- 
tion of Messinghana church, and superin- 
tended repairs or restorations at uaxey, 
Louth, West Rasen, Saundby, Staunton, and 
other churches in the counties of Lincoln and 

Nottingham. He designed Roman catholic 
chapels at Nottingham, Ilainton, Louth, 
Melton Mowbray, Grantham, and elsewhere, 
some of which may bo regarded aw etirly 
examples of the Gothic revival. In 182B ho 
designed the organ case for Lincoln Cathe- 
dral, but beyond this (and occasional informal 
suggestions) ho was not engaged on tho 
cathedral restorations, conducted at that tinw 
in a spirit of wholesale renovation, which 
ho deprecated. Between 1834 and 1845 ho 
restored tho keep, towors, and walls of .Lin- 
coln Castle, and had for more than twenty 
years the charge of that fabric, as county 
surveyor. Tho IVlham Column, 128 foot 
high, on a lull at Cabourn between Oaiator 
and Orimsby, was dcHigned by Willflon for 
the Earl of Xarborough. About 1818 an 
acquaintance with John Brillon fq. v.] and 
AugustiiB Charles Pug'iu [q, v,] wtartod him 
upon an industrious career an a writer on 
the phase ot" architecture limn becoming 
popular. For Brittou's 'Architectural An- 
tiquities ' (4to, 1 807-SiO) ho fmppliod aoccmntH 
of Boston church, St. Potor H, Barton, and 
tho minBtorH of Boverley and Lincoln, and 
probably took a largo share in tho chrono- 
logical table attached to the fifth volume. 
11 o was associated with thn Hiimo author's 
'Cathodral Ant iquititm' (4to, 1 8M ;m> ami 
4 Picturesque Ajitiquitius of Knirlifth Cities' 

(4to, isao). 

The ' BpecimcmH of Gothic Archittsctxiro * 
which Augustus Oharlua l*ugin b#an to 
publish in IB%1 owed much to \Vinon*rt 
8uggfltions,both m^ d^liuoationoi 1 mould- 
ings and details (an advance* on pro views 
methods of recording architecture) and in 
the selection of the exaxnploH. Willson 
wrote the whole of the letter press for them 
two volumes, and supplied a valuable felon- 
sary of Gothic architecture, tho lirnt of its 
kind* For Puffin's 'Examploa of Gothic 
Architecture ' (4to, 1828-81) he also wrote 
the text, including essays on ' Oothlc Archi- 
tecture ' and ' Modern Imitation.' He WUH 
intimatety connectud witli the movement for 
the cultivation and nomenclature of Gothic 
architecture with which Thomas Riolmian 
[q. v.] and others were then tiHsociu/Uid. 

He was the author of yariouH pamphlets 
on local subjocte, and collected a wtuuih of 
material for'the arcMtocturai history of hia 
county and cathedral, which lack of time 
and health prevented his putting into print. 
All branches of ecclesiastical history claimed 
his attention, and he left notes upon tho 
disputed authorship of the 'Do Imitations 
Christi.' He was honoured as a citizen in 
Lincoln, and became a city magistrate m 
1884 and mayor in 185& 




Willson died at Lincoln, on 8 Sept. 1854, 
He was buried at Hainton. He married, in 
1821, Mary, daughter of Thomas Mould. 
By her he had two surviving sons, 

[Builder, 1855, xiii. 4-5; information from 
T. J. Willson, esq. ; Gent. Mug. 1855, i. 321.] j 

P. W. 


(1794-1866), Roman catholic bishop of 
Hobart, Tasmania, born at Lincoln in 1794-, 
was the third son of William Willson or 
Lincoln, Edward James Willson [q.v,] was 
his eldest brother. He entered the college 
of Old Oseott in 1816, was ordained to the 

?riesthood by Bishop John Milner (1752- 
826) [q.v.] in December 1824, and in Fe- 
bruary 1825 was stationed at Nottingham, 
where he built the spacious church of St. John, 
which was completed in 1828. Subsequently 
he erected the fine group of buildings that 
now constitute the cathedral of St. Barna- 
bas, with its episcopal and clerical residence, 
schools, and convent. At the suggestion of 
William Bernard Ullathorne [q. v.] he was 
made the^first bishop of Hobart Town, Tas- 
mania, being consecrated in St. Chad's Cathe- 
dral, Birmingham, on 28 Oct. 1842 by Arch- 
bishop Folding of Sydney. Bishop (after- 
wards Cardinal) Wiseman's sermon, preached 
on the occasion, has been printed. Willson 
arrived at Hobart Town in 1844. 

Besides Norfolk Island, other penal settle- 
ments at Port Arthur and on Maria Island 
came within the jurisdiction of the new 
bishop. Great social evils bad been de- 
veloped under the prevailing system of penal 
discipline, but Willson effected many ame- 
liorations in the treatment of the convicts, 
especially on Norfolk Island. Indeed his 
representations to the colonial and imperial 

Comments, backed by Sir William Thomas 
reformation of ^this part of the system. So 
earnest was he in his purpose thathe resolved 
to come home in order to let the British Go- 
vernment know the truth with regard to 
the sufferings of the convicts and the Jiorrors 
of Norfolk Island. He arrived in England 
in the middle of 1847, and he was listened 
to with respectful attention both by her 
majesty's government and by the select com- 
mittee of the House of Lords. He reached 
Hobart Town again in December 1847, and, 
in consequence of his continued exertions, 
Norfolk Island was eventually abandoned as 
a penal settlement. WiUson brought about 
other reforms in the penal discipline of Tas- 
mania, and he likewise effecte'd various re- 
forms in the treatment of the insane. His 
services as chief pastor of his own com- 

munion. and as a public man in tlio develop- 
ment 01 various colonial and local institu- 
tions, were warmly acknowledged by suc- 
cessive governors and by the community at 
large throughout Tasmania, 

He finally left the colony, in shattoml 
health, in the spring of 18C5, and settled at 
the scene of hia earlier labours. Having 
formally resigned his preferment, lie was 
translated by the holy HOO ou iiii June I860 
from the bishopric oi Hobart Town to that 
of Rhodiopoliw, in partihm infiMium. He 
died at Nottingham on 30 June 1806, and 
was buried in the crypt of the cathedral 
church of St, Barnabas, 

[Memoir by Bishop Ulluthorno, London, 1887 
(with photographic portrait), reprinted from 
Dublin Koriow, 3rd Her. xviii. 1-20 ; Conscara- 
tion Sermon by Cardinal Wiseman; Kolnh's 
"Personal Recollections of Bishop Willaon, Ho- 
bart, 1882; tTllathorm/B Autobiogr. p. 222; 
Gent. Mug, 1806, ii. 270.] T. 0. 



naturalist, was bom at JMiddloton, Warwick- 
shire, in KUJ5. Me was <wl laterally descended 
on his maternal grandfather's side Irom Sir 
Hugh Wilioughby fq. v,], hie Father's father 
being Sir Percivall Wlllughby, the male 
representative of the Willoughbys of Erosby, 
and his father's mother tho eldtwt daughter 
and heiress of Sir Francis Willughby of 
"Wollaton, Nottinghamshire. II is father, Sir 
Francis Willughby, who died 17 Dec. 1605, 
married Cassandra, daughter of Thomas 
Ridgewav, earl of Londonderry [q. v,], and 
Willughby was their only son, < Ho was, 
from his childhood,' says Hay, ' addicted to 
study, . * , As soon as he had come to the 
use of reason, he was so great a husband 
of his time as not willingly to lose or let 
slip unoccupied the least fragment of it,. . * 
so excessive in the prosecution of his studies 
. . . that most of his intimate friends were 
of opinion that he did much weaken his 
body" and impair his health ' ( The Ornithology 
of Francis WilluffM>y> 1678, prof,) WU- 
lughby entered Trinity Uolbga, Cambridge, 
in 1653, as a fellow-commoner, his tutor 
being James Duport [q. v.JL who in 16HO 
dedicated his ' Gnomologia ftomeri' to Wil- 
lughby and three others. Kay, who wua 
eight years Willughb/s senior, had entered 
Trinity College in order to become Duporfc's 
pupil, but in 1663 was already himself Greek 
lecturer, and became soon after mathemati- 
cal lecturer, and in 1666 humanity reader, 
Isaac Barrow, to whom Willughby's mathe- 
matical tastes recommended him, had been 
elected to a fellowship at the same time as 




Bay in 1649. Willughby graduated B.A. m 
1655-6, and proceeded M.A. in 1659. 

In 1660 Willughby spent a short time at 
Oxford in order to consult some rare works 
in the libraries there; and in the preface 
to his 'Catalogue Hantarum circa Canta- 
brigiam/ published in that yeur ; JLUy alludes 
to help received from "Willughby and to hits 
success in the study of insects. In a letter 
to him, dated 1059, Hay asks for his help, 
for Warwickshire and Nottinghamshire, to- 
wards a catalogue of British plants (GV/Y> 
spondence of John Itay, Itay Soc., p. 1). In 
1661 Willughby did not accompany Kay 

in Derham's ' Life of Ray ' he is stated^ to 
have done so, the naturalist's companion 
being Philip Sldppon (op t tit, p. 3), but in 
May and June 16G2 he did accompany liav 
on his third journey from Cambridge through 
the northern midland counties and Wales. 
He appears to have parted company from 
him in Gloucestershire, to have clumcud upon 
a find of Roman coins near Dursley, and to 
have fallen ill at Malyern (op* ci& p. 8). 
Willughby was at this tiino much inte- 
rested in mathematical quest ions, as appears 
from two letters of his, dated March 16($ 
and October 1065, to Barrow, published by 
Derhamin the 'Philosophical Letters' (1718). 
Barrow dedicated to him and others his 
edition of * Euclid/ and is recorded in Cole's 
manuscripts to have said 'that he never 
knew; a gentleman of such ardor after real 
learning and knowledge, and of such ca- 
pacities and fitness for any kinde of learning/ 
It must have been at this time that, as Kay 
afterwards told Derham (Memorials of May, 
p. 33), he and Willughby 'finding the 
" History of Nature * very imperfect , , , 
agreed between themselves, before their 
travels beyond sea, to reduce the several 
tribes of things to a method, and to give 
accurate descriptions of the several species 
from a strict view of them. And forasmuch 
as Mr. Willughby's genius lay chiefly to 
animals, therefore he undertook the birds, 
beasts, fishes, and insects, as Mr. Kay did 
the vegetables/ Ray, having been deprived 
of his fellowship in August 1662 by the 
operation of the Act of Uniformity, he and 
Willughby determined to go abroad, and 
left Dover for Calais on 18 April 1663, 
accompanied by Philip (afterwards Sir 
Philip) Skippon and Nathaniel Bacon, two 
of Bay's pupils. On 22 May Willughby 
was included in the original list of fellows 
of the Royal Society, which had been in- 
corporated on 22 April. War with Franco 

compelled the travellers to turn aniile into 
Flanders, after which they travortwd Hot- 
many, Switzerland, Italy, Sidly, and Malta. 
In August 1004 "Willuguby parted from the 
others at Montpelior, and accompanied a 
merchant into Spain. IHs journey is sum- 
marised in a letter to Ray, written from 
Paris in December ((hrrtwp, of 7iVry, p. 7)* 
Many of the travoliora' papum were lout on 
their return journey; but Hay published 
their ' Observations. . , . W Weunt,o in 
added a brief Account of FmiutiH Wil- 
Iughb 4 y, estj., liis Voyage through a great 
part of Spain/ in 1(>7,% and many of \Vil- 
lu^hby's specimens of birds, ftahoft, foHsilw, 
dried plants, and coins are still at Wollaton 

llocallod to England by the death of his 
father in December 1005, Willughby "WHH 
kept at M iddloton J I all during much oi* 1 (($($; 
but on 2ii July, in company with llobort 
Hooko and ottiorH, ho aimer ved the wHpHt* 
of the sun through, Hoyle'w G0*foot, toloHuopo 
iu London (Phti* TmnxA) Snnt. lOiW), In 
October of that your Dr. John Willuuijl'g. vj 
wroto asking IUK auMHtamw in drawing- up 
tabioH of animal w for IUH l Pksay towards a 
Real Character/ which was published iti I < i(JH j 
and Hay Hpimt the jfrcit.or part of thw follow- 
ing wintor at Middletoiit aH he Htiyw hi a letter 
to Martin Lister, * roviewitig, ttnd lielpim* 
to put in order, Mr. Willughby^ coUoctioai 
, . , in giving what assiHtaneo I cotiUl to 
Dr. Wilkms in franutipr hiw tnhlos of plants, 
quadrupud, birdw, fittluw, &<, for the \\m of 
tlie universall character' (Mpmriato of ttay 9 
p, 17) ; in tho dodicivtiott of hirt work, how- 
ever, Wilkins acknowlud^ea 1m indebted IUWA 
t*o Willu^liby in respect of amml, and to 
Hay only in inspect <)f plants, From J une to 
September KKi7 "Willughby and Kay mado 
a tour into the soutli-wost of England (t'A. 
p, 21); but Willughby's marriage in IOCS 
temporarily suspended their collaboration* 
Hay wa8hpwovoT,re-estabrmUftd at Middle 
ton Hall in September KM18. and in tlio 
followitig spiring the two friends carntnl 
out some important experiments on tho r\m 
of sap in trees (Phil Tram, iv, W\\\ In 
the autumn of 1069 Willud\by sent letter** 
to the Hoyal Society on the * cartrngos ' of 
rowe leaves made by luaf-cutting beeft. In 
1671 be wrote on the name aubjoot and on 
ichneumon wasps, and from a lottor from 
Bay to Lister m 1070 he SGoms to have 
added considerably to the lattor's list of 
English spiders (tiorrwp, of Xtay, p, 60), 
At the close of 1671 Willughby ^meditated 
a journey to America to ' perfect His hiatory 
of animals j ' but bis health, never rolniat, 
failed him. He was taken seriously ill in 


\Villu K hby 

Juw Itt7:7, nnd dini nf Mstittli<imt Hull o 
H Julv lUVv*. Ho \vf hriil tit MititU<<ftm j 
chuxvn, !IM hwih hping Hummtwhtl ly a ! 
luwt ami biMtrintf n Latin I'jutnjih, pmlwMy : 
Viy liny, Thtw in ulw 11 mnrhlt* huwt r'rf 
him in Trinity <Vlt^ LiUrnry, rmuhrtttw*, 
mid an oil {mrtntif nt \Vtiliwt*w, from wlwh ! 
that toy Ijixtir* in Sir VVtUinm JiirditifVi ' 
'NtttumltHt 1 * Utirury* WM rntfriivi'd, Tho . 
irt*tuiN irititttflMtti nil iwjiurtiwt ^rnitp nf ! 
MiiltwttA ruhW j1iit* wiw tiiulimtw] to! 
him by William H>xttnr^h jq, v, | Tim lt*nl- j 
cuttiujf lw diwmbtnt by him bww hw mum* 


rniiMt \vh* 

:tm , , , flfNcrthimtttr 
TMjjiwvit, digoHHifc, Rupplevit 
HmnptuH in chalcography 
1>, KnmtfL Willtighhy viclua/ 
N fol, Of thin worlt Neville 
""'- 1 - 1 - ww'tho ilrotnattt- 
- . ,. ,. Mt.mty of birds as a 
wii'iuM', Hwi thi* Hmt who mud** anything 
liK it rnfittfiui rlnnNificnliim . , , His sys- 
tem , . , irt wifhrwt dmjhi, Urn IIAMIH on winch 
tht*rr}ttthutti)*i<'fii Hnwifit'ntitmof Linnrousis 


Wiliujihhy mitrm'd, in IflM, Kmnin, NO- 
wmd tkwg-ht^r ttttfhH>hiMn'HM nf Sir TlmwiiM 
Barnard, !>y whm h hutt thnn* l* 
) C'mwuntiru, nuii Ttirttuttrt. 


no doubt m AR honour to hi t*iithf*r*M m- i 
y but, diid in UJHH, {'twHumlw mnrrW I 
u Rrydgw, ftrt dulw of Ohfimtnrt j tj, v, |; 
and ThotnuHy who Hu<Hwinitl t tin* hamn**i<'y 
in 10HB, ivs crtwtwl Karon MidtUi'tun in 
JDocowihor 171 J, btdntf om* of th^ hutch of 

St, John; htidunl in 17*JU, Mw, VVilludthy 
in 1 670 marritul Sir Jcwiah Child I tj, v, ) 

Bay -WH^OUB of flv oxmnttwm of \Vil- 
lughby's "will, undor which hn nn**ivui an 
annuity of sixty pound*. Until l7l Iw 
acted as tutor to tbo ehildvnn of bin frumd 9 
and, from^ letters priatwd in MM <^IT- 

tp have decided that it wasVm duty to nub- 
lish what Willuriiby had dono twartU hin 
history of animals, * Stewing,' ho ay * hm 
manuscripts after his dearth, I found tho 
aeveral animals in every kind, both birds, 
and beasts, and fishes, and inMt f digwrtfld 
into a mothod of his own contriving, hut &w 
of their descriptions or Ustories BO full and 
perfect as ha intended thorn; which ho ^wan 
so sensible of that when I askod him upon 
his deathbed whether it was his pioaniira 
they ^ should be published, he answord that 

siderable as to deserve it . . , though he con- 
test there were some new and pretty obfierva- 
tions on insects. But considering that the 
publication of them might conduce some* 
what to the illustration of Ood'a dory . 
the assistance of those who addict them- 
selves to this part of philosophy, and . . the 
honour of our nation . , he not contradict 
TO -I resolved to publish them and first took 
MS*..* 8 9^^L (PMfcoe to Tht 

__ _^_^^ -VW.V, v***|,vjyiyj^yfc 

Ornithology of^ Panels 
This ww published in 1676' as - jprancisci 
Pillughbeii . , . Ornithologifls libn tres in 
qmhus aves omnes . , , fc methodum naturis 

h'lty w*\\ iwimrtul nil onliu^tul iulft.ion of 
this work in iM^IiNh, which hn pnblinlwd hi 
H17H m *Tlm Untithology tjf Kriuicis Wil^ 
lug-hhy , / hiM own MhHW< in which is do* 
wrilrtl by t h vvor<ln t * trftitNlatwl into English, 
nntl <itliu^iMl with many mlditionn through- 
nut tho \vhli wnrk, Vo which aro added 
ltr* rtmHtfi^rnhit* UiwourwH; I, On the Art 
f !Ai\v!tt% 1 1 , Of tho Ordering of Ringing 
HtrdM. Hi. Of Knhnmry/ London (pp. 448 f 
On 1H l*i*h, MlH'l Uny, thon wttlodat 
Hhidt Nulloy, KHH*\% writtw to Hir Tuncrod 
litiMfmtm [<{. v.j that h* hnd ixtmutnd out; of 

dixt^^nmt fitttnHUr tin* |*n*HM/l * Ichthyo* 
'-"y.* Th<* NVillti^hhy fniitily not awsist- 
r tn tltM jMihlimtMin f thin w<irk, a they 
hiid in th< fiwn of <h former, it was insued 
at ih <tx|*tHM f HiHimj) I'Vli and ih Royal 
' vnriciuN fillttw of the wue.ioty bear- 
ing llm <*tmt f tlw j*ur|tlfttuHuMtration8. 
nnd th* work fonug printed at thw Oxfpra 
U wvorwty I*P<*HM nntbr th titl<3 of * Francifici 
ii , , <i< iliHtnfb Pimuum libri 
qutitunr , , , INitutn }HiMntwf(fwivit,cottptavit| 
it, lib nun ol mm pritnum tvt nocundum 
i tulpcit tluhiuint'H HniiiR * * . Oxonii/ 
(pj>, &711, fl) In thft limt, yoar of his 
Hny ri*lvtni to roinploto Willufifhby's 
tey of limwtw,* but, at l)i% Tnncr<wl; 
ltobinsan*s nu^oMtion, prnemitKl it by kit',' 

just aft-wr his dwtth, *Jn August 1704 he 
wrote to Dr, Durham of the larger work; { 
*Th mitin rwiuion which induces me t un- 
durtiakn it. is bcmusa I hav Mr. Willughb/fl 
history and papurs in my hands, who had 
sptwt a grtiat dal of tni and bestowed 
much pains upon this subjut*,t . * * and it is 
aplty nis paine should be lost , . I rely 
chiefly on Mr, Willughby's discovories and 
the contributions of friends ; as for my own 
papers on the subjtiet they aro not worth 
preserving/ TJw *IHstona Iiweotwum 1 
was published in 1710 as * auctore Joanne 
Baio/ edited by Derhsm for the Bojral So- 
ciety; but it abounds throughout with Mfc 
knowledgments of indebtedness to^Wil- 
lughby, expressed in terms of the highest 




deference. There seems little reason to 
class Hay's posthumous ' Synopsis Method! ca 
Avium et Piscium,' published in 1713 7 among 
works mainly due to the labours of Wil- 
lughby; but when we remember the inti- 
mate friendship of the two men, their un- 
doubted collaboration in the tables prepared 
for Dr. Wilkins's work, and the definite state- 
ments as to his own share in the work made by 
Bay, a man of unquestionable modesty, we 
recognise that it is futile to attempt to ap- 
portion the credit. When Sir James Edward 
temith writes *we are in danger of attribut- 
ing too much to Mr. Willughby, and too 
little to 7 Kay (Lmnean Transftction$,vQl. i.), 
he errs only in a less degree than does 
Swainson in saying that 'all the honour 
that has been given to Kay, so far as con- 
cerns systematic zoology, belongs exclusively 
to' Willughby. 

[Memoir by Joshua Frederick Denham in Sir 
W. Jardine's Naturalist's Library, vol. xvi. ; 
authorities cited.] G. S. B. 

1685), writer on obstetrics, was sixth son of 
Sir Percivall Willughby, knt., of Wollatan 
Hall, Nottinghamshire, where he was born 
in 1696. Francis Willughby [q. v,] wan his 
nephew. Percivall was educated at Trow- 
bridge, Rugby, Eton, and Oxford, where ho 
matriculated from Magdalen College on 
23 March 1620-1, his age being given as 
twenty-two, and graduated B,A. on 6 July 

In 1619 he was, at the suggestion of his 
uncle Robert Willughby, liimaolf a modical 
man, articled for seven years to Foarnor van 
Otten, after which he was to have joined 
his uncle; but Van Otten dying in 1624, 
Willughby soon after commenced practice 
for himself, and in 1631 he settled in Derby, 
where he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sic 
Francis Coke of Trusley, by whom he had 
two or three sons and two daughters. 

On 20 Feb. 1640-1 he was admitted an 
extra licentiate of the Royal College of 
Physicians, In 1655 he removed to London 
'for the better education of his children/ 
but in I860 he returned to Derby, where he 
resumed his practice as a physician, enjoying 
a high reputation throughout the neighbour- 
ing counties for his skill in obstetric opera- 
tions. He deprecated the use of the crotchet, 
and, Chamberlen's secret of the forceps not 
having been as yet divulged, he endeavoured 
to overcome all difficulties "by turning. At 
one period he was to some extent assisted 
; by a daughter, whom he had trained as a 
midwife to ladies of the higher classes. He 
was a man of high culture, powerful intel- 

lect, and great modesty, scorning the secrecy 
which some of his contemporaries main- 
tained as to their procedures ; and though 
he committed to writing the conclusions at 
which he arrived after long years of study 
and observation, revising and transcribing 
the manuscripts in English and in Latin, 
he seems to liave hesitated to tho last at 
their publication, as if sensible of the want 
of some really scientific instrument (the 
forceps) for the perfection of his art. ^The 
earliest copy of his work is a closely written 
quarto, entitled* Dni Willougbaoi, Dorbiensis, 
Be Puerperio Tractatus,' in the Brit tab, 
Museum Sloane MS. 5i39, Tho second, 
an amplification of this, and reforrod to by 
Dr. Denman in his * Practice of Midwifery/ 
was then in the possession of his friond 
Dr. Kirkland ; while the third and greatly 
enlarged edition consisted of twoexnuiHitoly 
-written copies in Latin and in English, 
which were quite recently the property or 
the Into Dr. J. II . Avolmg, the JMnfflwh 

vwsion boing in two parts, with tho titles 
' Observations in Midwifery ' and ' Tho 
Count.roy Midwifes Qpiuwulum or Vado- 
mecum, ay Percivall Willughby,Gentlcmian,' 
It was privately printed in lft(Jtt by Jftonry 
Blonkimopp, but a Dutch trauHlation had 
been printed as an octavo at Loyckn in 1704, 
thoxighno copy is now to bo hml in Holland. 
He was the intimate friond of Ilorvoy and 
of moat of tho scientific mem of tho contury, 
and died on 2 Oct. Itt85, in, th ninetieth 
yflar of his age, being buried in St. Potor'a 
ulmrch at Derby, whore within the rails of 
the chancel is a tablut to his memory. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys.j Footer's Alumni 
Oxon, 1500-4714 ; BloanoMS. 620.] If. W. 

WILLYAMS, COOPER (1703-181 6), 

topographer and artist, born in Juno 17U2, 
probably at Plaistow Houeo, BSBOX, wa the 
only son of John Willyams ( 1 707-1770) , com- 
mander K.N.. by his wife, Anne Goodore, 
daughter of Sir Samuel Goodero, and first 
cousin of Samuel Foote [q. v.] lit) was edu- 
cated at the King's school, Canterbury, whore 
he was contemporary with Charles Abbott, 
first lord Tentordcn, Bishop Marsh, and Hir 
8. E, Brydges. In 17B9^)\o pwachwd the 
annual sermon before the KiugVn School Fount 
Society (SIDBBOTHAM, Canterbury Su/ioot, p. 

Willyams was entered in October 1780 at 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and gra- 
duated BA. in 1784 and MA. in 1780. In 
the shrine- of 1784 he was in Franco with 
his friend Montagu Ponnington [q, v.], and 
in that year he was ordained to a cuffey 
near Gloucester, where his mother lived, 



He was appointed in 1788 to the vicamg'<J 
of Exning, near Newmarket, and in 170<> to 
the rectory of St. Peter, West Lynn, Nor- 
folk An illustrated account of Exning by 
him appeared in the 'Topographer' for bop- 
tember 1790 (iii. 192-4), and he furnish^ 
other illustrations to that periodical O 1 *- 
256, 391, iv. 17, 59). He contributed to 
'Topographical Miscellanies' (1792) a vknv 
of Kirtling Hall, near Newmarket, He re- 
signed the benefice of Exning in 1800. 

In early life Willyams had imbibed a love 
of the sea, and on 24 Nov. 1793 he started 
as chaplain of the Boyne to the West Imliofy 
in the expedition under the command of 
Lieutenant-general Sir Charles Grey and 
Vice-admiral Sir John Jervis, Through 
deaths from yellow fever the ranks of the 
officers were much thinned; he himself Buf- 
fered from it, and during the latter part of 
the campaign was the only chaplain m tho 
expedition. The French soldiers at Port St. 
Charles, Guadeloupe, surrendered on 22 April 
1794, and Willyams was appointed chaplain 
to the English troops in that island, but tho 
ministry at home would not confirm the ap- 
pointment. He published in 1796, with 
illustrations, * An Account of the Campaign 
in the West Indies in 1794 j ' a German trans- 
lation of it came out at Leipzig in 1800, 
Some details of this war were inserted from 
his * comprehensive and circumstantial Ac- 
count' in Bryan Edwards's 'History of the 
West,Indies'(1819, iii. 444 et se$.) 

Willyams became in 1797 domestic chap- 
lain to Earl St. Vincent, and from 24 May 
1798 he served as chaplain of the Swiftsure 
(Captain HalloweU), a vessel in the squadron 
tinder the command of Nelson. He was 
present in this vessel at the battle of the 
Nile, and his narrative, which was full of en- 
gravings from his own drawings, of ' A Voy- 
age up the Mediterranean in the Swiftsure/ 
contained 'the first, the most particular, ana 
the most authentic account of the battle.' 
A German version was published at Ham- 
burg in 1803. After the death of Willyams 
there appeared in 1822 a volume containing 
<A Selection of Views in Egypt, Palestine, 
-Rhodes, Italy, Minorca, and Gibraltar, with 
descriptions in English and French.' 

Willyams landed at Portsmouth on 10 Sept' 
1800, and stayed some weeks with Brydges, 
who in 1806 appointed him to the rectory 
ot Kingston, near Canterbury. In the same 
year he was nominated by the lord chancellor, 
through the influence of Lord St. Vincent, 
to the neighbouring rectory of Lower Hard- 
ness, which he at once exchanged for that 
ofStourmouth. These two benefices together 

[In cltml at I Ji.miml Mtrwti 

7m i ffi 

V i '"" 

Awhralyl !,<> {rv.ig... it, 

|,irm, ..,! whim..!, 


H 1 17 Hl() ji 
'H AuhStf 

1H08 i. 12-10, 
i. 01, 184; Krj 

AuthorH, 1004; 

A ithttUiil HUB o* 

, w of Kl,-,,. Onr(''r Si7) 




im;..liHlur) ly Thomiw . 

. I'M' iiiwUlkmi Down,' 

whioh ho nmctonxl into Latin and 

NHCU'H Wwiotion, vry mmisito 

ft, r a Ol.ristian PrW . . . 
I rmtod by loha L( V at, Oumbridgo,' 4to. 


of w, 

of Wales, for wtow, Immiflt tha ion 
Doron had boon writtun, Kneourawd by 

of his 

i t>)lon o s i'to 

* c ?If. lli(>n volume In 10 
A .Loyal Hvbmct'a Looking-Qlass 


euery Good Ohristian ... at 
*?^ ^ G, Eldofor Jtobert Boul- 

TT " 8 TE& was also Bleated to 
Ilennr. WiHymat enforced by pre- 
cepts drawn from aneientand modern writers 
S? P"0^ d "ty of obedience to hia rulers. 

r^nte d i a lM * P ortion of hi8 book to 
rebuking reluctance in paying subsidies and 


, in <the compassion, pity, 
tifulnesse of the king, prince, &c., 

n fr a ^ J remittin ** la 
1605 he pulhshed a third treatise of a reli- 

S re ' w ^ ich 8llows litera 7 ability of 
order. It was entitled ' Thysicke to 




cure the most. Dangerous Disease of Despera- 
tion ... by W. W. ... at London, printed 
for Robert Boulton ' (8vo), and dedicated to 
his patron, the Earl of Suffolk (cf. AKBBB, 
* of the Stationers* Reg. iii. 2 
A second edition, -was published in 1G07. 
On 15 July 1612 Willysnat petitioned the 
king concerning the arrears of a yearly pay- 
ment of 2Z. to be made to the crown from 


ment of 2L , 

the revenues of his rectory, which had re- 
mained unpaid for forty-seven yours. He 
requested the remission of ^the arrears due 
before the commencement of James I'H roign, 
offering to make good subsequent arrears. 
His petition was granted. Willymat died at 
Rusldngton at the close of 1615, and his will 
was proved at Lincoln on 19 Jan. 1,615-16, 
]Vy his wife Margaret he had two sons- 
William and James and four daughters: 
Sarah, Margaret, Francos, and Anne. He 
possessed land in Cheshire, which he be- 
queathed to his brothers, James and Roger ; 
in Ruskmgton, which ho loll to his son Wil- 
liam ; and in Bicker, which ho bestowed on 
his son James. The rest of his pOHstwsions 
he gave to his wife and throe younger daugh- 
ters, the eldest, Sarah, probably being mar- 
ried. Copies of all his works are in tho 
British Museum Library. 

[Maddison's Lincolnshire Wills, 1600-17, pp. 
101, 122-3 ; Hunter's Ohorxxs Vatnm in Brit, 
Mm Addit. MS. 24489, f. 103; Coraor'a Col- 
lectanea (Ohetham See.), v. 403-6; Cooper's 
Athenae Oantabr. n, 402-3,] E. I. 0. 

grammarian, bora at Koyston in Cambridge- 
shire, was the second son of Thomas Willy- 
mott of Royston, by his wife Kachael, 
daughter of William Pindar, roctor of Bos- 
well Springfield in Essex. He was educated 
at Eton and admitted a scholar of King's 
College, Cambridge, on 20 Oct. 1692, gra~ 
duating B.A. in 1697, M.A. in 1700, and 
LL.D. m 1707. He became a follow, and 
after taking his master's degree wont as 
usher to Eton. After some years he left 
Eton and commenced a private school at Me* 
worth. In 1721 he was an unsuccessful can- 
didate for the mastership of St Paul's school, 
being rejected apparently because ho was sus- 
pected of an attachment to the Pretender. 
Some time before this he studied civil law 
and entered himself of Doctors' Commons, 
but, changing his mind, took orders, and in 
1721 was made vice-provost of King's Col- 
lege, of which he was then senior fellow. In 
1705 he was presented to the rectory of 
Milton, near Cambridge* He died, unmar- 
ried, on 7 June 1737, at the Swan Inn at 
Bedford, while returning from a visit to 

Willymott was tho author of numerous 
school books. Among them may be men- 
tioned: 1. 'English Particles exemplified 
iu Sentences designed for Latin Exercises/ 
London, 1703, 8vo ; 8th edit 1771. 2. < The 
Peculiar Use and Signification, of certain 
Words in the Latin Tongue,' Cambridge, 
1705, 8vo ; 8th edit. Eton, 1790, 8vo ; new 
edit. Eton, 1818, 12mo. 3. 'Phrredrus [c] 
his Fables, with English Notes/ 4th edit. 
London, 1720, 12mo ; new edit. 1728. lie 
also translated * Lord Bacon's Essays,' Lon- 
don, 17^0, 8vo ; new edit, 1787 ; and < Thomas 
a Kompis . . his Four Boolcs of the Imi- 
tation of Christ/ London, 1722, 8vo. 

[Nicholas Lit, Anocd. i. 236-7, 706-6, iv. 
600; Harwood'a Alumni Ktononsos, 1797, p. 
297 ; Colo's Collections, xvL 102.) B. I. C. 


TOK, Sl'HNOBB, 1678P-1748,] 

OOTOT WILMOT 01* ATHLONM (1 570 P-1644 P), 
bom about 1570, wan won and hoir of Ed- 
ward Wilinot of Witnoy, Oxfordshire, for- 
merly of Dor wont, OloucHtotHhiro. On 
6 July 1 587 he matriculated from Magdalen 
College, Oxford, aged 10, but left the^ uni- 
versity without a degree*, and took service in 
the Irish warn, probably in attendance upon 
his neighbour, Sir Thomas N orris fq. v.], who 
was alHO a mombor of Magdaltm Collage, In 
1592 he bocimno a captain, and oarly in 1505 

ho was sent to Nowry ; in the same year ho 
was also in command of sixty foot at Carriole- 
forgufl, In 1597 Norris, now president of 
Munstpr, mado Wilmot aort*antHoat)or of the 
forces in that province, which office ho difl- 
chjirgod ' with jjroat valour an<3L flufficitmcy,' 
being 1 promoted colonol in 1608, He -was 
knighted by TCnsox at Dublin on 5 Aug. 1599, 
and on tlxd 16th was sont with instructions 
to tho council of Munstor for its government 
during Norm's illmm On 23 June 1000 
Mount/joy directed Oarew to swear in Wil- 
mot a a member of the Munater council, 
and during the next two years he took a 
prominent part, in suppressing the formidable 
Iriflh rebellion. 

In July 1600 Wilmot wafl loft by Oawvr 
in command of ' Oarryf^ofoyle ' Castle on the 
Shannon ; shortly afterwards 

command of a force of 1,(X)0 foot and fifty 
horso, with which in October ho d< if oat ed Tho- 
mas Fitzmaurice, eijfhtoonth lord Kerry and 
baron Lixnaw [q, v.J, and in November cap- 
tured Listowel Castle after sixteen daya' 
siege. Florence Maccarthy Beagh [q,y,] 
is said to have urged Wihnot'fl assassination 


at this time, but ha waR warnwl ^y Florence's 
wife. On 8 Dec, he was granted tho office 

Wilmot 6< 

of constable of Ciwtl*Mtaine (towtle, mid in 
July 11)01 win appointed governor of Cork, 
A year later Oare.w loft MtMHte.r, HiiggeMtin^ 
Wilmot's appointment an vife-pi'esidimt ; 
Cecil, however, wrote, that the quiwn would 
not 'accept Wihuot or any nuch* ((faL 
Oarew Aftf& H)01-#,p. SJ7-0, but Wilmot 
became commander-m-chief of the forms 
during Oarew'H abHtwcw, and in September 
1002 wan made governor of Kerry ; in the 
flame month ho captured * Moarumpe,* antl 
throughout the winter wan wigngud m clear* 
ing Kerry of the rebels, Ju this liwt week of 
December and fhwt wuok of January I ($02 Ii 
he inflicted a nerien of rvowH upon the 
Irish in Bearo and Jkntry, completely over- 
running the country (M, 100^ .% pju iitW, 
404-5; STAPtfOKl), Ptwattt Mibcndti) ed, 
180C,iL 881-4). Tlumc<v in February, he 
turned nortihm*flt, t again captured Taxnaw 
and subdutstKhe Dingln penmHula, iIVo,t ! "- 
a junction with Care w over tho Man^ei 
pass (BJLQWMI.L, Ireland wulw the 
iii. 420), 

In the following March Wilmot wnn afiwo- 
ciated with Sir Giorgo Thorntom in th go- 
vernment of Munater during Oart\w'fi ab- 
sence, Cork, however, rofuwsi^ to acknow- 
ledge his authority and proclaim Jamon t, 
and shut its fates against him. Wilmot Hat 
down before it, and turned MR guns on the 
inhabitants to provimt tbwir domoliHhittg tho 
forta erected ngainst the Hpftniard, ifo ri> 
fuaed, however, to attack tho city, and 
waited till Carew's return, wlum itfl Hubmift- 
fiion was arranged. Wilmot now nettled 
down as governor of Kerry, In KJCMi hi 1 
was again acting with Thornton as joint- 
commissioner for the government of Mun* 
ster, and in November 1607 waa granted n 
pension of 200^,, and sworn of "the Irinl 
privy council, On SO May 1811 he waw 
granted in re^ersm the matBhalehip of Iro- 
land, but sunfaad^rid it on 24 Aug 1617 
He sat in the English Hous^ ol Commons 
for Launceston from 5?|i^il t6 17 Jun^ 
1614 Ojd 8 June 161$ h^was appointed 
- ~ ~ imuuffa the seat 01 hie go 
ig Affilone; and on 4 Jan 
, drfated Viscount Wilmot o 
peerage of Ireland. Among 
j his services were grants o 

yof BaJlinglass and abbey 

Oarrickfergus in 1614. 

While president of Oonnanght Wilmo 
embarked on a scheme for completely re- 
building Athlone ; and in. 1621 Sir Charle 
Coote accused him of leasing and alienatin 
crown lands and reserving the promts to hin: 
self (Cali State Papers, Ireland, 1616-25 

~- A*>* m r rhcse charge)J ^^ re ^ XTe 


orH, hut Wilmot* dofimeo was 
for tho tinu boin^ and on 7 Nov. 
rmNiv*d a pnrdon (MoituiK, CtoL 
ftul/*, UharlnH I, p. .11). (lluuioH I 
IHO rnvo<l IHH n||iointnintaH pnwidontof 
JjmniLU^ht, and iu Odnlx^r H)li7 nclocti'd 
im art rummuiuliT of a rtluf osjwdition t.o 
to wit to lihCu His ihit WHH, howiwcr, div- 
itytnl at l*ly mouth, ih'Mt by want.of Hup|luK, 
tid thn by HtttnuH, whir.h damaf^od tlm 
hijw and tlnv* ttunu back intottort. Moan- 
lulo llm Kn^ltMh at La Itoc.hiulo had tmnrx 
mpilld to tvhvat ((UittuNi-m, vi, 191- 
O^Ht,) nml Wilmot rulurmul to Irohuul, 
ho WttH a|)]ioiutnrl on Nov. JUiJJ) 
nimniiituiiu^tu-f.hittf of Urn forcog. 
)u 11 Sipt. KilU) Sir Uojfor .Jonw.iiwt via- 
wunt. Rauola^h, wn nMMw'uitwl with htm in 
prtwidonc.y of I'OMtwujfht., and on AUJ^ 
t 1m wa on of tht wmmwHiniuw's a]H 
u)int<d to ^ovm Ihtliliu atul lAnimtor dur- 
^ tho almomw of \}\*\ lordH jtmt>lnoR* 
In UJJU, whon it, WIIM nw>ivd to Hupw- 
do tho lonlrt jjuHtiww of Inland by the 
iominntiou of a lord th^mty, Wilmot <wt.r- 
;ainod lutpon of boin^ HtdtM'.ttui for tho post 
Mw//'w/ Mtw* t i, tU), Wnttfcworth'H ap- 
>ointumt hn rHnntt*d an a Hlijjftiton IUHOWII 
ionjy Hrv|t'H, atul Uw unw lord-dt^puty's 
igtn'oiiH intiuiwtiott into ihiantiial abuHna 
HOOU bfotijyfht him into ctilliHion with Wil- 
inot. In 8iptmtmr HUM tlw }aWr* vrp- 
at Athlunjj woru Wu callou in 
a tonuutHHion of inquiry was 
arly in KWr> t and tho Imh law oili- 
Htitutod nuits ngatUHi Wilmot before 
tho catlt chamber on tho grmuul of miwdtn 
manour and in tho court of <ixhw|iwr for 
rtuu>vt^ry of thi crown landn huluul alituiatjul. 
Wilmot, in rovtmtf<vabottwl Harr'w potition 
againHt Wimtworth (tf. i, HtlU, 77, i), 40^, 
421), but on 0fc. 14IJI5 wtw forcod to sub* 
mit) and on 1) July 1030 btww#ht the lord- 
deputy's favour, Wiwtworth inHiHted on 
restitution of tht> crown landw, but appa- 
rently failed to make Wilmot disgorge before 
his recall from Ireland, Wilinot'H age pre- 
vented hi rviuff againnt tho Iriah rbew in 
1641, but ho rwtamtid his joint-prtwidoncy 
of Oonnaught till Im death, probably in, 
the early part of 1044. Ho was alive oix 
29 June 1 648, but dtrnd bijfore April 1044, 
when hiR BOH Hnry and Sir Charles Ooote 
wereappointtKljoint*pra8idntB of Oonnaught 
(LABOiDLMiB, m*r Mun. MM. ii. I88-iX)), 

Wiimot married, ftrst, about 1005, Sarah, 
fourth daughter of Sir Henry Anderson, 
sheriff of London in 1601-2 5 by her, whose 
burial on 8 Dec, 161/5 is registered both at St. 
Olave'e Jewry and at St. MartinVin-the- 
Fields, lie bad issue three sons- Arthur, 




Carles, and Henry who were all living in 
631 (MoRRiN, Cal. Patent Rolls, Charles I, p. 
45). Arthur married the second daughter of 
lir 'Moyses Hill, provost-marshal of Ulster. 
ut died without issue on 31 Oct. 1632, and 
vas buried in St. Nicholas's Church, Dublin 
LODGE, Peerage of Ireland, ii. 321). Charles 
ilso died without issue, the third son, 
Henry (afterwards first Earl of Hochoster) 
"q. v.J, succeeding to the viscountcy* Wil- 
mot married, secondly, Mary, daughter of 
Sir Henry Colley of Castle Carberry and 
widow of Garret, first viscount Moore [q. v.], 
who died in 1627 ; she survived till 3 June 
1654, being buried on 3 July with her first 
husband in St. Peter's, Drogheda ; her cor- 
respondence with the parliamentarians dur- 
ing the Irish wars gave Ormonde some 
trouble (GipBET, Oortt Xist. of Affairs, 
vol. ii. pp. xix-xx). 

[Cal. State Papers, Ireland, 1592-8, 1603- 
1626 passim; Oal. Carew MSS. 1589-1603; 
Stratford Letters, i. 61, 360, 377, 399-402, 421- 
423, 496, ii. 9-10, 81-2, 102, 206, 280 ; Morrin'e 
Cal. Patent Holls, Ireland ; Cal. Plants (Dep.- 
Keeper Bee. 17th Bop., Ireland); Cal, State 
Papers, Dom. ; Lascellos's Labor Munerum Hi- 
bernicorum ; Lords' Journals, Ireland, i. 17, 63 ; 
Bawlinson MS. B. 84, ff. 12, 92 ; Egerton MS. 
2597, f. 51 ; Official Bet urns Members of Pail. ; 
Stafford's Paoata Hibernia, ed. 1806 passim; 
Bagwell's Ireland under the Tudore, vol. iii.; 
Gardiner's Hist, of England; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon, 1500-1714; Lodge's Irish, Burke's Ex- 
tinct, and GK E. Cfckajnejs Complete Peerages.] 

WILMOT, SIR EDWAED (1693-1786), 
baronet, physician, second son of Eobert 
"Wilmot and Joyce, daughter of "William 
Sacheverell of Staunton in Leicestershire, 
was born at his father's seat of Chaddesden 
near Derby on 29 Oct. 1093. His ances- 
tors were of account at Sutton-upon-Soar, 
Nottinghamshire, for some centuries, and in 
1639 migrated into Derbyshire, He entered 
St. John's College, Cambridge, and graduated 
B.A. in 1714, was elected a fellow, took his 
MA. degree in 1718 and M.D. in 1725. He 
was admitted a candidate or member of the 
College of Physicians on 30 Sept. 1725, anc 
was elected a fellow on 80 Sept. 1726. In 1729 
and 1741 he was .a censor, and a Harveiau 
orator in 1735. He was elected P.R.S. on 
29 Jan. 1730. From 1726 he practised as a 
physician in London, and was elected physi- 
cian to St. Thomas's Hospital, and in 1740 
appointed physician-general to the army. In 
April 1731 he was appointed physician-extra- 
ordinary to Queen Caroline, and soon becam< 
physician in ordinary, and physician to 
Frederick, prince of Wales- lie becann 
physician extraordinary to George II on tb 

iueen'8 death in 1737 and physician in ordi- 
nary 1742. In 1736 John Pothergill [q. y-1 
who in after life spoke with respect of his skill, 
jecame his pupil. "When Henry Pelham had 
ost two sons by sore throat in 1739, Wilmot 
eserved the life of his wife, Lady Catharine 
Pelham, by lancing her throat (NICHOLS, 
lAt. Anted, ix. 738). In March 1751, with 
Vlatthew Leo [q. v.], he attended Frederick, 
>rince of Wales, in his lost illness, and does 
lot seem to have anticipated his death (BuBB 
LtoDiNGTOHT, Diary, p. 98). Archbishop 
Thomas Herring [q. v.j was his patient in a 
serious attack of pleurisy in 1753 (letter of 
flerring in NICHOLS'S Illustrations, iii. 457). 
&e was created a baronet on, 15 Fob* 1759, 
Dn the death of George II, Wilmot, with 
John Ruiiby [q. v,], acquainted Georgo III 
with two wialxes whicli the lato king had 
confided to them that his body should be 
embalmed with a double quantity of per- 
fumes, and that it should be laid close to 
that of the qufewn. Goorg III at once 
assented (Irlo'Mcna WAXPOLB, Memoirs, 1894, 
i. 7). Wilmot became physician in ordinary 
to George III in 1760, left London next 
year, and lived in Nottingham, but moved 
thence to Hwingatone in 13orsot, where he 
died on 21 Nov. 1786 (Omt. Mag. 1786, 
p. 1093), and was buried in that county in 
the church of Monkton, where his epitaph 
remains, He married Sarah Marsh, daugh- 
ter of Richard Mead [q, v,] Slip died on. 
11 Sept. 1786, aged 83; tier portrait, painted 
by Joseph Wright, A,RA., belongs to the 
family, as does a portrait of Wilmot by 
Thomas Beach (Cat. S&cond Loan EsshiJb. 
Nos* 610, 615), He waA succeeded in his 
baronetcy by his son, Kobort JMtead Wilmot, 
and had also two daughters, Ann and Jane- 

[Hunk's Coll. of Phys ii. 106 ; Burke'e Peer- 
ago and Baron tage.] N. M. 

WILMOT, HEN fir& EAEX, o* Bo- 
CHBSTEB (1612 P~165S)i third but only sur- 
viving sof of Oharle?, nrst viscount Wilmot 
[q, v J, by hii'firfii'fe wife, was born on 2 Nov., 
probably in 1618 (Q. B. 0[OKiY*ra] Complete 
Werage, vi, 480; Dotoa, OffiMal^jBawnag^ 
iii, 151). In 1685 Wilfiot was captain of 
troop 01 horse in the Butch service 

1635, p. 54), In the second Scottish wa? h^ ' 
was commissary-general of horse in the kinjf a, 
army, and distinguished himself by his good 
conduct at Newburn, where he was taken 
prisoner by the Scots ($. 1640, pp. 43, 645 ; 
TBBBT,Zif<? of Alexander Zestis, pp, 118- 
188}, .He represented Tamwprth in the Long 
parliament, and took part, in the plot for 
Bringing up the army to overdfov^the. pariia- 



meat, for which he was committed to the 
Tower on 14 June 1C41, and expelled from 
the house on 9 Dec. following (Commons' 
Journals, ii. 175, 337 ; Report on the Duke 
of Portland's MSS. i. 18; HUSBAND, Or^ 
w,1643, pp. 216-20). 

Wilmot joined the king m Yorkshire when 
the civil war began, commanded a troop of 
horse, and held the posts of muster-master 
and commissary-general (PEACOCK, Amy 
Lists,?. 16 ; Old Parliamentary History, xi. 
260). Clarendon blamea him for not prevent- 
ing the relief of Coventry in August 1042 
C$.xi,397 ; CLABBNDOW, Rebellion. v.446w.) 

XL 7 it* j.i. . ^-i_* *^T- -x ttr^*. 

-was wounded in the skirmish at Wor- 
cester on 28 Sept. 1642, and commanded the 
cavalry of the king's left wing at the battle 
of Edgehill (ib. vi. 44, 85), Wilmot cap- 
tured the town of Marlboroughin December 
1642, but his greatest exploit during the 
war was the crushing defeat he inflicted on. 
Sir William Waller (1697 P-1668) [a . v,] at 
Boundway Down, near Devizes, on 13 July 
1643 (ib. vi, 156, vii. 115 ; WATCBN, History 
of Marlborouyh, p, 160). In April 1643 
Wilmot was appointed lieutenant-general of 
the horse in the king's army, and on 29 June 
1643 he waa created Baron Wilmot of Adder- 
bury in Oxfordshire (BiAOK, OxfordDocgucts, 
pp. 26, 53), Clarendon describes Wilmot < as 
an orderly officer in marches and governing 
his troops,' while also very popular with his 
officers on account of his good fellowship and 
companionable wit. The comparison, after 
the manner of Plutarch, between Wilmot 
and Goring is the most amusing passage in the 
History of the Kebellion ' (viii. 169). Ex- 
tremely ambitious and perpetually at feud 
with the king's ciyil counsellors, t Wilmot 
was specially hostile to Lords Bigby and 
Colepeper. Prince Eupert, on the other 
hand, cherished a personal animosity to 

his intrigues. The king 1 , he was reported to 
have said, was afraid or peace, and the only 
way to end the war waa to set up the Prince 
of Wales, who had no share in tue causes ot 
these troubles. A private message which 
he sent to Essex by tho bearer of an oiHcial 
letter from the kiiig to < tho parliamentary 
commander rousod suspicion that he was en- 
deavouring by the concerted action of the 
two generals to impose terms on the king 
and parliament, and on H Aug. he was ar- 
rested and dppvivod of his command. Ho 
also lost his joint presidency of Connaught, 
to which ho had boon appointed in April 
1644, succeeding his father in that oiuce, 
and as second Viscount Wilmot of Athlone 
(LASOiaraus, Zibvr Mun. Ifilwrnicomni) ii. 
189, 190; QtiyniMC, Oont. JH>Vrt. vol. i,) His 
popularity, however, with tli officers of the 
royal army, who petitioned the king on his 
behalf, prevented any further proceedings 
against him, and ha was released and allowed 
to retire to Franco (ib. pp. 1 00- 1 ; WALKJQit, 
p. 67 -, CLABBNDON, IwMllim, viii. 9i>), At 
Paris in October 1(147 Wilmot fought a duel 
with his old enomy, Lord Pigby, and was 
slightly wounded (UAraa, Original Letter*. 
i, 63, 146, 169). 

When Charlcm II fluccoadntl his father 
Wilmot became one of tho now king's chief 
advisers. He was appointed a gontloman of 
the bedchamber on & April 1640, and con- 
sulted on questions of policy, though not a 
member of the privy council ($laittiBZtrttr* 9 
HI 88; OABTB, Ortyfa&l Lattery i. 839). 
He accompanied Charles to Scotland, at- 
tached himself to the Marquis of Argyll's 
faction, and was allowed to stay m the 
country when other English royalists wre 
expelled* Rumour credited him with be- 
traying the king's design to join Middlwton 

Wilmot, and Charles I had no great liking 
for him (ib. vi. 126, vii, 121, TUX. 30, 94). 
In 1644 these different causes led to Wilmot's 
fall. During the earlier part of the cam- 
paign the absence of Rupert and the infirmi- 
ties of the Earl of Brentford made him 
practically commander-m-ehief of that part 
of the army which was with the king. 
According to Clarendon he neglected mili- 

tary opportunities and spent his energy in 
cabals. At Cropredy Bridge, however,* on 
29 June Wilmot again defeated Sir William 
Waller, In the battle he was wounded and 
taken prisoner, but was rescued again almost 
immediately (ib. viii. 65 ; WA&KBE, Historical 
Discourses^ p. 83 ; Diary of Richard 

and the Scottish royalists ia. October 1680 

jutouvtw ooo, u. VHJ , ASiiwry \jj J,VMJ/*C*/W toy 

monds > p, 23). After this success the king 
marched into Cornwall in pursuit of the 
Earl of Essex, where Wilmot recommenced 

, Historical Dueourm, pp. 158, 
161,197; Nicholas Papers, I 301-8), Wil- 
mot fought at Worcester, accompanied the 
king in the greater part of his wanderings 
after that battle, ana helped to procure the 
ship m which both escaped to France in 
October 1651 (CMKINDOK, ReMlion 9 xiii. 
87-106 ; FBA, The Flight of the Kinfa 1897, 
passim), The common penis they uad en* 
dured strengthened his political position, 
end Wilmot, 'who had cultivated the king's 
affection during the time of their peregrina- 
tion and drawn many promises m>m him/ 
was one of the committee of four whom 
Charles thenceforward consulted with in all 
his affairs (CLAKBNDOK, Rebellion, xiii, 123; 
Clarendon State Papers, ill 40). On IB Dec. 

1652 he was created 
(Dorai, iiL 152; 

Earl of Rochester 



147). Charles also employed him on many 
diplomatic missions. In May 1662 he was 
sent to negotiate with the Duke of Lorraine 
(Nicholas Papers, i. 301), and in December 
of the same year he was despatched to 
negotiate with the diet of the empire at 
Katisbon, from whom he succeeded in ob- 
taining a subsidy of about 10,000/, for the 
king's service (CLAEBNDOtf, Rdwllion, xiv. 

65, 103). In 1654 he was sent on a mission to 
the elector of Brandenburg, from whom 
She king hoped for assistance to further the 
rising attempted by the Scottish royalists 
(Clarendon State fapcrs, in, 204, 220, 880, 
251). In February 1655 Rochester went to 
England to direct the movements of the 
royalist conspirators against the Protector, 
with power to postpone or to authorise an 
insurrection, as it seemed advisable, Ho 
sanctioned the attempt, but at the rendez- 
vous of the Yorkshire cavaliers on 8 March 
at Marston Moor found himself with only 
about a hundred followers, and abandoned 
the hopeless enterprise. Clarendon un- 
fairly blames him for desisting, but royalists 
in general did not (Rebellion) xiv. 135). 
Thanks to his skill in disguises, Rochester 
contrived to effect his escape, and, though 
arrested on suspicion at Ayleslmry, ^ot back 
to the continent early in Juno (Enqlmh His- 
torical Revieiv, 1888 p. 837, 1889 pp, 315, 
819, 831). In 1650, when Charles II raised 
a lifctle army in Flanders, Bochoster was 
colonel of one of its four regiments (CiAiUBN 1 * 
DOisr, Rebellion, xv, 68). lie died at Sluys 
on 19 Feb. 1057-8, and was buried at 
Bruges by Lord Hopton (CaL Stats Powers, 
Dom. 1658, pp, 5297, 300). After the 
Keatoration his body is said to have been 
reinterred at Spelsbury, Oxfordshire. 

Rochester married twice : first, on 21 Aug. 
1633, at Chelsea, Frances, daughter of Sir 
George Morton of Cleuston, Dorset, by 
Catherine, daughter of Sir Arthur Hopton 
of Witham, Somerset ; secondly, about 1044, 
Anne, widow of Sir Francis Henry Loo, barfc. 
(d. 13 July 1639), and daughter of Sir John 
St. John, bark, by Anne, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Leighton. Portraits or her and her 
first husband are reproduced in 'Memoirs 
of the Verney Family' (i. 241, iiL 464), 
She was the friend of Sir Balph Verney 
and of Colonel Hutchinson, and helped to 
save the life of the latter at the Kestoration 
(VERNBY, Memoirs, i, 247, iil 464; Life of 
Colonel HutcMwon, 1885, ii, 258, 208, 896), 
She was also the mother of John, second 
earl of Rochester [q. v.], survived her son, 
and was buried at Spelsbury, Oxfordshire, 
onl8Marchl696(aKC[OKAYNl Complete 
Peerage, vi, 481), 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, iii. 151; G. R 
C[okaynel's Complete Peerage, vi. 480 ; Claren- 
don's JJiBtory of the Rebellion ; Clarendon State 
Papery; Nicholas Papers. Many of Wilmot'a 
letters are atnon# the coiTospondonco of Pvinco 
Rupert in the British Muaoum, some of -which, 
aro printed in Warbur tori's Prince Kuport.l 

WILMOT, JAMES (d. 1808), alleged 
author of 'The Lettors of Juuius/ [See 

ROOHBSTBK (1647-1680), poet and libertine, 
was tho son of Henry Wilrnot, first earl or 
'Rochester [q.v.], by 'his second -wife. He 
was born at Ditchloy in Oxfordshire on. 
10 April 1647, and on the death of 1m lather- 
on Fob. 1G57-8 succeeded to the earldom. 
Ho was loft with little besides tho protmsions 
to tho king's favour bequeathed him by his 
father's services to Charles after tho battle 
of Worcester. Ai'tor attending tho school at 
Buribrd, ho was admitted a fellow commoner 
of Wadham College, Oxford, on 18 Jan, 
1(550-00. His tutor was Phineas I Jury. 
Ho showed ns au undergraduate a happy 
turn for English verse, and contributed to 
the university collections on Charles II's 
roBtoration (1060) and on the death of 
Princofls Mary of Orange (1661). lie was 
created M.A, on 9 Sept, 1001, when little 
more than fourteen, Next year he presented 
to his college four silver pint pots, which 
are still preserved. On leaving the univer- 
sity he travelled in France and Italy under 
the care^of Dr, Balfour, who encouraged hia 
love of literature. In 1004 he returned from 
MB travels while in his eighteenth year, and 
presented Mm self at "Whitehall. In the 
summer of 1065 he joined as a volunteer Sir 
Thomas Teddeman fq. v] on board the Eoyal 
Katherine, and took part in the unsuccessful 
assault on Dutch ships in the Banish har- 
bour of Bergen < on I Aug. He is said to 
have behaved with credit. He again served 
at sea in the summer of the following year 
in the Channel under Sir Edward Bpragge 
[q, v.], and distinguished himself by carrying 
a message in an open boat under the enemy's 

Koohester had meanwhile identified him- 
self with the most dissolute Bet of Charles U's 
courtiers. He became the intimate asHociate 
of George Viliierfl, second duke of Bucking- 
ham; Charles Sackville, duke of Dorset j Sir 
Charles Sodley, and Henry Savile, and, 
although their junior by many years, soon 
excelled ail of them in profligacy* Burnet 
says that he was < naturally modest till the 
court corrupted him/ but he fell an unresi&t" 
ing prey to every manner of vicious example, 



His debaucheries and his riotous frolics 
were often the outcome of long spells of 
drunkenness. Towards the end of his life 
he declared that he was under the influence 
of drink for five consecutive years. At the 
same time he cultivated a brilliant faculty 
for amorous lyrics, obscene rhymes, and 
mordant satires in verse, and, although he 
quickly ruined his physical health by his 
excesses, his intellect retained all its vivacity 
till death. 

The king readily admitted him to the 
closest intimacy. He was Charles's com- 
panion in many of the meanest and most 
contemptible of the king's amorous adven- 
tures, and often acted as a spy upon those 
which he was not invited to share. But 
although his obscene conversation and scorn 
for propriety amused the king, there was 
no love lost between them, and Bochester's 
position at court was always precarious. His 
biting tongue and his practical jokes spared 
neither the king nor tne ministers nor the 
royal mistresses, and, according to Gramont, 
lie was dismissed in disgrace at least once 
a year. It was (Pepys wrote) ' to the king's 
everlasting shame to have so idle a rogue 
his companion' (PEPYS, viil 231-2), He 
clearly exerted over Charles an irresistible 
fascination, and he was usually no sooner 
dismissed the court than he was recalled. He 
wrote many * libels ' on the king, which reeked 
with gross indecency, but his verses included 
the familiar epigram on the ' sovereign lord ; 
who * never said a foolish thing and never 
did a wise one' ('Miscellany Poems 7 ap- 
pended to Miscellaneous Worlts of RocJiester 
and RosGommon, 1707, p. 135). He lacked 
all sense of shame, and rebuffs had no mean- 
ing for him. On 16 Feb. 1668-9 he accom- 
panied the king and other courtiers to a 
dinner at the Dutch ambassador's. Offended 
by a remark of a fellow-guest, Thomas Killi- 
grew, he boxed his ears in the royal presence. 
Charles II overlooked the breach of etiquette, 
and next day walked publicly up and down 
with Rochester at court to the dismay of 
seriously minded spectators. When he at- 
tempted to steal a kiss from the Duchess of 
Cleveland as she left her carriage, he was 
promptly laid on his back by a blow from 
hertad; but, leaping to his feet, he recited, 
an impromptu compliment. 

On one occasion, when bidden to with- 
draw from court, he took up his residence 
Tinder an assumed name in the city of London, 
and, gaining admission to civic society, dis- 
debaucheries of the king and the king'sfriends. 
Subsequently he set up as a quack doctor 
under the name of Alexander Bendo, taking 

lodgings in Tower Street, and having a stall 
on Tower Hill, He amused himself by dis- 
pensing advice and coMmutics among credu- 
lous women. A spooch which ho is said to 
have delivered in trio character of a medical 
mountebank proven him to have acted his 
jjart with much humour and somewhat less 
freedom than might have boon anticipated 
(prefixed to the < Poetical Works of Sir 
Charles Sedlev/ 1710 ; ChtAMONT, Memoirs). 
At another time, according to Saint-lCvre- 
morid, he and the Duke of Buckingham too>:' 
an inn on the Nowmarkot road, and, while 
pretending to act oa tavern-keepers, conspired 
to ^ corrupt all tho respectable women of the 
neighbourhood. On relinquishing the ad- 
venture they joined the king at Newmarket, 
and were welcomed with delight. 

With the many laduw of doubtful reputa- 
tion who thronged the court llochoster had 
numerous intrigues, but ho showed their 
waiting women as much attention as them- 
selves, Elizabeth Barry fq. v.], 'woman to 
the Lady Shelton of Norfolk/ ho took into 
his keeping. lie taught har to act, and in- 
troduced her to the stage, whoro she pursued 
ahighly successful career. Borne of 1m letters 
to her were published after his death. A. 
daughter by her lived to the ape of thirteen. 

Despite his libertine exploits* Bochestor 
succeeded in repairing MB decaying fortune 
by a wealthy marriage. Tho king encouraged 
him to pay addresses to Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Malet of Enmero, Somerset, by Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Francis, baron Ilawley of 
Donamore. Pepys described hr as ' the great 
beauty and fortune of the north.* Gramont 
called her a ' melancholy heiress/ Not un- 
naturally she roj ected Kochester's suit, where- 
upon he resorted to violence. On 26 May 
Io65 the lady supped with tho king's mistress, 
Prances Teresa Stuart (or Stewart) [q, v. j, 
and left with her grandfather, Lord Ilawluy. 
At Charing Cross Hoolicstor and his agents 
stopped the horses and forcibly removed her 
to another coach, which was rapidly driven 
out of London. A hue and cry was raised, 
Rochester was followed to Uxbridgo, whore 
he was arrested, and, on being brought to Lon-* 
don, was committed to the Tower oy order of 
the king(?u*YS, Diary, ed. Wheatley, iv. 419). 
Miss Malet was not captured, and Rochester 
was soon released witt a pardon* In 1667 
he married the lady, and remained on fairly 
good terms with her till his death (cf, his 
letters to her in Whartoniana, 1727, vol. ii,) 

Rochester's marriage did not alter his 
relations with the king or the court. In 
1666 he was made a gentleman of the king's 
bedchamber. On 5 Oct. 1667, although still 
under age, he was summoned to the House 



f Lords, and in 1074 he received a special 
lark of royal favour by being appointed 
.eeper of Woodstock Park, with a lodge 
ailed 'High Lodge' for residence, On 
)4 Nov. 1670 Evelyn met him at dinner at 
,he lord treasurer's, and described him as * a 
)rofane wit ' (EVELYN, Diary, ii. 254). In 
Tune 1676 he, (Sir) George Etherege, and 
ihree friends engaged in a drunken frolic at 
Epsom, ending in a skirmish with ' the watch 
& Epsom/ in the course of which one of the 
roisterers (Downes) received a fatal wound 
(Hut. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 467; Hat- 
ton Correspondence, i. 133). 

Meanwhile Rochester played the r61e of 
a patron of the ]joets, and showed character- 
istic fickleness in his treatment of them. 
He was a shrewd and exacting critic, ae his 
caustic and ill-natured remarks in his clever 
imitation of the ' Tenth Satire ' of Horace, 
bk. i., and in the 'Session of the Poets' 
(printed in his works), amply prove. About 
1670 he showed many attentions to Dryden, 
who flattered him extravagantly whon dedi- 
cating to him his 'Marriage & la Mode' 
(1673). But Rochester fell out with Dry- 
den's chief patron, John Sheffield, earl of 
Mulgrave [(J-v.l ; he is said to have engaged 
in a duel with "Mulgrave and to have shown 
the white feather. 13y way of retaliating on 
Mukrave, he soon ostentatiously disparaged 
Dryaen and encouraged Dryden's feeble rivals, 
Elkanah Settle and John Crowne, He con- 
trived to have Settle's tragedy, 'The Empresn 
of Morocco,' acted at Whitehall in 1671, and 
wrote a prologue, which he spoke himself. 
Crowne dedicated to him his * Charles VIII 
of France ' next year, and at the earl's sug- 
gestion, he wrote the * Masque of Oalisto,' 
which Rochester recommended for perform- 
ance at court in 1675. The younger drama- 
tists Nathaniel Lee and Thomas Otway also 
shared his favours for a time. In 3 6/5 he 
commended Ot way's 'Alcibiades,' and in- 
terested the Duke of York in the young au- 
thor. Otway dedicated to him his ' Titus 
and Berenice ' in 1677 j but when the drama- 
tist ventured to make advances to Rochester's 
mistress, Mrs. Barry the actress, Rochester 
showed him small mercy. Lee, who dedicated 
to Rochester /Nero,' his first piece, com- 
memorated his patronage in his description 
of Count Rosidorein his Princess of Cleves,* 
which was first produced in November 1681. 
Another prot$g6, whom Rochester treated 
with greater constancy, was John Oldham 
(1658-1683) fa. v.] Sir George Etherege is 
said to have drawn, from Rochester the cha- 
racter of the libertine Dorimant in the ' Man 
of Mode, or Sir Fopling Flutter/ which was 
first acted at the Duke's Theatre ia 1676 


Works, ed. Verity, p, xiv ; of. 
BJBU AMH, Le PMic ct le* Ifotnmes dt> Ztettrw 
m Angkterre, 1660-1 744, Paris, 1881, pp, 
02 sq.) 

In 1679 Rochester's health failed, although 
ho was able to correspond gaily with his 
friend Henry Savile on the congenial topics 
of wine and women* During his conva- 
lescence in the autumn lie, to the aurpriflo 
of his friends, sought recreation in reading 
the first part of Gilbert Burnett * History 
of the Reformation/ He invited tho author 
to visit him, and encourage! him to talk of 
religion and morality. Rochester, in hi 
feeble condition of body, aeoma to havo found 
Burnet's conversation consolatory. In April 
1680 he loft London for the \ figh Lodgo at; 
Woodstock Park- The journey aggravated 
his ailments, and he^bogan to roeogniflo that 
recovery was impossible, lie showed signs 
of penitence for nis misspent 1 ifo* Aftw lis- 
tomng attentively to tho pious exhortations 
of his chaplain, Robert ParHonn (1047-4714) 
[q. v.], ho wrote on 25 June to Burnot 
bogging him to come and roooive his Aath 
bod ropontanco. Burnut arrivod on iJO July y 
and remained till the 24th,Hpimding thofour 
days in spiritual diftcouim * I do verily bo- 
Hove/ Burnet wroto^ ' ho was then so on- 
tirely changed that, if h had recovrd, ho 
would have mado good all his ronolutionfl/ 
llochestor died two dayn after Burnot loffc 
him, on 26 July. He was buriod in tlie north 
aittleof Spolsbury church in Oxfordshire, but 
without any monument or maoribfld atone 
to distinguish his grave (cf, MARSHALL, Woofa 
stock) suppl, 1874, pp. ^5-36), Itis bed is 
still preserved at High, Lodge* 

ItoohoRtor's will, with a codicil elated 
22 June 1<J80> was proved on W Feb. 1080-1. 
His executors included, besides his wife and 
mother, whom he entreated to live in amity 
with one another, Sir "Walter St, John, his 
mother's brother, end Sir Allen Apsley 
(1616-1688) [a. y,j Settlements had already 
been made on lie wife and son ; 4,000& was 
left to each of his three daughters; an 
annuity of 40 was bestowed on an infant 
named Elizabeth Clerke; and other sums 
were bequeathed to servants ( Wtth from 
Doctors' Commons^ Camd, Soc., pp. 189-41)* 

Sympathetic elegies came from the pens 
of Mrs, Anne wharton, Jack How [Le. 
John Ghrubham Howe, q. r,l Edmund 
Waller (JSarotwwn Mw%Uaneu,w,> 1702), Tho- 
mas Flatman, and Oldham* His chaplain, 
Robert Parsons, preached a funeral sermon 
which gave a somewhat sensational account 
of his i death and repentance/ and attracted 
general attention when it was published* . A, 
more edificatory account of Bochester'ft cou* 



version, which made even greater sensation 
than Parsons's sermon, was published by Bur- 
net under the title * Some Passages of the 
Life and Death of John, Earl of Rochester/ 
1680, 8 vo. Like Parsons's volume, it was con- 
stantly reissued, A modern reprint, with a 
preface by Lord Bonald Gower, appeared in 
1875. Of the episode of his visit to Roches- 
ter's deathbed Burnet wrote : ' Nor waft tho 
king displeased with my being sent for by 
Wilmot, earl of Rochester, when he died. 
He fancied that he had told me many things 
of which I might malse an ill use ; yet lie 
had read the book that I writ concerning 
him, and spoke well of it* (BXJBNBT, Own 
Times, 1828, iL 288). 

Rochester's widow survived him about 
thirteen months, dying suddenly of apoplexy, 
and being buried. at Spelsburyon 20 Aug. 
1681 (cf, Hatton Correspondence, ii. 6). By 
her he left a son and three daughters. The 
son, Charles, third and last earl of Rochester 
of the Wilmot family, baptised at Addorbury 
on 2 Jan, 1670-1, survived his father scarcely 
two years, dying on 12 Nov. and being buried 
on 7 Dec. 1681 by his father's side. The earl- 
dom thus became extinct, but it was recreated 
in favour of LawrenceHyde fa.v.] on 29 Nov. 
1682, Rochester's eldest daughter and heiress, 
Anne,, married, first, Henry Bayntun of 
Bromham, Wiltshire ; and, secondly, Francis 
Greville, leaving issue by both husbands, 
and being ancestress by her second husband 
of the Grevilles, earls of Warwick. Eliza- 
beth, Rochester's second daughter, who is 
said to have inherited much of her father's 
wit, married Edward Montagu, third earl of 
Sandwich, and^died at Paris on 2 July 1757. 
Rochester's third daughter, Malet, married 
John Vaughan, second viscount Lisburne. 

The best portrait of Rochester is that by 
Sir Peter Lely atHinchinbrooke,the seat of 
the Earl of Sandwich. In a portrait at 
Warwick Castle he is represented crowning 
a monkey with laurel. A third portrait, by 
Wissing, is in the National Portrait Gallery. 
A fourth portrait of Rochester in youth be- 
longed in 1866 to Col. Sir E. S. Prideaux, 
bart. (Oat. National Portraits at South Km- 
sinffton, 1866). Two engravings of him were 
made by R. White one in large size dated 
1681, and the other on a smaller scale, which 
was prefixed to the first edition of Burners 
* Some Passages/ 3 680. There is also an en- 
graved miniature signed <D[avid] L[oggan] 

Rochester had as sprightly a lyric gift as 
any writer of the Restoration. As a satirist 
lie showed much insight and vigour, and, 
according to. Aubrey, Marvell regarded him 
as the best satirist of his time. But he was 

flomethmgofaplagiarist. His 'Satire against 
Mankind' owes much to Jioiloau, and to 
Cowley his lyrics were often deeply indebted. 
His Htorary work was disfigured by his in- 
corrigibly licentious temper. The sentiment 
in his love Bongs is transparently artificial 
whenever it is not offensively obscene. Nu- 
merous vttrsei^ of grosK mdeconcy which have 
been p^ut to his credit in contemporary mis- 
collanioH of verso may bo from other pens, 
But there is enough foulness in his i\\\W 
authenticated potnns to give him a titl/to 
be romomborou as the writer of the filthiest 
verae in tho language. His muse has been 
compared to a wull-iavoured child which wil- 
fully and wantonly rolls itaolf in the mud, 
and is so bosmoarnd with dirt that the ordi- 
nary wayfarer protons rathw to rush hastily 
by than puuso to discovor its native charms 
(to, Edmund Goose in WAKD'S English 
Pouts, ii. 4li5). 

^ It iw said that on his deathbed Rochester 
directed all his licentious writings to be de- 
stroyed, ami that after his death his mother 
ordered a scandalous history of contempo- 
rary court intriguufl to bo burnt (OnjJHaa), 
Of that work nothing is known, and tho order 
may have been carried out, but much else 
survives, Tho bibliography of Kochoster's 
pooms is difficult owing to tho number of 
poems that are attributed to lum in miscel- 
laneous colloetiottH ol 1 vorflo of which ho was 
probably not the author (cf, jftm*<m Affairs 
of State, passim ; Mmmm MiMMamum, 
1702). _ No complete critical collection of 



libels appeared as penny wrouxiuues in single 
folio sheets at the close of his life in 1679 
and ^ 1080 doubtltwj surreptitiously. Ac- 
cording to the advertisement to Parsons's ser- 
mon, ' they were cry'ci about the street/ The 
letter in which he summoned Burnet to his 
deathbed also appeared as a broadside in 1680, 

Within a few months of his death a short 
series of ' Poems on several Occasions by the 

Bight Honourable the 33. of B ' was 

issued, professedly at * Antwerpen/but really 
in London (1080, 8yo), The volume was re- 
printed in London in 1085, with some omis- 
sions and modifications* as * Poems on seve- 
ral Occasions, written by a late Person of 
Honour,* Some additions were made to 
another issue of 1691, in which are to be 
found all his authenticated lyrics. This was 
reissued in 1696. 

Meanwhile there appeared an adaptation 
by Rochester, in poor taste, of Beaumont 
and Fletcher's tragedy of ' Valeritinian/ 
under the title ' Yaleutiuian : a Tragedy* 


As 'tis Alter'd by the lato Earl of Rochonto 
and Acted at the Theatre KoyoL Togotlu 
with a Preface concerning the Author an 
his Writings. By one of his Friends' (i,< 
Eobert Wolseley, eldest son of Sir Charlt 
Wolseley fo.r.]), London, 1 85 Wlum th 
play was produced in 1085, Bettarton pluyu 
Aecius with much success, and Mtu Bart 
appeared as Lucina (JDowNiw, J&w&w, jp. 55^ 
Three prologues were printed, one bwng b 
Mrs, Behn. 

A'second play (in heroic couplets) of in 
tolerable foulness lias boon put to KochoHtw 1 
discredit, It is entitled * Hodom/ and wa 
published at Antwerp in 1684 m < by th 
JS. of & j ' no copy ox this edition is known 
one is said to have boen burnt by Iticharc 
Heber. Two manuscripts aro extant; <m< 
is in the British Museum (Hart. MS. 781 Si 
pp. 118-45, a volume containing many o 
.Rochester's authentic composition!*), and tht 
other is in the town library of Hamburg 
The piece is improbably said to liavo bom 
acted at court; it was doubttosa doaignw 
as a scurrilous attack on Gharlo IL In a 
short poem purporting to bo addroed to 
the author of the play (in Koohwtort col- 
lected jjoems), he mockingly disclaimed all 
responsibility for it, and it has boon attri- 
buted to a young barrister ixamod John Fish- 
bourne, of whom nothing is practically 
tnown (BAKJBB, J%/n Dram.) Internal 

evidence unhappily suggests that Rochester 
had the chief hand in tho production, French 
adaptations are dated 1744, 1768. and 1707 
(cf.PisA3srtrsFiU3cr, Centi ' 
n, London, priva 1 

An edition of 




was issued by Tonaon in 1714,12mo. included 

Hin IXJ.^ U - J.^ f( . ' tJm / u, ,. _ 

*, - - V*QJ wj v/AVAMOJUAr AUmu 

was a portrait by Van derGucht The fourth 
edition of this is dated 1782. Rochester's 
^mams/ mcludmg his Satyres/ followed 
S 5 a *- 1 ^Wytheoomptatrt edition is 
170 ^S^W^taofitaBadofJEUxi^ 

1781-2, 2 vols. 

. A less perfect coHection of his < Works ' 
included the poems of the Earl of Roscom- 
mon. The first edition appeared before 1702, 
of Venus, now first published/ The second 
edition is dated 1702 S others appeared in 
1707 (and m 1714) with Samt^fivremond's 
memoir of Rochester and an additional poem 
of outrageous grossness called 'The Dia- 

A volume containing not only Rochester's 
poems, but also those of the Sol^l 
common and Dorset and the Bukef of 

iod, oftwi 



in 17iU, uwd wa frwquontly , 

wit.h an ob8cmi appoudix by varioiw haiuln, 
ntitlci 'The Golnnttt of Lovo,' Jjondim, 
17^9,2 vnlri. iamo 1757, 1777, Aprivat(Iy 
prittttul rwHHiw of <x<uippt,8 frcim tho 1757 
wlition apparod in 18H4. Rochi!Ht<n*'Mpo(^mH l 
oxpurgat.ed by (hiorgo Hl,iytm |q.v*j, ap- 
poarod in JoliiiHou'H r,()llntwm, tui<i worn 
ix^rintod in the coUocUuiw of AndorHou, 
(1hahutrH, and .Park. 

ItoehoKUtr'a lottors to Havilo and to Mrn, 
Barry woro publiwhod, wit h a variod corro- 
HBomlnnco collmjttid by Tom Hrown, iu 
'Familiar Lirttew/ 10K5, 1007, antl HM\ 
andwoyou lottos ..... two to hin mm, four to 
IUH wifo, and ono to Iho Karl of Licldinld 
aro iu ' Whart,oniaa/ i?a7, iL 101 --H. A 
fow moro aro appondodto *A N<nv Alinonl- 
lany of Original .PotunH/ 17UO (with prufaw 
by Anthony JI.aimond (ij, v,J) 

^vn^mmd'M JMomoir, pr<{)x<l to Ko- 
MiHCullnnoottf) Warkn, 1707; Havilo 
CumMpondoiiao (Oaiiubn Htn*..); C1bl>Hr'8 Livim, 
iu 200*800 ; Oramont'H Momoin* ; Huwmt/M Own 
Aubwy'H Livn, 1. Amlnw Olark; 
on AiTiurn of Hlatw, pumim; HarnhalTj* 
tock, with vSujipitmuuit, 187S-4 j liwutr H 
Chorus vtitoHU in Brit, MH, Addit,, MH. 24401 ; 
of tho 'I'witN, ml Cunnitjghani ; 
' ComjilU i'ooragfl, 
torwdwith in (UjKcribod for wdifiwtoty 
lot only in Parson's Hortnmi, lOHO.and 
Bom 1'uBsagof, 1680, hut alno in The Libortinn 
Overthrown, 1080, and in Tha Two Noble Con- 
verts, 1680. Hi earner i dupicfc^l in an jtatftn- 
tionaliy wnodifyin^ lijrht in J. <*, H. Itutho* 
ford'i AdventtiTtMi of the Duke of Buekhitfham, 
, and the Earl of Ituohinbor, 1857, awl 
vrLilb . , . of tho xonowAed KArl of 
TtoohMter, 1804 P] B, L. 

170JK17J^), chief jiwtioH of the common 
)leas, second son of liobart Wilmot of l)- 
xwton, Derbyshire, by Ursula, dauffhter of 
Sir Maoiuftl Marow, bart,, of BerkiwelL 
warwioksliwo. was born at Derby on 10 AUJT, 
,709, Sir Robert! Wilmot, bavt. (o created 
on 19 Sept, 1772 in reco#mtion of long ser- 
vice as secretary toauccessivo lords-liutnant 
f Ireland) was his elder brothw. The bro- 
hers were grandsons of Robert Wilmot, 
M.P. for Derby 169CM5, who xoaniod JKlfca- 
eth, daughter of Edward Bardly of lilard- 
ey ? Staflfordshire. Their great-grandfather 
' Sir Nicholas Wilmot, mnjeaatat-law 
uRhted at Hampton Court on 20 July 
674, whose elder brother Edward was 
father of the eminent physician Sir Ed- 
ward Wilmot fa.v,] 

The future chief justice received hid earlier 
ducaUon at the free school, Derby, and, like 




several other judges [cf. 
at King Edward's school, Lichfield, where he 
was slightly senior to David Garrick and con- 
temporary with Samuel Johnson. In 1724 
he was removed to Westminster ^ school, 
where he formed a lifelong friendship with 
Henry Bilson Legge, the future chancellor 
of the exchequer. At Cambridge, whore he 
soon afterwards matriculated from Trinity 
Hall, he did not graduate, but acquired at ante 
for learned leisure which he never lost. His 
predilection was for the church, and it was 
only in deference to his father's wishes that 
he adopted the legaljprofession. During his 
residence at Trinity Hall, however, he duti- 
fully studied the civil law, and in June 1732 
he was called to the "bar at the Inner Temple. 
In 1746 he was elected P.S.A.. 

Wilmot soon made a distinguished figure 
both in the courts of common ^law and at 
the parliamentary bar (in election petition 
cases), but found the profession uncongenial. 
In 1753 he refused silk, and in the following 
year he retired to his native place with 
the intention of confining himself to local 
practice. Early in 1755, however, he was 
lured back to Westminster by the offer of a 
puisne judgeship in. the king's bench, and, 
having heen knighted and invested with the 
coif, was sworn in as justice (11 Feb.) He 
proved so efficient a puisne that when, on 
the resignation of Lord Hardwicke, it be- 
came necessary to put the great seal in 
commission, he was nominated one of the 
commissioners [of- SMYTHE, SIB SIDNEY 
office he held with increasing credit from 
19 Nov. 1756 to 20 June 1757, when the 
seal was delivered to Lord-keeper Henley 
[see HENXBY, ROBERT, first EAKL oy NOBTH- 

After eight years more of service in the 
king's bench, Wilmot began again to think 
of retirement; but the easy post of chief 
justice of Chester, which he hoped to secure, 
proved unobtainable, while that of chief 
justice of the common pleas was literally 
thrust upon him on the elevation of Lord 
Oamden. to the woolsack. After some 
demur he accepted the proffered dignity, 
and was sworn in accordingly on 20 Aug. 
1766, He was sworn of the privy council 
on 10 Sept. following. As puisne Wilmot fol- 
lowed Mansfield's lead in the cases which 
arose out of the publication of Wilkes's 
celebrated'North Briton'No. 45 [cf.WiLKBS, 
JOHN]. As chief justice assistant to the 
House of Lords during the proceedings on 
Wilkes's writ of error he sustained (16 Jan. 
1769) Mansfield's judgments in the king's 

bench. In the common pleas, when Wilkos's 
long-delayed action against Lord Halifax 
came on for hearing (10 Nov. 1769), he 
sought to temper j ustico with mercy by direct- 
ing the jury that, though precedent did not 
justify the issue of the general warrant, it 
ought to bo taken into account in miti- 
gation of damages. 

Wilmot thrice declined the groat seal: 
oneo on the dismissal of Lord Oamden, 
again on the death of Gharloa Yorke [c[. v.] 
and once more pending tho subsequent dom- 
mission [cf. BATJUJKBT, HMNUY, 1714-1794]. 
Unlike Yorke, Wilmot had no auch party 
ties ho had hold aloof from politics through- 
out his career as rondwred his refusal of 
oiUce obligatory; and no one but himself 
doubted his capacity, His refusal was dic- 
tated by the same pococnruntisxn, now in- 
veterate awl reinforced by failing health, 
which ho had twice baforo exhibited. It 
was the more to be regretted by reason of 
the glaring incompetence of tho commis- 
sioners. ]?ut there is wo reason to suppose 
that in Wilmot tho country lost a great 
chancellor. HIB undorwtandmg was indeed 
sound and strong and IUB learning exten- 
sive, but there ia no evidence that he pos- 
sessed the subtlety and originality which 
characterise tho masters of oqj*ity ; 

Wilmot ramgned the chief-justiceship 
on 26 Jan* 1771, He at first declined aft 
recompense for his services, but at length 
accepted a pension of 2.4001, He continued 
to take part in tho judicial business of the 
privy council until 1/82, whon he withdrew 
entirely from public life. He died at his 
house 'in Great Orraond Street, London, on 
5 Feb. 179*2. His remains were interred 
in Berkawell church. By his wife Sarah 
(m. in 1743), daughter of Thomas Rivett, 
M.P. for Derby 1748-54, Wilmot had, with 
two daughters, three sons, The second son, 

John Eardley- Wilmot fa. v,l, aucceeded to 
his estates* Robert, the eldest son, died 
married in the East Indies, 

Wilmot'a decisions are reported by Burrow 
and Wilson. His own 'Notes of Opinions 
and Judgments delivered in different Courts/ 
edited by his son John Eardley-Wilmot, ap- 
peared at London in 1802, 4to. Some of 
his letters are printed in his < Memoirs' (see 
iitfra; and cf, Hist. MS8* Comm* 5th Rep. 
App. p. 859, 6th Rep. App. j>. 242). 

Engravings from portraits by Reynolds 
and Dance are i*x the British Museum and 
prefixed to the works above mentioned. 

[John Bardley-'Wiltnot's Memoirs of the Life 
of the Bight Hon. Sir John Eaxdiey Wilmot, 
Knight, with some Original Letters, 1802, Lon- 
don, 4to (2nd edit, with additions, 1811); Le 



Keve's Pedigrees of tho Knight** (ITarl 
2fli Kimber and Johnson'fl Baronota^, in. 
151- Gent. Mag 1755 p, 02, 1792 i. 17 ; Ann. 
ta 1765 V 59, 1766 pp, 165, 106, 1771 p. 71, 
1772 p. 162 ; Lyeona'* Mug. Brft, vol. v. p. Uvi ; 
Hiwood ) sLichflold,p,4Dt); Walpolo' Momoiw 
of the Beign of Goorgo 11, ad, Holland, n. m ; 
Memoirs of the Reign of Georga III, od. IM Mar- 
chant, andEussell Barker, 1804, and Lctto, od. 
Cunningham; G-renville Paporp, od. Smith, w. 
46.iv.110, 115, 392 ; Grafton' Autobiography^ 
ed. Anson ; Correspondence of Ooorpe lit with 
Lord North, ed. Donno, p. 53; IlarrU's Lifo of 
Lord Chancellor Hardwicke; VTynn ^rjottnt- 
at-Law ; Hardy's Cat* of Chancellors ; Howell 
State Trials, xix. 1027, 1127, 1407; X** Mu$. 
viii. 356; Campbell's Chief JuaticcB; FJMWB 
Lives of the Judges ; Butlte's Peerage and Baro- 
netage; Poster's Baron otixgo.] J. M* H. 

1816), politician and author, 8ciwl won of 
Sir John Eardley-Wilmot [a. v.], lord^nbwf 
justice of tlio common ploas, by Sarah, 
daughter of Thomas KiveU of I)rby was 
born in 1750. He was oducatud at Pwrby 
grammar school, Westminfttor Hchool^ i.h 
Royal Academy, Brunswick, and tho uni- 
versity of Oxu>rd, vrhero ho atrioulat.(jd 
from University Oollogo on 10 Jan. 17<KJ, 
and graduated B, A. in 17(19, bointf el<^tod 
fellow of All Souls' Colltigo ift tht flamo 
year. He was called to the bar at tliolnnor 
Temple in 177JJ, and in 1781 waft ajmointtMl 
to a mastership in chancery, which no huld 
xintil 1804. He represented Tivwton, J>- 
Tonshire,in parliament from 177H to J7H4-, 
and sat for Coventry in the parliaments of 
1784-90 and 1790-6* In the Hound of Com- 
mons he seldom spoke, but from hi 4 Hhort 
Defence of the Opposition, in, Answer to a 
Pamphlet entitled. " A Short History of the 
Opposition "' (London, 1778, 8vo), it appears 
that he was an independent whig who strongly 
condemned the policy which precipitated tho 
American war. In 1788 he was apyointod 
by act of parliament commissioner to inquire 
into the claims of the American loyalists to 
compensation for their losses suffered during 
the war. In 1790 he organised the Free- 
masons' Hall committee for the relief of the 
French refugees. He retired from public life 

in 1804 """'" 1 ^^ O Tt A ADI1<*Vt J&/1 1>W* toAWfl 1 UrtllVlOft 

.** *^v^. In 1812 he assumed by royal license 
(20 Jan.) the additional surname of Eardley* 
He died at his house, Bruce Castle, Totten- 
ham, on 28 June 1815, He was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society on 18 Nov. 1779, 
and of the Society of Antiquaries in 1791, 

"Wilmot married twice : (1) on 20 April 
1776, Frances, only daughter of Samuel 
Sainthill ; (2) on 29 June 1798, Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Haslam. He had issue only 
by his first wife. 

Lcltt*r from and to Wilmot aw i..... 
m Additional MMS. /KM/5 f, SM, and .. , 
and Lord Uui8do\vji<VM collection (//wf. 
MW?, tt>ww, tti.h Hop, upp. i. 242). From 
miitiiriulH wllwatml by Wilmat, John ttnyiwr 
wlitcd Hnnulf do (3lauviHo*w 4 Tnuttatun <l<* 
Lotfilmn uiConmutttid'mOmH H,tgni Anglw* 
(London, l7HO,8vo). Wilmot, mii tod 'jNuttm 
of OpimwiH and JudtfwwitH doHvowl in <lif- 
ftnnt OourtK* by hi* fnthw (Umdrm, lktfu> 
4to), Bonidm tiw pamphlot sum! ionod a, 
ho wan author of: !. 'MwnoirM of th .. 
of tho Right Hon. Hir John Kurdlny Wilmot, 
Knt| with MWM original li'tUw/ !<tw!<m, 
18012, 4 to; find ml with addition**, 1HU, Hvo, 
8, <Tlw Life of tho Rov, John Hourii, !),!>., 
HUttCoHHivoly Hirthop of Oxford, iaehnohl tmd 
Oovotttry, and woK'8trV London, I HI Si, 
4t,<>* JJ, ' 1 1 itrittl Vi w of tlio ( lomm wwon 
for In<i\fmng into tho LOHO Horvicon, and 
CHaimn of tho Amoriuan LoyaHnfj at tho 
cloHO of tho War In^twotfu Oroat Britain and 
h(ir OolonioHin 17KJ; with an Amount n! 
tho Oampunwtion tfranto<! t< thwn by l*nr- 
liammit in 17H5anrt I7HH/ t^iuitm, IHI5, Kvo. 
By hififlrHt wifo Wilmot had, with fmtr 
daught(w, aHon.John Kardlny ( 17H8-W47), 
bom <m *2l Fob. 17H!I, oducatod at Harrow, 
and oalloti to fclw bar at Lincoln'* Inn tuft 
i) May IHOfi, JI rowdod at I$ork*wctt Hall, 
WarwickHhiro, tlw northorn 4iviion of which 
county ho roprommtod in parliament in tlm 
connorvativft int-ort*fit ffoiin IB'liJ to lfMiJ*. 
On 2H Aug. IHiJl ho^was cwafoid Bir Jolm 
Eardloy wartUny- Wilmot, bart, In IH4*$ 
(87 March) he wa appointod lieutwnant- 
flowruor <n Van Diemon^ Land, but, in con- 
ftoqtionoo of hU uppom*d indifferonco to tho 
morals of th convieU under hi charge, was 
nuporaotled on 18 Oct. 1846. We ated at 
Itobart Town en 3 FA, 1847, Ha wan 
D.O.L. (<)icon,)i F.II.B., and F.L.B., and 
author of An Abridgment of Blacktone f 
"Qomm0ntario8* H (London, 18S28* IStan 
^nd ed,, by hi son Sir John Kardlojr Eardlay- 
Wilmot fq. v.l I8B, 8vo; 3rd ed. 1RMX Ha 
marmd twice? first, on 81 May X80B, Elisa- 
beth Emma (d, 1818), fourth daughter of 
Caleb Hilltar Party, M.D., of Bath, and 
sister of Admiral Sir Edward Furry? o- 
condly,on 80 Aug* 1819, Kltea (rf, I860), 
eldest daughter of Bir llobtirt Ohentor of 
Bush Hall, Hertfordshire, He bad iasus by 
both wives* 

[Foster's Ahmni Oxon. and ^, 

Burke's Peerage and Bftronot^gej 3^w Lit; 
Gent Hag. 1776 p, 191, 1708 . 670, 1B08 i. 
J "J, 1815 M. 83, 1819 n. 272, 1847 i. 208; Ann, 



Georgian Era ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet, ; List of 
Eoyal Society, 1797; List of Society of Anti- 
quaries (1802) ; Northcoto's Caaeof Sir Eardloy- 
"Wilmot (1847); Heaton's Australian Diet, of 
'Dates.] J. M. E. 

EAKDLEY- (1810-1892), baronet, barrister 
and politician, born on 16 NOT, 1810, was 
eldest son of Sir John Eardley Eardley-Wil- 
mot, first baronet, and grandson oi John 
Eardley-Wilmot [q. v,] He was educated 
at Winchester, -where he received the gold 
medal in 1828, and at Balliol College, Ox- 
ford, where he matriculated on 22 March. 
1828, and obtained a scholarship. lie gained 
the chancellor's gold medal for Latin verse 
in 1829, graduating B.A.. in 1831. On 
19 May 1830 he became a student at Lin- 
coln's Inn, and he was called to the bar on 
28 Jan. 1842 ; he joined the midland circuit 
and Warwick, Coventry, and Birmingham 
sessions. From 1852 until 1874, when he 
resigned the post, he was recorder of War- 
wick, and he was judge of the county court 
at Bristol from January 1854 to 1868, and 
subsequently from 1863 to 1871 of the Mary- 
lebone district in London, He represented 
South Warwickshire in parliament in the 
conservative interest from 1874 to 1885, 
where he introduced bills in 1875 and 1870 
to amend the criminal law by differentiating 
two classes of murder, and to further extend 
the jurisdiction of county courts* 

Wilmot was never a very successful ad- 
vocate, though a practised speaker. He took 
great interest in the question of local govern- 
ment for Ireland, advocating the develop- 
ment of Irish industries and the establish- 
ment of a royal residence in Ireland, and 
acting as chairman of a harbour board in. 
Ireland* His persevering efforts procured 
the release of Edmund Galley, who had 
been wrongly convicted of murder and sen- 
tenced to jjenal servitude for life. Wilmot 
died at his residence in Thurloe Square, 
London, on 1 Feb. 1892* He married, on 
27 April 1889, Eliza Martha, fifth daughter of 
Sir Robert Williams, ninth baronet. She 
died on 23 Oct. 1887, and had issue six sons 
and two daughters. He was succeeded in the 
title by hi& eldest son, William Assheton 
Eardley Wilmot, of the Northumberland 
Fusiliers, who was born in 1841, married in 
1876 Mary, third daughter of David Watts 
Russell of Biggin, Northamptonshire, and 

died in 1896. 
Wilmot was author of : 1* 'A Digest of 

the Law of Burglary/ London, 1851, 12mo. 

2. i Lord Brougham's Acts and Bills from 

1811 to the present time, now first collected 

and arranged, with an Analytical Beview, 

showing their results upon the Amendment 
of the Law/ London, 1857, Hvo. & * Homi- 
niflconces of the Into Thomas Asshetou 
Smith,' London, 18M, 8vo ; 5th edit. 1893, 
4. *A Safe and Constitutional Wan of 
Parliamentary Inform/ London, 1865, 8vo, 
Ft ft also edited IUH father's * Abridgment of 
Blackstono's Commentaries/ London, 1853, 
3vo; 1855, liimo, H frequently contri- 
buted lottcra to tlid * TimoH ' and other news- 
papers on tho legal and political HubioctH in 
which ho was intoroHtotl, besides writing and 
publiHhing various pamphlets 

[Times, '2 and 3 tfob, 1802; Law limns, 
6 Fob, 1892; Law Journal, 6 Fob. 1802; D- 
brott's HOUHO of OommonH and Judicial Itaneh; 
Burke's Poorngo ; Fontor'H Alumni Oxcm. iVlfi- 
1886 ; Foster's Men at tho liar ; Official Kotnrtm 
of Members of Parliament ; private information,! 

E, J. S. 

1B7BX governor of Now Brunswick, bom 
011 81 Jan. 1H09 at Sunbury, on thu St. John 
Kiyer in Now Brunswick, was tho sou of 
William Wilmot;, a niomhor of tho provin- 
cial logialativo ftSHombly, by hfo wifo i I annah, 
daughter of Daniel IttiflH (1740-1800), 
chief justice of tho court of common pltws in 
New lirunBwiolc. On hiw fat-li^r'n witlo ho was 
descondod from a Now England family, his 
apantlfathor, Major Lemuel Wilmot, boing a 
loyalist rofugoo, J^omuol A lion waw jjavtly 
educated among the Frunoli community at 
Madawawka, ana ho aftorwnrdH entered the 
univorttity of King'n College at Fruderiotonu 
Ho was a succoHsiul student, and Lad tho dis- 
tinction of boing ' the IboHt swimmer, fllcater, 

runner, wreatlor, boatman, clrill-maBtor, 
speaker, and musician * of Ma time. In 18JM) 
ha became an attorney, and two years later 
was called to tho bar of Now Brunswick* 
On 81 July 1BJJ4 ho waa oloctod to tho houae 
of aBfi&mbly for tho province of York, IU 
declared himself a liberal in politics, advo- 
cating reaponaiblo government and opposi- 
tion to the fivfltom of family compacts, and 
soon was acknowledged the liboral loador. 
In 1886 he moved an addroas to the governor 
for a detailed account of tho crown land 
fund, and he and William Crane woro sent 
to England as delegates to obtain for the 
representative assembly tho control of f the 
crown lands. They were cordially received 
by the colonial secretary, Charles Grant, 
baron Qlenelg fa, v.], and a bill was drafted 
granting the reforms they asked* The lieu** 
tenants-governor, Sir Archibald Campbell 
(1769-1848) [q,T.]> -withheld Ma approval and 
tendered bis resignation, The delegates were 
again sent to England, where their efforts 
were finally successful, Campbell's reeigna- 


tion was accepted, and tho control of th 
revenue of the crown latuln wan voHtod i 
the assembly on condition of 
permanent civil lint out of it. 

In 1838 Wilmot waB made a 4 m',<m 
counsel In 1844 ho accuptwi a Kat in th 
executive cpxincil without a port-folio; bu 
when tho lieutonant-govornor, Sir Williat 
Oolebrooko, without conmilting hin adviww 
appointed his fioxi-in-law to tho oil) no o 
provincial secretary, Wilmot, with throe col 
leagues, resigned his placo in tho catmint. 

In 1847 Earl Grey, tho colonial noorotary 
declared that members of tho oxocutiv 
council should hold ollico only whilo tluvj 
possessed the confidonco of tho nwjorit* 
of the people. In 1848 tho Now liruiw 
wick house of aHsombly ptiHsod a rw-io 
lution approving of Marl Groy'* cloHpatch 
and Wilmot, who mado a groat Hprnjcli 01 
the occasion, was callotl on to form a go- 
vernment, Ho accepted tho tank, and 1m 
cabinet became a coalition mimHtry wit! 
liberal tondoncio. Ho hhnaolf hold oflwst 
as attorney-gonoral, a port which ho tat 
filled on 24 May 1 848. In thw capacity and 
as premier lie took an activo part in tlu 
consolidation of criminal and municipal law, 
In 1850 ho attended tho international rail- 
way convention at Portland in Maino. In 
the same year he took part in nogotiations 
m Washington on the subject of commer- 
cial reciprocity. A troaty was concluded 
four years later by Lord Mgiu, 
a In January 1851 Wilmot waa appointed a 
judge of the supromo court. Wlula holding 
^^J?? 6 r<)ceivi)d tll honorary dogroo 
of B.C.L. from the univmity of King's 
College. When the auction of federation 
became prominent in 1865 ho oapoused the 
cause of union, and aftor federation waa ac- 
complished he was nominated to the pOHt of 
lieutenant-governor of Now Brunswick on 

oT' (e ov, 

3, when he received a pension as a retired 
judge, In 1870 ho became second com- 
missioner under the Prince Edward Island 
Purchase Act, passed in that year, and he 
was also nominated one of the arbitrators in 
the Ontario and north-west boundary com- 
mission, but death prevented him serving. 
He died at Fredericton on 20 May 1878 
and was buried near the town, Wilmot 
was twice mawtod : first, to a daughter of 
the Rev, J. Ballochj and, secondly, to -a 
daughter of William A. Black of Halifax, a 
member of the legislative council ' 

JLathern's Hon. Judge Wilmot, 1831 ; Do- 
S n ^T al P e & i8 *** 18 ?8, P- 371 ; Appleton'a 
oLi^f i^ man n Bo ^ J WithroVsTfist. of 
Canada, 1888, p, 506.] & j t Q, 


WILMOT, ROBEirFJ^ 1568^1608^ 
dranmtwt,, was pmwntod by Gabriel ]>oynt 
on 28 Nov. 16822 to the rectory of North 
Okondon, now Ockendon, about BIX miles 
from Romford in Jtonox, and by tho doan 
and cliaptor of t. Paul'H Oathodral, on Q Doc. 
1 085, to tluwicarago ofHorndon-on-tho-Hill, 
a tow milps away from Ockondon, lie is 
diwttribod in l/)85 an M,A. (Ni5WCoirT, Jfo. 
p<>rh>rium> ii. 447, 8-W). It doos not appear 
when tho vicarago at Horndon was vacatud, 
but in 1008 the crown, by lapse of the 

Kobort Wilmot, whose denth took place in 

Wilmot jpuUiflhnd, in 1^91, * TheTragodie 
of lancrod and Oismund, compilod by tho 
(tontJtomon of thoInnorTomple, and by thorn. 
pronoated bofpro hor Majowtio. Nowly re- 
vived and polished according to tlw docsorum 
of thnso daios, By tt. W. London/ 159 J 
(J592 in omo copio),4to. The play is dedi- 
cated by * Robert Wilmot ' to < Lady Mario 
INiUv and tho.Lady Annio Graio; ' tholattor 
wan tho wifo of Ilunry Groy, oq., of Pirgo, 
Aftt^r t,h dedication com<jg a kttor to tho 


author from GuiL Woblbo [neo WBB, WJL- 
r-rAMl datod 'from Pyrgo'in EBSQX. Augtrnt 
the Eight, 1W1/ Wobbo claims from Wil- 

, - 

mot tho i)orformnnco of an *old intimtion* 
of publishing this play. He refers to the 
gonttonuut of the Inner Temple, and aaya 
^hat the play was < by them most pithily 
iramod and no less curiously acted in view 
of her Mftjestie, by whom xt WAS then as 
princtily accepted as of the whole honorable 
fcudiencenotaWyapplauded,' After thisletter 
follows an address by Wilmot to the ' Gentle- 
mont students of the Inner Temple and 
lentlomen of the Middle Temple/ m which 
le mentions his doubt 'whether it -were 
convenient for the commonwealth, with the 
ndocorum of my calling (as some thinke it), 
/hat the memorie of Tancred f s Tragedie 
hould be againe by my meanes revived/ 
This seems a reference to his clerical profea- 
ioau He speaks of his acquaintance with 
he Temple as having lasted twenty-four 
years. Before the play there are compli- 
mentary sonnets to * the Queenes Maidens 
f Honor/ The play was acted before Queen 
tllbabeth in 1568, In Wilmotfs version tho 
nitials of five composers are given at the 
nd of the five acts as follows : Bod, Staf. : 
Hen. No (Henry Noel P)} G. AL; Oh, Hat! 
Christopher Hatton) ; K. W. (Bobert Wil>- 
mot)* The play is taken from Boccaccio. 
t 'may stifl claim to toe designated the 
Idest known English play of which the 
lot is certainly taken from a Italian novel* 
he story is told in Painter's 'Palace of 



^ P l7ftn^l ? odsle /s < Collection/ volii 
in j./ ou ^cn edit, by Hazlitfc 1 874. i " \ 


Europe, i5 
Rscorfc, 1896; Vrf i 

Pb^,ir:ae9 i i 

p. 17, and English^! f 

, 27 i 


secoidUeutenantof th^ T ^ 89 as 
then fitting out b th M^ r p Exeter > 

wards to the 
round from 
1654, m S g ' 
dered b 

South oreland 
on 8 Dec. 169C I 
and on 6 Jan. 

evonshire in the following March, and ac- 
uitted, On 25 April 1694 he was reappointed 
o the Elizabeth (EtiYB, History of the Royal 
Marines, i. 387 : Admiralty Minute fioofo, 
Aug., 4 Sept. 1693, 5 March 1693-4). 
In the following October he was appointed 
the 60-gun ship Dunkirk, and the com- 
mand of an expedition sent to the West 
indies, where it was to co-operate with the 
Spaniards against the French settlements in 
Hispaniola. The squadron appointed for 
his service, consisting, besides flhe Dunkirk, 
f three 50-gun ships and some smaller 
p essels, together with transports carrying 
welve hundred soldiers commanded by 
Colonel Luke Lillingston [q. v.], sailed from 
^lymouth on 22 Jan. 1 695. In March it was 
at St. Christopher's, and after some corre- 
)ondence with the Spanish governor of St. 
omingo it sailed for Savo/na on the 28th, 
At Savana, however, it was found that, con- 
rary to the hopes the governor had hold out, 
the Spaniards were not ready, and it was the 
>nd of April before Cape Fran^ais could be 
attacked. This the French evacuated after 
jetting on fire, and it was some weeks before 
she different elements of the assailing force 
could agree on what was next to be done 
and how it was to be done. At length thoy 
attacked and on 3 July took Port do laPaix, 
out of which they collected a booty estimated 
as worth about 200,0002. This seems to 
have been the cause of the bitter quarrel 
which broke out between Wilmot and Lil- 
ingston, though the particulars are unknown. 
Wilmot was anxious, late as the season was, 
to go on and capture Petit Goave and Leo- 
gane ; but the sickly state of the troops, and 
probably also Lillingaton's ill will, rendered 
bhis impossible, and leaving the 50-gun ships 
behind for the protection ot Jamaica, Wilmot 
sailed for England on 3 Sept But the fover, 
which had killed so many of the soldiers, 
had now spread to the ships, and very many 
of the seamen died, Wilmot himself among 
the first, on 15 Sept, LillingBton afterwards 
published a pamphlet accusing Wilmot of 
several irregularities, none of whichj how- 
ever, ne could substantiate by any evidence 
except his own assertion ; and Wilmot was 
dead. In the account of the expedition pub- 
lished by Burchett, who, as secretary of the 
admiralty, was in abettor position for learn- 
ing the truth than any other man could pos- 
sibly be, the accusations of Lillingston are 
passed over with contempt. 

[List books in the Public Eecord Office ; Char- 
nock's Biogr. Nav. ii. 375; Burcbett'fl Trans- 
actions at Sea, pp. 531-7; Liliingaton's lie- 
flections on Burchett'e Memoirs ; Lediard's Naval 
Hist, pp. 700-8.1 J K. L. 




JOHN (1784-1841), political pamphleteer. 
[See HOEXON.] 

"WILSON", MBS. (& 1786), actress, whose 
maiden name was Adcook, was presumably 
a milliner in the llaymarket [see WBSTON, 
THOMAS, 1737-1776], She ie iirwt hoard of in 
York, where, as Mrw. Wo8ton> in tho sum- 
mer of 1773 she played Lucy Lockit in the 
* Beggar's Opera/ MIBW Notable in the ' Lady's 
Lust Stake,* and other comic parts. After 
appearing in Leeds, whorp she became a 
favourite, and in GlaHgow in 1774, Bhe camo 
to London, There she came to know Richard 
Wilson (see below), and as Mrs. Wilson she 
played at the Hay market on 19 May 177f>, 
Betsy Blossom in the ' CoBonora/ and Lucjr 
in the * Virgin UnmaHkcd/ The name of 
Wilson she henceforward retained, "but is 
once and again heard of as Mrs. Weston, 
Weston and Wilson were in tho flame com- 
pany with her. Weston died in 177 ft, but it 
is known that he quarrelled with and forsook 
his wife no long time after marriage. Under 
one name or other she was soon in her first 
Haymarket season as Lucy in tho * Mirror/ 
Nell in the < Devil to Pay/ Lydia in the 
'Bankrupt/ Sophy in the * Dutchman/ and 
Juletta (an original part) in ' Metamorphoses ' 
(26 Aug. 1775), 

On 30 April 1776 she was at Covont G arden, 
for Wilson's bonefit, Hoyden in tho * Man of 
Quality/ In the summer of 1776 and that 
of 1777 she was iu Liverpool, whore, among 
many other parts, sho enacted Miss Hard- 
castle in 'She stoops to conquer/ Lady 
Racket in * Three Weeks after Marriage,' 
Mariana in the * Miser,' Charlotte Kurort 
in the * West Indian/ Jonny^ in the ' Pro- 
voked Husband/ Mrs. Sullen, in the < Beaux' 
Stratagem/ Estifania in < Bule a Wife and 
have a Wife/ Pheedra in * Amphitryon/ 
Ophelia, Maria in the < Twelfth Night/ 
Lady Harriet in the ' Funeral/ Garnet in 
the Good-natured Man/ and Mrs, Sneak in 
the i Mayor of Garratt/ At Covent Garden 
she had played meanwhile Polly Honey- 
combe in dolman's piece so named, Mrs. 
Pinchwife in the ' Country Wife/ and Kitty 
in 'High Life below Stairs/ On 2 Feb. 
1780 she -was the first Betsy Blossom m 
Pilon's < Deaf Lover/ and on 6 Aug. at the 
Haymarket the first Bridget in M.m Lee's 
' Chapter of Accidents/ She was also seen 
at the Haymarket as Nerissa and Miss Prue 
in 'Love for Love; ' and at Covent Garden 
as Jacintha in the * Mistake/ Mrs, Page in 
the < Merry Wives of Windsor/ Margery in 
' Love in a Village/ Edging in the ' Careless 
Husband/ Damaris in * Baroaby Brittle r on 

18 April 1781, and on 10 May Betty Hint 
in tho ' Man of tho World/ the last two 
original parts. 

At the Haymarket she was on 16 June 
1781 the original Comfit in O'&eetfb's < Dead 
Alive/ and played Filch in the 'Beggar's 
Opora/ with the male parts played by women 
and vk& versa*, she played also Nysa in. 
* Midas' (15 Aug.)? a nd Flippanta in the 
'Confederacy/ Miss Turnbtul, an original 
part in Holcroft's * Duplicity/ was soon at 
Covent Garden, 18 Oct. ; Kitty in Mrs, Cow- 
ley's Which is the Man/ 9 Feb. 1782 ; Nancy 
in O'Koefib's < Positive Man/ 16 March ; and 
Kitty Carrington in Cumberland's ' Walloons/ 
20 April She was also Miss Leeaon in the 
4 School for Wives/ and Jenny in the 4 I*ro~ 
voked Husband/ Her original parts in the 
next season (at Covent Garden) included 
Oatalina in Q'KecjnVs * Castle of Andalusia' 
on 2 Nov., and Minotto in Mrs. Cowley's 
Bold Stroke for a Husband ' on 26 Feb. 1788, 
Sho also appeared as Mrs, Cadwallader in the 
Author/ l^loretta in the ' Quaker/ and Foi- 
blo in tho Way of tho World. 1 Viletta in 
She would ana sho would not/ Fatima in 
'Oymon/ Lucotta in *Two Gentleman of 
Verona/ and Mrs. Haughty in * Kpiccene/ 
were given during the* noxt season, in which 
aho was on B Nov. the first Coriwca in the 
'Magic Picture/ altered from Mass-linger; 
Miss Juvenile in Mrs. Cowley's ' More ways 
than One* (6 Dec.); and 17 April 1784, 
Annette in ' Kobin Hood.* In 1784-5 she 
is crtxlited with Tilburina in, the 'Critic/ 
Muslin in tho* Way to keep ^ him/ Parly 
in the 'Constant Couple/ Nell' in the * Devil 
to Pay/ and Fine Lady in * Lethe/ She was 
on 29 March 1786 the original Mary the 
Buxom in Pilon's 'Bar&tana/ on 2 April 
Graoo in Macnally's * Fashionable Levities/ 
and on 22 Oct, Fish in Mrs, Inchbald's Ap- 
pearance is against them/ She also played 
Lucetta in the ' Suspicious Husband/ Susan 
in * Follies of a Bay/ and Margery m * Love 
in a Village/ 

She did not act after this season, and died 
in Edinburgh in 1786, A Mrs. "Wilson, ac- 
cording to Genest, ' carefully to be distin- 
guished from her namesake at Covent OUrden/ 
played at Drury Lane the same class of parts 
from 1783 to 1700. Mrs, Wilson or Weston 
was a good actress, but ' died a martyr to her 
own folly/ says Tate Wilkinson, who adds 
that she was ' past reclaiming 1 / Mary Julia 
Young, ia the 'Memoirs of Mrs, Crouch/ 
says of her Filch ; < Though a very pretty- 
little woman, [she] appeared to be in reality 
as complete a young pickpocket as could be 
found among the boys who lurk about the 
doors of a theatre, and sang her songs as if 




she had always frequented such society. Gay 
himself could never have wished for a better 
Filch '(i-116). 

Her husband, RICHARD WILSON (fl< 1774- 
1792), born in Durham, played during many 
years comic characters at Oovent Garden and 
the Haymarket. He was a good actor in 
comedy, taking parts such as Hardcastle, 
Justice Woodcock, Sir Anthony Absolute, 
Tony Lumpkin, Malvolio, Touchstone, Fal- 
staff, Ben in ' Love for Love/ Scapin, Shy- 
lock, Ruellen, Polonius, Sir Pertinax Macsy- 
cophant, and Sir Hugh Evans. His original 
parts included Don Jerome in the l Duenna/ 
Lord Lumbercourt in the ' Man of the World/ 
Father Luke in the < Poor Soldier/ Mayor in 
' Peeping Tom/ John Dory in ' Wild Oats/ 
and Sulky in the ' Road to Buin/ According 
to a rather extravagant and scarcely credible 
account of Lee Lewes, he married in the 
country, as a seventh husband, a Mrs. Grace, 
who is said to have been the original Jenny 
in the * Provoked Husband/ She was, m 
fact, Myrtilla, Mrs. Gibber playing Jenny. 
She must have been fifty years of age, and 
Wilson little over twenty. Wilson then 
married, it is said, a daughter of Charles Lee 
Lewes [q . v.], and afterwards, it is to be pre- 
sumed, Mrs. Weston. Richard Wilson was 
a good actor, O'KeefFe (Recollections, ii. 809) 
says he succeeded Shuter at Covent Garden, 
that ' his manner was broad, full, and power- 
ful/ and that he was ' ever true in loyalty to 
his poet, his manager, and his audience/ 

[Q-enest's Account of tho English Stage, vols. 
v. and vi. passim ; Young's Memoirs of Mrs, 
Crouch ; Tate Wilkinson's Wandering Patentoo ; 
Oulton's History of the London Theatres ; Lee 
Lewes*s Memoirs ; O'Kooflb's Bocolloctions ; 
Doran's Stage Annals, ed. Lowe; Notes and 
Queries, 9th ser. ii, 349.] J K. 

WILSOK SIE ADAM (1814-1891), 
Canadian judge, was born at Edinburgh on 
22 Sept. 1814, and educated in that city. He 
emigrated in 1880 to Trafalgar, co, Ilulton, 
in tipper Canada, and went into the employ 
of his uncle, who owned mills and stores at 
that place ; but after three years he decided 
to go to the Canadian bar, and in 1884 be- 
came articled to Robert Baldwin Sullivan j 
he was called in Trinity term 1839 to the 
baroftlyper Canada, having already made 
such an impression on his tutor that he was 
in 1840 admitted into partnership with him 
and Robert Baldwin., the reform leader. He 
was successful in practice, and became Q,C. 
in 1850 ; he was shortly afterwards elected a 
bencher of the Law Society of Up] 
Canada. In 1856 he was appointed to t .... 
committee for revising the puolic statutes oi 
the Canadas. 

Wilson removed to Toronto before J8f)5, 
and in 1869 and I860 way mayor of that city, 
In 1859 he entered tho logiwlative assembly 
of Upper Canada as member for tho North 
Biding of York. Joining 1 the reform party, 
he became an uncompromising opponent of 
the Cartier-Macdonald ministry, chiefly on 
the question of their viewn as to popular 
representation. In J800 ho wa again re- 
turned, but in 1801, was defeated in the 
election for West Toronto. In 1802 ho was 
elected for his old constituency, and on 
24 May of that year became solicitor-general 
in the coalition ministry led by John Band- 
field Macdonald. 

On 11 May 1868 Wilson rosippaed political 
life on his appointment as puisne- judge of 
the court of queen's bench for Upper Canada. 
On 24 Aug. ho was transferred to tho court 
of common pleas j but at Eofiter 18(58 ho 
again returned to the court of quoon's bench, 
In 1871 lie was a member of the law reform 
commission, In 1878 he was appointed 
chief justice of thc^ court of common ploas, 
and in 1884 chief justice of the court of 
queen's bench of Ontario. Ho wan knighted 
in 1888. lie died at Toronto on 20 Dec. 
189L He was author of 'A Sketch of the 
Office of Constable,' 186L 

Wilson married the daughter of Thomas 
Dalton, editor of the Toronto < Patriot/ His 
adopted daughter, Julia Isabella Jordan, 
married George Shirley. 

[Roso's Cvclopaelia of Canadian 'Biogr, ; Mor- 
gan's Canadian Logwl Directory, 1878 ; Montreal 
tfazotte, 30 Doc, 1S91,] 0. A, H. 

WILSON, ALEXANDER (1714-1786), 
first professor of astronomy at Glasgow Uni- 
versity, and the father of Scottish letter- 
founders, son of Patrick Wilson, town clerk 
of St. Andrews, was born at St. Andrews in 
1714 He skidiad at the university there, 
and graduated M,A* on 8 May 17tt#. In 
1737 he became assistant to a London 
surgeon and apothecary. One day ha paid a 
visit to a type-foundry, and, after examining 
the processes, the idea of an improved method 
of manufacture of types struck him, lie 
relinquished his profession and returned to 
St. Andrews in 1739. In 1742, with a 
friend named Bain, he started a letter- 
foundry at St, Andrews, which was removed 
hi 1744 to Camlachie, near Glasgow* In 
1747 Bain settled at Dublin, hut in 1749 the 
partnership was dissolved, Tho result of 
Wilson's efforts was an extensive and im- 
proved production of types. He furnished 
his friends, the brothers FouHs, with their 
types, especially the Greek (which wero 
hold to bo unrivalled), and it is to Wilson 



that we owe tho beauty and artistic ihutik 
of the Foulis pniHH [MA FOUUH, HOKHKT], 
He IB specially risiorrod to in the preface to 
the'IIomor.' Itx 1700 Wilson was appointed 
first professor of practical agronomy in, tho 
university of Glasgow, through tlw inlluonco 
of the Duke or Argyll In 1769 ho made 
his celebrated discovery regarding th Bolar 
spots, an account of which appeared in the 
' Philosophical Transaction*!* of tho Royal 
Society of London, 1774. J I IH view was that 
the spots are cavities or doproHsiow in tho 
luminous matter which surrounds, the sun ; 
and he was tho frafc to estublisli this by a 
rigid induction. "Wilson was alno tho author 
of a speculation in answer to tho question, 
' What hinders the lixod stars from falling 
upon one another P ' His view was that this 
might depend upon.poriodicml motion round 
some grand centre of gravitation. It was 
given to tho world in an anonymous tract, 
* Thoughts on General Gravitation, and 
Views thence arising as to tho State of the 
Universe.' Assisted by his sons, whom ho 
took into partnership, Wilson still continued 
and extended the business of typtvibundmg, 
and in 1772 ho published <A Specimen of 
some of the Printing Typos cast in the 
Foundry of Alexander Wilson ^ & Bonn/ 
"Wilson resigned the professorship in, 17H4, 
and died at Edinburgh on 1 8 Oct. 1 786, He 
received the honorary decree of M.I), from 
St. Andrews on 6 Aug. 1763, and was one of 
the original members of the lloyai Society of 

He was succeeded in his chair at the 
university by his sou Patrick Wilson (174&- 
1811), who had much of the original thought 
and inventive genius of his father, He left 
1,OOOJ. to Glasgow University, the interest 
on which is used to purchase instruments 
for the professor of astronomy^ His por- 
trait, a medallion by James Tassle, is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh* The 
type-founding business was continued by the 
Wilson family for many years, a branch, 
being opened m 1832 in Edinburgh, while in 
1884 the business was removed from Glasgow 
to London. 

[Anderson's Scottish Kation; living's Emi- 
nent Scotsmen; University of Glasgow, Old and 
New, 1891, pp. 65-6 ; London Literary Gtotte, 
1834, p. 40; Bogers's Hist, of St. Andrews; 
Addison's Boll of Glasgow Graduates, 1898.] 

G. S-H* 

-WILSON, ALEXANDEK (1766-1818), 
ornithologist, the son of Alexander Wilson, 
a distiller, and afterwards weaver, of Paisley, 
was born in that town on 6 July 1766, He 
was educated for a short time at a school in 
Paisley, but, owing to his mother's death and 

father's remarriage, had to be removed, 
uid on iJl July 1779 was apprenticed for a 
torm of three yours to his eldest sister's 
husband, William Duncan, a weaver in 

iuHluy, On the expiration of his appren- 
iceship in 17%% he continued weaving at 
Lochwmnoch and Paisley, but subsequently 
for nearly three years he travelled as a pack- 


From a very early period he had evinced 
n Htrong desire for learning, and had deve- 
loped it literary taste, especially for poetry, 
Ho had composed many poems himself, and 
unsuccttBaiully sought when travelling to ob- 
tain BubHCribors towards their publication. 
Thiwo versos were nevertheless issued, and 
wont through two editions in 1790, reappear- 
ing in 171)1, under the title of ^ Poems, 
humorous, satirical, and serious,' His literary 
oilbrtB being linancially unsuccessful, he re- 
sumnd weaving in Loehwinnoah, and after- 
wardB in Paiuloy, but went to Edinburgh to 
take part in the debate hold in the Pantheon 
by a society of literati called < The Forum ' 
on the question whether Allan Kamsay or 
Itoborfc Forgusson had done more to honour 
Scottish poetry. In his poem, which was 
published with that on the same theme by 
EbenejKor Pickon [a.v.] in 1791, under the 
title of t The Laurol disputed/ Wilson gave 
preference to Itamsay, a verdict from wnich 
his audience dissented* Two other poems 
were composed and recited by him on this 
occftttion. He also, after corresponding with 
Burafl, paid a visit to that poet in Ayrshire. 
In 179ii his poem * Watty and Meg* appeared 
anonymously, and was at first ascribed to 

A little later, having written a piece of 
severe personal satire against an individual 
in Paisley, he was sentenced to burn it in 
public and imprisoned* After his release he 
left for the American colonies, sailing from 
Belfast on 28 May 1794, accompanied by his 
nephew, William Duncan. The ship being 
f uu, they obtained passage only by agreeing 
to sleep on deck. On his arrival, literally 
penniless, at Newcastle, Delaware, on 14 July, 
he shouldered his fowling-piece and walked 
to Philadelphia, shooting by the way his first 
American bird, a red-headed woodpecker. 
In Philadelphia he obtained employment 
with John Aitken, a copperplate printer, but 
afterwards took to weaving at Pennypack, 
and for a time in "Virginia. In the autumn 
of 1795 he became a pedlar once more and 
travelled through New Jersey* On his return 
he opened a school near Frankford, Penn- 
sylvania, whence he removed to Millerstown 
and taught in the schoolhouse of that village. 
Here he studied hard, principally at mathe- 



matics, and practised surveying. lie next 
opened a school at BloomMd, New Jersey, 
where he remained till early in 1802, when 
he received an appointment from the trustees 
of the Union school, close to Grav's Ferry, 
near Philadelphia. Here he made the ac- 
quaintance of William Bartram, the "botanist definitions he 
and naturalist, who owned an extensive but that passa 
garden on the west bank of the Sohuylkill, scriptions are 
where "Wilson was able to gratify to the full 
his love of nature. His friends, becoming 
anxious for his health, persuaded him to re- 
linquish poetry for drawing, and he took 
lessons from the engraver, Alexander Lawson, 
Failing in his attempts at the human figure 
and at landscape-drawing, he was induced 
by Bartram to attempt the illustration of 
birds. In this he succeeded beyond his an- 
ticipation, and presently proposed the scheme 
of illustrating the ornithology of the United 
States, for which he at once began to collect 

In 1804, with two friends, he took a walk- 
ing tour to Niagara, which inspired the poem 
of "The Foresters/ published in the 'Port- 
folio/ In February 1806 he made an un- 
successful application to President Jefterson 
(with whom he had previously had corre- 
spondence on ornithological matters) for the 
post of naturalist to the expedition then fit- 
ting out to explore the valley of the Mis- 

In April of the same year he was engaged 
at a liberal salary by the publisher, Samuel 
F. Bradford, to assist in editing the Ameri- 
can edition of Rees's 'Cyclopaedia/ This 
gave him the opportunity of proceeding with 
his cherished scheme -the risk of which was 
taken by Bradford and in September 1808 
the first volume of ' The American Ornitho- 
iared, the original edition of two 

In March 1812 WilBon was elected a 
member of the Society of ArtiMts of the 
United States, and the following year of the 
American Philosophical Society of Phila- 
delphia. "With respect to his groat work it 
has been pointed out that in his specific 
definitions he was loose and unsystematic, 

OB iu his prdacott and de- 
ne, and at the flame time 
simple and natural, With perspective he 
was imperfectly acquainted, but lu figures 
were superior to most of hifl day. Vol. viii. 
of the * American Ornithology' wa com- 
pleted, and vol. ix. brought out under the 
editorship of Qoorge Ord m 1814, A Hecond 
edition of vols, vii-ix,, tho last with a life 

i copies being augmented to five hun- 
dred before a year had elapsed, while the 
second volume was issued in 1810. In order 
to carry on this work he made extensive 
journeys through the States, on one of which 
he descended tne Ohio alone in an open skiff 
from Pittsburg to near Louisville, The hard- 
ships and exposure he had endured on these 
travels and his anxiety to complete the eighth 
volume brought on an attack of dysentery, 
from which he died at Philadelphia, after 
ten days' illness, on 23 Aug. 1818* He was 
"buried in the cemetery of the old Swedish 
church in that city. Wilson was unmarried. 
"Wilson's portrait was painted by J Craw ; 
another portrait, which is anonymous, is 
in the National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh, 
Engravings by W. H, Lizars are prefixed to 
Jameson's and to Jaidine's editions of Wil- 
son's ' American Ornithology,' 

of tho author, was brought out by Ord in 
1824-5, while a second American edition in 
thi % ee vols. appeared in 1828-0. Between 
1825 and 18&I Prince Ohorl8 Lucien Jules 
Bonaparte published fosur volumes containing 
figures and descriptions completing Wilson's 
work* An edition of their unifcud works in 
four volumes, edited by Robert Jameson 
[q. v.l was issued in 18'tt (8vo f Edinburgh 
and "London), and another edition, with 
notes by Sir William Jardino fq, v.], in 
three volumes, in 1882 (Bvo, London), An 
octavo edition in one volume, edited by 
T. M. Brewer, was innmcd at Boston in 1840 
and New York in 1852, other issues appear- 
ing in 1856 and 1805. The last edition of 
his 'Poems' swrnis to have boon issued in 
1816, < Watty and Mog' wtmt through several 
editions, but the lawt by th author "appoawid 
in the 'Portfolio' in 1810, Of Ids other 
poems 'The Foresters' (Piunby, 1825, 12mo), 
and 'liabandBingan' (Paisley, 1827, 16mo), 
were issued soparattily ; the roHt appeared in 
various journals (see AMMBQWH). and of th^se 
the best known is 'The Solitary Tutor/ 
which was published in 'Brown's Literary 


[Memoir by William Maxwell Ilothenn^toa 
[q.v.], prefixed to Jameson's ad, of American 
Ornith. ; Momoir by G-, Ord in vol. ix, 2nd ed. 
of Amor, Ornith. ; Memoir in Jardine's ed. of 
Amer, Ornith,; Brit, Mus, Cat.; Nat, Hist. 
Museum Cat, ; Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Ameri- 
can Biography.] B. B, W* 


(1770P-18S1P), physician. 
^ WI 

[See PHIHP, 

philosophical and medical writer, born in 
1718, was the only son of Gabriel Wilson 
(d. 11 Feb. 1760),parishmimster of Maxton in 
Roxburghshire, by his wife, Hachel Oorsan* 
After studying medicine at the university 
of Edinburgh, he graduated M,B* on 29 June 




1749 with a thoHw, t I)e Luce/ Edinburgh, 
1749, 4to. lie wa Hctmfutd to pructine W 
the Boy al College of PhyaieiauB of Edinburgh 
on 7 Aug. 1704, and was admitted a fellow 
on 6 Nov. of tho same yoar. lie exorcised 
his profession at Newcastle and afterwards 
in London, whero ho was appointed physician 
to the medical asylum boiore 1777. Wilfton, 
was a man of AOUUI mental power, and a de- 
cided HutchinRonian in MB views. Besides 
medical troatiaea ho published anonymously 
several philosophical works. He died in 
London on 4 June 179& 

He "was the author of: 1. 'Tho Creation 
the Groundwork of Revolution, and Rovolo* 
tion tho Language of Nature, or a Brief 
Attempt to domonHtrato that tho Hebrew 
Language is founded upon Natural Idea*, and 
that the Hebrew Writings trannfw them to 
Spiritual Objects/ Edinburgh, 1750, 8vo, 
2. l Human Nature Rurveyftd by Philosophy 
and Revelation,' London, 1758, vo. & * A a 
Essay on tho Autumnal Dysentery/ London, 
176J,,8vo; 2nd edit, 1777. 4.^Short Observa- 
tions on tho Principles and Moving .Powers 
assumed by the present System of Philo- 
sophy/ 1764, 8vo 5. ' An implication and 
Vindication of tho First Section of the " Short 
Observations/" London,! 764, 8vo. 6* 'Short 
Bemarks upon Autumnal Disorders of the 
Bowels/ N&wcafttle-upon-Tyne, 3765, Bvo, 
7. i Benections upon some of the Subjects in 
Dispute between the Author of the u Divine 
Legation" and a late Professor in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford/ London, 1766. Bvo, 8. * On 
the Moving Powers in the Circulation of the 
Blood/ 1774, 8vo. There is an Italian trans- 
lation of this treatise in Carlo Amoretti and 
Prancesco Soave's * Opuscoli scelti sulle sci- 
enze e sulli arti/ ii. 255-72 (Milan, 1779, 4to), 
9. ' Medical Besearches, being an Enquiry 
into the Nature and Origin of Hysterics in 
the Female^ Constitution, London, 1777, 8vo. 
10. t Aphorisms on the Constitution and Dis 
eases of Children/ London, 1788, 12mo, 
11. ' Bath Waters: a conjectural Idea of 
their Nature and Qualities, in three Letters* 
To which is added Putridity and Infection 
unjustly imputed to Fevers/ 1788, 8vo* 

[Scott's Fasti Eccles, Scoticanse, x. ii. 657; 
Scots Maga, 1702 p. 310; Beuss's Beg. of 
Living Authors, 1770-90; AlUbone's Diet of 
Bagl. Lit.; Orme's Biblioth, Biblica, 1824; 
Edinb, Medical Graduates, 1705-1866, p.4; Hist 
Sketch and Laws of the Royal Coll. of Phys. of 
Edinb. 1882, p. 4,] E. I. 0, 

WILSON, ANDREW (1780-1848), land- 
scape-painter, born in Edinburgh in 1780, 
came of an old family who had suffered in 
the Jacobite cause* His father's name was 
Archibald Wilson, his mother's Elizabeth 

Shields, "Whon quite young he commenced 
to study art under Alexander Nasmyth [q, vj, 
and then, at the age of seventeen, wont to 
London ; whore ho worked for some time in the 
Hcltools of the Koyal Academy. Proceeding 
to Italy, ho studied the great works of the 
Italian masters, thus laying the foundation 
of a knowledge which afterwards proved of 
groat Me, and he became acquainted with 
the well-known collectors Ohampernown and 
Irving. He also made many sketches, prin- 
cipally of tho architecture in the neighbour- 
hood of Borne and Naples. Returning to 
London in 1803, ho at once saw the advan- 
tage of importing pictures by the old mas- 
ters, and wont back to Italy for that pur- 
poflo. The troubled state of Europe made 
travelling difficult, but ho reached Genoa, 
whore ho settled under tho protection of the 
American consul and was elected a member 
of the Ligurian Academy. As a member of 
that society he was present when Napoleon 
Bonaparte viftited its exhibition, and on 
some envious academician informing the 
latter, who had paused to admire Wilson's 
picture, that it was by an Englishman, he 
was met by the retort : ' Le talent n r a pas 
do pays/ In 1805 he, returned through 
Germany to London with the pictures (over 
fifty in number) which he had acquired. 
Among them were Kubpns's 'Brazen Ser- 
pcmt' (now in the National Gallery) and 
Basimno'fl ' Adoration of the Magi ' (in the 
Edinburgh Gallery), 

Settling in London, he painted a good 
deal in watercolour, was one of the original 
members of the Associated Artists (1808), 
and held for a period the position of teacher 
of drawing 1 in Sandhurst Military College ; 
but being in 1818 appointed master of the 
Trustees^ Academy, he removed to Edin- 
burgh, where he exercised a considerable 
and beneficial influence upon his pupils, 
whom were Bobert Scott Lauder 
William Simson [q. v.], and David 

itavius Hill [q, v.] Whue in London he 
contributed to the Boyal Academy, and in 
Edinburgh he supported the Royal Institu- 
tion, of which he was the manager as well 
as an artist associate member. But his pre- 
dilection for Italy was too strong to be re- 
sisted, and in 1826, taking his wife and 
family with him, he again went south, and 
for the twenty years following lived in 
Borne, Florence, and Genoa, During this 
period he was much consulted on art mat- 
ters, collected pictures for Lords Hopetoun 
and Pembroke, Sir Eobert Peel, and others, 
and was instrumental in securing for the 
Boyal Institution some of the most impor- 
tant works, which later helped to form the 

Wilson 7 

National Gallery of Scotland, He also 
painted much in both oil and watercolour a, 
and his work, some of the finest of which 
never came to this country, was in great re- 
quest by artistic visitors to Italy. His pic- 
tures are delicate in handling, refined in 
colour, pleasant in composition, and serene 
in effect. He is represented in the Scottish 
National Gallery by two Italian landscapes 
and a 'View of Burntisland y in oils, and by 
three watercolours in the watercolour col- 
lection at South Kensington. In 1847, 
leaving his family in Italy, ne revisited Scot- 
laud, but, on the eve of returning, he died in 
Edinburgh on 27 Nov. 1848. 

In 1808 he married Bachel Ker, daughter 
of William Ker, descendant of the Inglis of 
Manner, and had a family of four sons and 
three daughters. The eldest son, Charles 
Heath Wilson, is separately noticed, 

[Edinburgh Annual Eegister, 1816; Cata- 
logue of the Exhibition of Works by Scottish 
Artists, Edinburgh, 1 863 ; Kedgrave'ft andBryan's 
Dictionaries; Armstrong's Scottish Painters, 
1888; Biydall's Art in Scotland, 1889; Cata- 
logues of Boyal Institution, Edinburgh, Boyal 
Academy, Scottish National G-allery, South 
Kensington ; information from C. A. Wilson, esq,, 
G-enoa.] J. L. C. 

WILSON, ANDREW (1831-1881), tra- 
veller and author, born in. 1881, was the 
eldest son of the learned missionary John 
Wilson (1804-1876)^ [q[.v.l He was edu- 
cated at the universities 01 Edinburgh and 
Tubingen, and afterwards lived some time 
in Italy* He then went to India, where 
he began his career as a journalist by talcing 
charge of the ' Bombay Times ' in the ab- 
sence of George Buist [q. v.], and as an 
oriental traveller by a tour in Baluchistan. 
After his return to England he contributed 
to ' Bladkwood's Magazine ' some verses en- 
titled ' Wayside Songs/ and in 1857 at- 
tracted some attention by a paper * Infante 
Perduto/ published in i Edinburgh Essays/ 
He maintained his connection with ' Blaok- 
WQQijl' throughout his life. Returning in 
i|<}0 to the east, he edited for three years 
tae r t/hina Mail,' accompanied the expe- 
cU&ion to Tientsin, and visited Japan. In 
1860 he issued at Hongkong a pamphlet en- 
titled * England's Policy in CJhina,' xn which 
he advocated that change of policy which 
was afterwards carried out by Sir Frederick 
William Adotohus Bruce [q. v,] at Pekin, 
fey Mr. (now Sir Bobert) Hart at Shanghai, 
and by General Gordon in the field. He 
travelled much in southern China, and sent 
descriptive contributions to the 'Daily News* 
and 'Pall Mall Gazette* on eastern ques- 
tions, as well as to 'BlackwoooV At the 


beginning of the civil war ho paid a visit to 
the United States, and afterwards jwwaod 
some years in England, during which he 
wrote for papers and magazines, Returning 
to India about 1,87<% he edited for a time tho 
* Times of India ' and the * Bombay Gazette.' 
Ill-health delayed the publication till 1878 
of his book ' llie Ever- Victorious Army : a 
History of the Ohineao Campaifjpna under 
Lieutenant-colonel 0. G. Gordon, O.B,, R.K, 
and of the Suppression of tho Tai-Ping Ko- 
bellion,' which is 1 the bowt account of 
the suppression of the mo vein out of 18ti&-4. 
Wilson's chief source of information, was 
Gordon's i Private Journal,* tlum unpublished, 
The clear and animated Htylo in which tho 
work is written gives it; an additional value. 
In 1875 Wilson published an account of a 
very ad vcmturouH journey tin dor the title 'Tim 
Abode of Snow: ObswvationH on a .lournoy 
from Chinese Tibet to the Indian OauwiBUH 
through the Upper Valloya of the Himalaya.' 
The book is bawed on articloft in ' Blackwood'rt 
Magazine.' A second edition wan wmuxl next 
year. * Tho Abode of Snow 'is not only a 
vivid record of very arduous travel, it con- 
tains also valuable ethnological obtwrvationH, 
and displays intonse feeling for natural 
beauty expressed in excellent proRo. Buibro 
bis final departuro from India WilHon niado 
an excursion into tho wild state of Kathio- 
war. His last contribution to * Blackwood, 
written in tho spring of 1 877, was a retro- 
spect of African travol (' Twenty Yearw of 
African Travel '), Tho last yoaru of hm lifo 
were passed in l^ngland in tho Lake dintrlfit* 
He died at Kowton on tlllHwattir on 9 Juno 

[Men of the Time, 10th edit,; 
Magazine, July 1881 (obituary notion); 
ntJBiim, 18 Juno 1881 ; Wilstm'fl WOPKH ; Atli- 
bono's Diet, of Kngl. Lit. Suppl. voK ii. ; Aim* 
Beg. Juno 1881 (obituary) ; Mon of th U<ngn,] 

WILSON, ANTHOKY (/, 171)8), 

known, by hispfieudonym * Honry JJmmloy/ 
author or the * Catalogue of Engravod Por- 
traits,' was bom afc Wigan in 1750. II o 
was perhaps connected witli tho Wilson 
family of Kendal, which intermarried with 
that of Bromley, Wilson belonged to a 
mercantile firm in the city of London, and 
was a regular attendant at HutohinB'fl auc- 
tion-rooms, where he was detected on one 
occasion abstracting prints. Ho also fre- 
quented the sale-room of Nathaniel Smith, 
father of the antiquary, John Thomas Smith 
(1766-1833) (%. v7| 

In 1793, stimulated by the increased de- 
mand for prints consequent on the publica* 
tion of James Granger s * Biographical His- 




tory of England T (1769), Wilson, under the 
name of Henry Bromley, published 'A 
Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits' 
(London, 4to). He received assistance in the 
compilation from many leading antiquaries 
and virtuosi, including Sir William Mus- 
grave, James Bindley [q. v.l and Anthony 
Morris Storer [q. v.] Tn the ' Catalogue ' 
"Wilson aimed at furnishing a complete list of 
engraved British portraits, neglecting only 
those which could not be identified with 
their originals. He divided his list into 
historic periods, and subdivided it into 
groups according to the rank or calling of 
the persons portrayed. The date of Wilson's 
death is unknown, Jlis portrait was en- 
graved by Barrett. There is a copy in the 
British Museum. Edward Evans (1789- 
1835) [q. v.l the printseller, states that he 
was a contributor to the * Gentleman's Maga- 
zine 7 (cf. a letter signed * A Gothamite/ in 
July 1814). 

[Manuscript note by Evans, the printseUer, 
in his copy of Bromley's Catalogue, aftonwrds 
in the pOBSfisnion of Sir George Scharf [q. v.] ; 
preface to Bromley's Catalogue; Evans's Cata- 
logue of Engraved Portraits, vol. i. Nos. 1352, 
11360; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists, s.v. * Brom- 
ley.'] B. I. C. 

1874), bart., lieutenant-general and colonel- 
commandant royal (late Bengal) artillery, 
born on 3 Aug. 1803, was fifth son of the 
Kev, George Wilson of Kirby Cane, Norfolk, 
youngest brother of the first Lord Berners, 
and rector of Didlington, .Norfolk, by his wife 
Anna Maria, daughter of Charles Millard 
chancellor of Norwich. Afterpassing through 
the military college of the East India Com- 
pany at Addiscombe, he received a commis- 
sion as second lieutenant in the Bengal 
artillery on 10 April 1819. He arrived in 
India in the following September, and was 
promoted to be lieutenant OB 7 April 1820 
He took part in the siege of Bhortpur in 
December 1826 and January 1826 and in 
its capture by storm on 18 Jan., was men 
tioned in despatches, and received the medal 
with clasp. 

Wilson next had charge of the Saugo 
magazine ; in May 1828 became adjutant of 
the Nimach division of artillery ; was pro 
moted to be brevet captain on 10 April 183- 
and captain on 16 Oct. of the same year 
commanded the left wing of the second bat 
talion of artillery from March to Angus 
1887 ; was appointed on 2 Oct. to omciat 
as assistant adjutant-general of artillery ; i 

1889 commanded the artillery at Lucknow 
and in the following year the 5th battalioi 
at Cawnporej from 12 Aug. 1840 acte 

s superintendent of the gun foundry at 
Kossipur until 11 Nov. 1841, when he be- 
ame s uperintendent. His management of it, his resignation on 10 Aug. 1846, caused 
)y promotion to the rank of major on 3 July, 
was considered especially satisfactory and 
reditable by the court of directors. After 
wo years' furlough he was posted to the 9th 
attalion in December 1847, and on 1 Jan. 
olio wing promo ted to be lieutenant-colonel. 
Wilson served in command of the artil- 
ery in the force under Brigadier-general 
aiterwards Sir) Hugh Massy Wheeler [q. v.] 
n the Jalandar Doab during the Punjab 
ampaign, assisted in the reduction of Fort 
ialawala in October 1848 and in the capture 
)f the heights of Dulla in the following 
'anuary, was mentioned in despatches, re- 
sommended for honorary distinction, and 
Deceived the medal (see London Gazette, 7 and 
20 March 1849), He served with the horse 
artillery in the Jalandar from 1850 to 1852. 
^n January 1854 he was appointed com- 
mandant of the artillery at Bum Dum, with 
a seat on the military board, promoted to be 
colonel on 28 Nov., and given the command 
of the artillery at Mirat on his return from 
a year's furlough in March 1866. 

When the mutiny broke out at Mirat, on 
9 May 1867, Wilson was in temporary com- 
mand of the Mirat division. In obedience 
to orders he marched towards Baghpat, on 
the river Jamna, with a column to co-operate 
with the force which the commander-in- 
chief was bringing from Ambala. On ap- 
proaching Ghazi-ud-din-Nagar on the 80th 
he was attacked by the rebels in force. He 
drove them from their guns, which he cap- 
tured, and fought brilliant and successful 
actions both on that and the next day, when 
he was again attacked. He joined Sir Henry 
Barnard [CL v,] and the Ambala column at 
Alipur on 7 June. The combined force routed 
the rebels at Badli-ke-Serai on the following 
day, and then, fighting its way through the 
Sabzi Mandi, established itself on the Ridge 
before Delhi. Wilson, who was mentioned 
in despatches for his services (see ib. 13 Oct.^ 
1867), now commanded the artillery before 
the city. On the 9th it was proposed to 
take the place by assault ; but a misunder- 
standing on the part of Colonel Graves pre- 
vented the attempt. When, on 2 July, all 
the reinforcements from the Punjab had ar- 
rived, and the effective force amounted^ ta 
over six thousand men, the proposal* to 
attempt a coup de main was revived, and 
the details of the assault were settled, but 
the attempt was ultimately abandoned by 
Barnard in deference to the criticism of 
Wilson and Beed, 



On 17 July Major-general (Sir) Thomas 
Reed [q.v,l, who had assumed the command 
of the Demi field force on the death of Bar- 
nard (5 July), was compelled to resign on 
account of ill-health, and made over the com- 
mand to "Wilson, conferring upon him the 
rank of brigadier-general, in anticipation of 
the sanction of the government, as he was 
not the senior officer in camp. The selection 
was confirmed, and "Wilson was promoted 
"by the governor- general to be a major-gene- 
ral for special service on 29 July. He was 
promoted to the establishment of major- 
generals on 14 Sept. 1857. 

The details of the fighting outside Delhi 
are authoritatively given in Norman's * Nar- 
rative of the Campaign of the Delhi Army/ 
1858, while those of the siege and the fight- 
ing inside will be found in the works quoted 
at the end of this article, On 25 Aug. Wilson 
was still occupying the Ridge in front of 
Delhi, preparing for the siege operations, 
and awaiting the arrival of the siege guns, 
when he learned that a body of the enerry 
had moved out to attack his rear. lie 
despatched Brigadier-general John Nicholson 
[q. v.], with 2,200 men and twelve guns, to 
meet them at Najafgarh, where a most suc- 
cessful action wasfought. Both the governor- 
general and Sir John Lawrence now wrote 
to "Wilson to urge the political importance 
of the capture of Delhi as soon as an assault 
was practicable after the arrival of the siege 
train. But Wilson ' was ill ; responsibility and 
anxiety had told upon him. He had grown 
nervous and hesitating, and the longer it 
was delayed the more difficult the task ap- 
peared to him* (LoED ROBERTS, Forty-one 
Tears in India, chaps, xvii. and xviii,) The 
siege train had arrived by 5 Sept., and the 
reinforcements by the 8th. The siege proper 
began on 7 Sept., when Wilson issued a spi- 
rited order to the troops. He was neverthe- 
less reluctant to incur the hazard of assauli 
without more European troops. Colonel 
Richard Baird Smith [q. v.], the chief en- 
gineer, then sent him a memorandum em- 
phatically in favour of immediate action; on 
this Wilson wrote a minute to the effect that 
to him it appeared that the results of thi 
proposed operations would be thrown on the 
hazard of a die, but having nothing better 
to suggest he yielded to the judgment of the 
chief engineer (BLiYB, Hist, of the Sepoy 
Tflfyr, iii. 553). The breaches became prac 
ticable by the night of 13 Sept,, and the 
assault next day placed Wilson within thr 
city. When, however, he realised the failuri 
of one column, the falling back of another 
and the heavy losses sustained, he anxiousl; 
inquired whether he could hold what hac 

Deen taken, Baird Smith's answer was 
jrompt and decisive, ' We must do so ' (KAYE, 
li. 618). The capture of the city was trium- 
phantly completed on 20 Sept., after much 
lard fighting, and the first decisive blow 
struck at the mutiny* 

Wilson's conduct as a commander at Delhi 
ias been the subject of controversy, some of 
t quite recent. His letter of 18 July, after 
;akingover the command, written in French 
to Sir John (afterwards first Lord) Lawrence 
(EjiYB, Hist, of the Sepoy War, ii. 589), 
ihreatening to withdraw to Iarnal unless 
speedily reinforced j his draft to the governor- 
general of 20 Aug., holding out no hope of 
;aking the place 'until supported by the 
orcefrom below ; * and his contemplation of 
the possibility of a retirement to the Ridge 
on the afternoon of 14 Sept., when the suc- 
cessful assault had placed him within the 
city these have been given as instances of 
a want of that energy, determination, and 
dash which have always carried with them 
victory over the natives of India, and the 
want of which, had it not boon for strong 
and resolute advisers, might have proved 
fatal to success. 

On the other hand, it has beon maintained 
that, ill informed of what was goinjj on in 
the country, Wilson believed that reinforce- 
ments of European troops were available, 
and could be obtained if sufficiently pressed 
for. Lawrence, while deprecating delay, 
most earnestly impressed upon Wilson the 
disastrous and far-reaching consequences 
that would result from, failure, and it is 
contended that the strongest minded man 
might have well hesitated to attack under 
such circumstances without adequate means. 
Moreover, a Fabian policy led the mutineers 
to continue to pour into Delhi instead of 
moving about tne country in small bauds, 
attacking weak places and murdering Euro- 
peans. Had there been a capable commander 
in the city, he could, without weakening 
the defence of the quarter attacked, have 
sent thousands of men to capture the Ridge 
camp, with the hospital, ammunition, and 
stores ; and it is affirmed that if any hesita- 
tion were shown by Wilson as to holding 
on to Delhi on 14 Sept. it was due to his 
supreme anxiety for the safety of the Ridge 
and his sick and wounded there, together 
with a desire for encouragement to proceed* 
The responsibility which rested upon the 
general was indeed a heavy one, and Wilson, 
good soldier as he was, with all his expe- 
rience and distinguished service, was mot a 
man of strong character. Fortunately he 
had with him resolute men who supported 
him, and upon whom hd wisely, afehough 




reluctantly, relied [see SMITH, RICHARD 

For his services at Delhi Wilson was 
made a K.C.B. on 17 Nov. 1857, and was 
on 8 Jan. 1858 created a baronet as Sir 
Archdale Wilson of Delhi; he received the 
thanks of both houses of parliament and the 
court of directors of the East India Company, 
a pension of 1,OQOJ. a year and the war 
medal and clasp (London Gazette, 17 and 
27 Nov. 1857 and 2 Feb. 1858). He was 
appointed to the divisional staff, Danapur, in 
January 1858, and commanded the whole of 
the artillery of the army of Sir Colin Camp- 
bell (afterwards Lord Clyde) [q. v.] at the 
siege of Lucknow in March 1858 and its 
capture on the 17th. He was mentioned in 
despatches and received the clasp for Luck- 
now (#. 25 May 1858). He went on furlough 
to England in April 1858, and did not return 
to India. He was nominated colonel-com- 
mandant of horse artillery in October 1858, 
decorated with the grand cross of the order 
of the Bath, military division, on 13 March 
1867, and was promoted to be lieutenant- 
general on 6 March 1868. He died on 9 May 

Wilson married, in 1842, Ellen (who sur- 
vived hitm), daughter of Brigadier-general 
Warren Hastings Leslie Frith, colonel-com- 
mandant Bengal artillery. He left no issue, 
and was succeeded in the baronetcy by 
Eoland Knyvet, second son of his elder 
brother, Rear-admiral George Knyvet Wil- 
son (1798-1866). 

[India Office Records; Despatches; Times 
(London), 11 May 1874 ; United Service Journal, 
1874 ; Annual Eegiater, 1874; Burke's Baronet- 
age ; Bosworth Smith's Life of Lord Lawrence ; 
Medley's A Year's Campaigning in India, 1867-8 ; 
The Chaplain's Narrative of the Siege of Delhi, 
"by the Bev. J. B. W. Eotton ; Shadwell's Life 
of Lord Clyde ; Colonel Dew White's Complete 
History of the Indian Mutiny ; Fortnightly Re- 

Narrative of the Campaign of the Delhi Army 
1858 ; Holmes's History of the Indian Mutiny 
1888 ; Stubbs's History of the Bengal Artillery." 

B. H. V. 

WILSOK, ARTHUR (1595-1652), his 
torian and dramatist, baptised 14 Dec. 1595 
was the son of John Wilson (according tc 
Ids baptismal register, but of Richard accord 
ing to the entry in the matriculation re 
gister) of Yarmouth (WooD, Athena Oxon 
ed. Bliss, iii. 31S). At the age of sixteen 
(after spending two years in France) Wilson 7 
lather sent him to John Davis of Fleet Stree 
to learn courthand, after which he becam 

VOL. Lin. 

ne of the clerks of Sir Henry Spiller in the 
xchequer office, but was discharged two 
rears later for his quarrelsomeness (PECK, 
Jesiderata Curiosctj p. 461). He lived then 
or a year in London, writing poetry and 
eading, till his money was nearly spent, 
ji 1614 he made the acquaintance of Mr. 
Wingfield, steward to Robert Devereux, third 
earl of Essex [q. v.]> and Wingfield invited 
lim down to Chartley in Staffordshire. 
While there Wilson saved a woman-servant 
from drowning, and Essex, who saw the 
scene, took a liking to him and made him 
one of his gentlemen-in-waiting. Wilson 
distinguished himself by duels and feats of 
strength, which he relates in his autobio- 
graphy, and was selected by his master to 
accompany him in his foreign travels. He 
was with "Essex in Vere's expedition for the 
defence of the palatinate (1620), in the wars 
m Holland (1621-23), at the siege of Breda 
[1624),and in the expedition to Cadiz (1625). 
Cn 1631 Essex contracted his second mar- 
riage, of which Wilson disapproved, and the 
countess taking in consequence a great dis- 
like to him, he was forced to leave Essex's 
service. Resolving to complete his some- 
what neglected education, he now matri- 
culated at Oxford (25 Nov. 1631), as a 
gentleman commoner of Trinity College 
(FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; WOOD, 
Athena). At Oxford he chiefly devoted 
himself to the study of physic, alternating it 
by sometimes disputing with Chillingworth 
about absolute monarchy, and at other times 
drinking * with some of the gravest bache- 
lors of divinity there ' (PECK, p. 470). 

In 1633 Wilson left the university and 
entered the service of Robert Rich, second 
earl of Warwick [q, v.] In 1637 he accom- 
panied Warwick to the siege of Breda, thus 
witnessing its capture by Spinola and its re- 
conquest by Prince Maurice, During the civil 
warw ilson lived peaceably on the estates of 
his master in Essex, his only adventures 
being the rescue of the Countess of Rivers 
from a mob in August 1642, and an attempt 
to prevent the plunder by the cavaliers of 
the JEarl of Warwick's armoury in June 1648. 
His autobiography ends in July 1649. He 
died about the beginning of October 1652, 
and was buried in the chancel of Felsted 
church, Essex (ib, p. 482). 

Wilson married, in November 1634, Susan 
Spitty of Bromfield, Essex, the widow frf 
Richard Spitty (ib. p. 471) ; CHESTEB, Lon- 
don Marriage Licences , col. 1482). An abs- 
tract of his will is given by Bliss in his 
additions to Wood's 'Athense Oxonienses/ 
which shows that his wife died before him. 
and that he left no issue (iii, 320), 



Wilson wrote several plays, which, ac- 
cording to Wood, * were acted at the Black 
Friars in London by the king's players, 
and in the act time at Oxford, with good 
applause, himself there present/ Of these 
'The Inconstant Lady, 7 which was entered 
at Stationers' Hall on 9 Sept. 1653, was 
printed by Dr. Philip Bliss at the Clarendon 
Press, Oxford, in 1814. Of < The Corporal!,' 
licensed for acting at Blackfriars by the 
king's men, a fragment exists in manuscript ; 
it was entered in the ' Stationers 7 Register ' 
on 4 Sept 1646, together with ' The Swisser,' 
of which the MS. was purchased by the 
British Museum in 1903. This play was 
first printed under the editorship of M* 
Albert Feuillerat, of Eennes, in 1904. 

Wilson's prose works consist of (1) an 
autobiography of himself, styled * Observa- 
tions of Gfbd's Providence in the Tract of 
mv Life/ which was first printed in Peck's 
' Desiderata Curiosa ' in 1735, and is re- 
printed in the appendix to * The Inconstant 
Lady;' (2) ^The History of Great Britain, 
being the Life and Reign of King James I/ 
1653, folio, with a portrait of King James 
by Vaughan. This is reprinted in the second 
volume of Kennett's ' Complete History of 
England/ 1706. As an historian Wilson is 
very strongly prejudiced against the rule of 
the Stuarts, but his work is of value be- 
cause it records contemporary impressions 
and reminiscences which are of considerable 
interest. At times he speaks as an eye- 
witness, especially in his account of the 
foreign expeditions in which he took part. 
He quotes at some length the speeches of 
the king, the petitions or remonstrances of 
the parliament, and other original docu- 
ments. William Sanderson's * Reign and 
Death of King James/ 1656, contains a de- 
tailed criticism and refutation of Wilson's 
attacks on that king and his government. 
He describes the history as * truth and false- 
hood finely put together/ and asserts that 
Wilson's collections were 'shaped out' for 
publication by an unnamed presbyterian 
doctor. Heylyn, in his 'Examen Histori- 
cum/ 1659, calls Wilson's book * a most in- 
famous pasquil/ classing it with Weldon's 
' Court of King James/ as libels in which 'it 
is not easy to judge whether the matter be 
more false or the style more reproachful in 
all parts thereof/ Wood is little less severe. 
Wilson, he says, * had a great command oi 
the English tongue, as well in writing as 
speaking. And had he bestowed his en- 
deavours on another subject than that oj 
history, they would without doubt have 
seemed better. For in those things which 
he hath done are wanting the principal 

matters conducing to the completion of that 
iaculty, viz. matter from record, oxact time, 
name and place; which by his endeavouring 
too much to set out his bare collections in 
an affected and bombastic style are much 
neglected/ He concludes by complaining 
of 'a partial presbyterian vein that con- 
stantly goes through the whole work, it 
being the genius of those people to pry more 
than they should into the courts and com- 
portments of princes, to take occasion there- 
upon to traduce and bespatter thorn/ 

Wilson intended to complete his his'tory 
by narrating the reign of Charles I, but died 
before he could carry out his plan, 

[Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, ed. 1779; Wood's 
Athense Oxon., ed. Bliss, iii, 318; Wilson's In- 
constant Lady, od. Blitia, 18U,] C. H. F. 

WILSON, BENJAMIN (1721-1788), 
painter and man of science, born at Leoda m 
the latter part of 1721, was tho fourteenth 
and youngest child of a wealthy clothier 
named Major Wilson, by his wife, Elizabeth 
Yates. He was educated for a short time at 
Leeds grammar school, but after a disagree- 
ment between his father and tho headmaster 
he was removed to a smaller school in the 
neighbourhood. His love of art was awakened 
at an early age by tho decoration of his 
father's house on Mill Hill, near Leeds, by 
the French artist Jacques Parmentier, and he 
afterwards received nearly twelve months' in- 
struction from another Iftrench artist, named 
Longueville, who was engaged in executing 
historical paintings for Thomas Listor of Gis- 
burnPark in Cravon. While Benjamin was 
still a youth his father fell into poverty, and 
he resolved to seek a livelihood in London. 
He walked most of the way, and on his 
arrival received from a relative a suit of npvr 
clothes and two guineas as a start in life. 
The money, he states, kept him in food for a 
twelvemonth, and at the end of that time 
he gained employment as a clerk in the 
registry of the prerogative court in Doctors' 
Commons, where he saved two-thirds of his 
salary of three half-crowns a week. These 
achievements rest on Wilson's personal state- 
ments, but as he esteemed frugality the first 
of virtues, it is possible that in his old age 
he exaggerated the abstemiousness of his 
youth. When he had amassed 60/. he ob- 
tained a more remunerative post as clerk to 
the registrar of the Charterhouse, and, find- 
ing his duties less laborious, he resumed his 
artistic studies. In these he received some 
encouragement from the master of the Char- 
terhouse, Samuel Berdmore [q. v,], and some 
instruction from the painter Thomas Hud- 
son (1701-1779) [q. v>] By perseverance and 



ability he made himself known, and became 
the friend of Hogarth, George Lambert [q.v.], 
and other leading painters. In August 1 746 
he visited Dublin, and in the spring of 1748 
returned to Ireland to paint some portraits 
for which he had received commissions. He 
remained there till 1750, when he went back 
to London, and established himself in Great 
Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, in the 
house previously occupied by Sir Godfrey 
Kneller [tyv.], to which he afterwards added 
the adjoining house, formerly the dwelling of 
the great physician John Radcliffe (1650- 
1714) [q. vJ Among his first sitters were 
Martin Folkes [<j. v.J, Lord Orrery, Lord 
Chesterfield, David Garrick, Samuel Foote, 
and in 1759 John Hadley, the physician. In 
Great Queen Street also he painted Garrick 
as Borneo and Miss Bellamy as Juliet in the 
tomb scene; the picture was engraved by 
Robert Laurie. His reputation as a por- 
trait-painter steadily increased, and it is 
said that he enjoyed an income of 1,5001., and 
declined partnership with Hogarth. John 
Zollany [q.v.] painted draperies for him, and, 
according to common belief, frequently ren- 
dered him more material assistance (cf. 
SMITH, Nollek&ns and hi* Times, 1828, iL 

Among Wilson's portraits may be men- 
tioned those of John Parsons in the National 
Gallery, of the poet Gray at Pembroke Col- 
lege, Cambridge, of Lord Lyttelton, Lord 
Mexbrough, Sir Francis Delaval, Lord Scar- 
brough, Clive, the Marquis of Rockingham, 
and two of Sir George Savile at Osberton 
and at Bufford. He painted a portrait of 
Shakespeare for the town-hall at Stratford 
on the jubilee of 1769 ; and in 1779, on the 
outbreak of the Spanish war, he executed a 
statue of Queen Elizabeth on horseback, 
which was placed in the Spanish armoury at 
the Tower. Several of his works were en- 
graved, among them Garrick as Hamlet, 
Benjamin Franklin, and Simon, earl Har- 
court, by James McArdell; Bockingham, 
John Thomas, bishop of Winchester, and 
Romeo and Juliet by Richard Houston ; Gar- 
rick as King Lear and Lady Stanhope as 
the Fair Penitent by Basire ; and John Dol- 
land by John, Raphael Smith. He made 
several drawings after pictures by the old 
masters for Alderman John Boydell [q. v,] 
He also engraved in mezzotint, and of his 
etchings have been preserved a portrait of 
Lady Harriet after Francis Cotes and a por- 
trait from life of Maria Gunning dated 1751. 

Wilson, who was a student pf chemistry, 
took a great interest in the problems of 
electricity, and in 1746 he published 'An 
Essay towards an Explication of the Phe- 

nomena of Electricity deduced from the 
./Ether of Sir Isaac Newton* (London, 8vo), 
which he followed in 1750 by 'A Treatise 
on Electricity' (London, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1752). 
He invented and exhibited a large electrical 
apparatus, and on 5 Dec. 1751 was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society. In conjunc- 
tion with the physician Benjamin Hoadly 
(1706-1757) [q. v.] he carried on other 
electrical researches, the results of which 
were made public in 'Observations on a 
Series of Electrical Experiments' (London, 
1756, 4to ; 2nd edit. 1759). About 1757 he 
visited France, and repeated many of his 
experiments at St.Germain-en-Laye. He had 
a long controversy with Benjamin Franklin 
on the question whether lightning-conductors 
should be round or pointed at the top, and 
was supported > in his view by George III, 
who declared his experiments were sufficient 
to convince the apple-women in Covent 
Garden. He was nominated by the Royal 
Society to serve on a committee to regulate 
the erection of lightning-conductors on St. 
Paul's Cathedral, and was requested by the 
board of ordnance at a later period to inspect 
the gunpowder magazines at Purfleet, In 
1700 he received the gold medal of the 
Royal Society for his electrical experiments. 
His reputation as an, electrician won him 
many friends among contemporary men of 
science both at home and on the continent 
(cf, Ann. eff. 1760 i. 149, 1761 i, 128-9, 
1769 i. 85). 

In 1760 and 1761 Wilson exhibited por- 
traits in the Spring Gardens rooms* About 
this time the versatility of his talents gained 
him an influential patron. Through Sir 
John Savile, earl of Mexborough, he became 
known to the Duke of York, and won his 
favour as manager of his private theatre in 
James Street, Westminster. On the death 
of Hogarth in 1764 he succeeded him as 
serjeant-painter ; and on the death of James 
Worsdale [q. v.] in 1767 the Duke of York 
procured for him the appointment of painter 
to the board of ordnance. He shared the 
emoluments of the position with Worsdale's 
natural son until 1779, when his colleague 
died, and he received a complete investment 
of the office. In 1767 Wilson lost his great 
patron by death ; but in 1776 he attracted 
the notice of the king, who, after carefully 
ascertaining that he was not the landscape- 
painter Richard Wilson [q, v.], treated him 
with great kindness, patronised his electrical 
researches, and encouraged him to come to 

Wilson, according to a friendly critic, en- < 
deavoured to introduce a new style of chiaro- 
scuro into his paintings, and his heads had 




more warmth and nature than those executed 
by the generality of his contemporaries. He 
etched with great ability, and is said to have 
produced a landscape in imitation of Rem- 
brandt's 'Companion to the Coach ' which 
deceived Thomas Hudson and several other 
connoisseurs. Early in 1766, to please Rock- 
ingham, who had made him some promises 
of patronage, he etched the caricature en- 
titled the * Tomb-Stone ' on the occasion of 
the death of the Duke of Cumberland, in 
which he represented Bute, George Grenville, 
and Bedford dancing ' the Haze ' on Cum- 
berland's tomb, and held several other mem- 
bers of their party up to ridicule. The print 
met with much applause, and Edmund 
Burke and Grey Cooper besought him for 
another. The result was the famous carica- 
ture etched in 1766 at the time of the repeal 
of the American Stamp Act, in ridicule of 
the same political party, called ' The Repeal ; 
or, the Funeral of Miss Ame-Stamp.' It 
was sold at a shilling, and brought him 100J. 
in four days. On the fifth day it was pirated, 
and two inferior versions produced at six- 
pence. Copies of several versions of these 
prints are in the British Museum (Cat. of 
Satirical Prints, iv. 356-7, 368-73). ^ 

Wilson from the hardships of his early 
days acquired habits of parsimony. He was 
also fond of speculation, and in 1766 was 
declared a defaulter on the Stock Exchange. 
Some years before his death he found himself 
compelled to resign the post of painter to the 
board of ordnance on refusing to allow a de- 
pendent of the Duke of Richmond to share 
his salary. After these reverses he was ac- 
customed to bewail his poverty, but to the 
surprise of his friends he left a good fortune 
at his death. He died at 56 Great Russell 
Street, Bloomsbury, on 6 June 1788, and 
was buried in St. George the Martyr's bury- 
ing-ground. He was a member of several 
foreign learned societies, among them of the 
Institute delle Scienze ed Arti Liberal! at 
Bologna, of which he was the first English 
member. His portrait, painted by himself, 
is in the possession of Earl Spencer. He 
made more than one engraving from. it. One 
of them is prefixed to the edition of his 
1 Treatise on Electricity ' which appeared in 
1752, About 1771 hemarried Miss Hethering- 
ton, whom he devotedly admired, and whose 
excellences he characteristically summed up 
in the statement that ' he saved more money 
from the time he first knew her than he had 
ever done in the same space of time.* By 
her he had seven children. His third son, 
General Sir Robert Thomas Wilson, is sepa- 
rately noticed. 

Besides the ^works already mentioned, 

Wilson was the author of: 1. ' A Letter to 
Mr. -<Epinus/ on the electricity of the Tour- 
malin, London, 1764, 4to. 2. 'A Letter to 
the Marquess of Rockingham, with some 
Observations on the Effects of Lightning/ 
London, 1765, 4to. 3. ' Observations upon 
Lightning and the Method of securing 
Buildings from its Effects/ London, 1773, 
4to. 4. ' Further Observations upon Light- 
ning/ London, 1774, 4to. 5. ' A Series of 
Experiments relating to Phosphori/ London, 
1776, 4to ; 2nd edit. 1776, 4to. This work 
was communicated to several foreign learned 
bodies, and was the subject of a memoir by 
Leonhard Euler,read at the Academia Scien- 
tiarum Imperialis at St. Petersburg (HAGKEN, 
Index Operum L. Euler, 1896, j>. 48 ), and of 
a ' Letter 7 from Giovanni Battista Beccaria 
of Bologna, to both of which Wilson replied. 
6. * An Account of Experiments made at the 
Pantheon on the Nature and Use of Con- 
ductors/ London, 1778, 4to ; new edit. 1788, 
4to. 7. 'A Short View of Electricity/ 
London, 1780, 4to. Wilson also published 
fifteen communications on electricity in the 
'Philosophical Transactions' between 1753 
and 1769. A manuscript volume of letters 
to Wilson from leading men of science and 
others, including John Smeaton fa-v.], Wil- 
liam Mason (1724-1797) [q. v.], the poet, the 
Abbe" Guillaume Maze*as, Hugh Hamilton 
(1729-1805) [q. y.], and Tobern Bergman, 
professor of chemistry at Upsala, is preserved 
in the British Museum (Addit. MS. 30094), 
as well as a letter to Hogarth (Addit. MS. 
27995, f. 14). Wilson left a manuscript 
autobiography, which he had carried down 
to 1783, but he strictly enjoined that it 
should not be published. This injunction 
was disobeyed in the spirit by his son-in-* 
law, Herbert Randolph, who gave an abridg- 
ment in ' The Life of Sir Robert Wilson/ 

[Life of Sir Robert Wilson, 1862 ; Thoresby's 
Ducatus Leod. ed. Whitaker, 1816, pp. 2-3 ; 
Smith's Cat. of Mezzotinto Portraits ; Redgrave's 
tiict. of Artists, 1878; Gent. Mag. 1788 i. 564, 
ii. 656, 1791 ii. 819; Notes and Queries, 3rd 
ser. i. 468, ii. 239, 6th ser. xii. 407, 433 ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit. ; Thomson's Hist, of the Royal Soc., 
App. p. xlvi ; Edwards's Anecdotes of Painters, 
1808, pp. 145-50; Athenseura, 1863, i. 150; 
Wheatley and Cunningham's London Past and 
Present, iii. 193.] E. L 0. 


(1689-1772), divine and author, born in 
1689, was the son of 'Barnard Wilson, a 
mercer of Newark^ojx-Trent. His mother 
was descended froni Sir William Sutton, 
bart.,ofAverham,Nottinghaift8ilxire^B. WIL- 
SON, Vindication). The fatlae* tailed in 



business about the period of Bernard's birth, 
but was so respected by his neighbours that 
some of them subscribed a fund for the educa- 
tion of his son. The latter was admitted at 
Westminster in 1704, and five years later 
proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge. He 
graduated B.A. in 1712, MA. in 1719, and 
D.D. in 1737. At the university Wilson 
assiduously cultivated his social superiors. 
By one of these, Thomas Pelham-Jiolles, 
duke of Newcastle [q. v.], he was presented 
in 1719 to the vicarage of his native place, 
Newark. Some years afterwards, when he 
had attained an independent position, Wil- 
son quarrelled with his patron. Wilson's 
other chief patrons were Sir George Mark- 
ham, M.P. for Newark, and Bishop Reynolds 
of Lincoln, He laid the foundation of his 
favour with the former by an exceedingly 
fulsome dedication to him of a translation, 
published in 1717, of ' harangues by the most 
eminent members of the French Academy 7 
(probably the Abb6 Fleury's ' Discours Aca- 
dSmiques '). Markham soon afterwards gave 
him the management of his large estates, and 
recommended him as a husband to his niece, 
Miss Ogle. That lady induced her uncle to 
leave Wilson almost the whole of his pro- 
perty, to the detriment of her own brothers. 
After Markham's death in 1736 the elder of 
them disputed the will, and Wilson retorted 
by prosecuting the younger for libel, at the 
same time issuing a * vindication of his own 
conduct. 7 Matters were compromised by the 
payment of 30,0007. to the Ogle family. But 
Wilson did not marry Miss Ogle, who subse- 
quently became a lunatic. After having been 
rejected by Lady Elizabeth Fane (afterwards 
wife of Lord Mansfield) 'with marks of 
peculiar disdain, 7 he married privately at 
Claypole, near Nottingham, a lady named 
Bradford, 'of reputable connections 7 and a 
fortune of her own, with whom he had long 
been intimate. In 1747 a Miss Davis of 
Holborn recovered from him 7,0007. damages 
for breach of promise of marriage. 

On 3 May 1727 Wilson was presented to 
the prebend of Scamlesby, and on 18 Nov. 
1730 to that of Louth in Lincoln Cathedral. 
In the latter year he also received a canonry 
at Lichfield, where Bishop Chandler gave 
him a house, and on 13 Oct. 1734 was 'nomi- 
nated to one at Worcester. He was also 
vicar of Frisby, Lincolnshire. In July 1735 
he was presented to the benefice of fiottes- 
ford in the same county, but never took pos- 
session. At Newark he was now a person of 
great influence, being not only vicar, but also 
the master of St. Leonard 7 s Hospital. His 
private lbrtiat*& amounted to not less than 
lOOjOOO/. He was liberal in his earlier years, 

but latterly became a miser, and at his death 
5,000, in guineas and halt-crowns was found 
in his house. He deserves the credit of 
having discovered and restored by means of 
litigation to their proper uses local charity 
estates left to Newark, He published a 
* Discourse 7 on the subject in 3768. He left 
40J. a year to be distributed among the poor 
and necessitous families of Newark, and 10 
to the vicar for preaching sermons on the 
days of distribution, 11 Jan, and 21 Aug., 
his own and Markham 7 s birthdays. 

Wilson died on 30 April 1772, and WA 
buried in the south aisle of Newark parish 
church. His monument, described by Dick- 
inson as 'a splendid display of sepulchral 
grandeur/ bears a highly eulogistic inscrip- 
tion by his nephew, liobert Wilson Cracrott. 
He left no children. 

A man of some cultivation, he was a mem- 
ber of the Gentleman's Society at Spaldin#, 
His chief publication was an English version, 
which appeared in two folio volumes in 
1729-80, of part of De Thou 7 s ' II istoria sui 
Temporis. 7 The first was dedicated to the 
Duke of Newcastle, the second to John, duke 
of Rutland. The translation is made from 
the Geneva edition of 1620, and includes 
only the first twenty-six books, 

[Dickinson's Hist, of Nevark-on-Trenfr, 1819, 
pp. 236, 268, 303-13; Brown's Annals of Newark, 
pp. 209, 217, 219-21 ; Gent, Mag. 1747 p. 293, 
1772 p. 247 j Le Neve's Fasti Ecclea. Anglic.; 
Welch's Alumni Weatmon. 1852 ; Thoroton's 
Nottinghamshire; Green's Survey of Worcester ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. vi. 97 n. t 120, 121 ; Chal- 
mers's Biogr. Diet. ; Allibone's Diet. Bngl. Lit.; 
Wilson's Vindication, 1736. and Discourse, 1768,1 
G. LB G-. N, 

1846), author, was born at Tunbridge 
Wells on 31 Dec. 1787. She was the ninth 
child of John Fry, a farmer in easy circum- 
stances. He was ambitious for His children, 
and gave the elder ones an excellent educa- 
tion. The eldest son, John (d. 1849), be- 
came rector of Desford, and had some repu- 
tation as an author. Caroline was instructed 
by her elder sisters, and read widely. Shortly 
beforehis death, about 1802, her father pr inte'd 
and published at the Tunbrid^e Welle library 
a few hundred copies of a history of Eng- 
land in verse. Caroline had composed it for 
her own schoolroom, and the production had 
a successful sale. During her father's life- 
time she led "a very secluded life, and im- 
bibed high-church principles. At the age 
of seventeen she was sent to a London school 
for a year and a quarter, and then went to 
reside with a solicitor and his wife at Bloo*na- 
bury j they introduced her into society, and 




she characterises the three years spent with 
them as without serious interests or much 
religion. But, as is shown by the character 
of her writings, the frivolities of this period 
had little effect on her deeply religious 
mind. In 1823 she commenced bringing 
out the ' Assistant of Education/ a periodi- 
cal publication edited and almost wholly 
written by herself. In a letter to her 
brother in 1826 she says that six numbers 
of her magazine are ordered monthly for his 
majesty's library. It filled ten volumes, 
'The Listener 7 (2 vols.), the work by 
which she is best known, was compiled 
from the ' Assistant of Education,' and con- 
tains moral essays and tales on such sub- 
jects as education, conduct, and practical 
religion. It passed through thirteen editions 
between 1830, the date of the first edition, 
and 1863, was printed in America, and trans- 
lated into French (Paris, 1844). In 1881 she 
visited Paris, and in that year married Mr. 
Wilson. After her marriage she lived at 
Blackheath and "Woolwich. She continued 
to write hymns and religious books. ' Christ 
our Example ' (3rd ed. 1832) had nine edi- 
tions between its first appearance and 1873 ; 
in a preface to the ninth edition Canon 
Christopher gives it the highest praise. Of 
her hymns the best known are * For what 
shall I praise Thee, my God and my King, 
and ' Often the clouds of deepest woe/ Sh 
died at Tunbridge Wells on 17 Sept. 1846. 

Her portrait, painted in 1827 by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence, shows her to have been a 
very handsome woman. An engraving of 
her portrait by H. Robinson forms the fronti- 
spiece of the ' Autobiography ' edited by her 
husband in 1848. 

Other works by Mrs. Wilson are : 1. 
Poetical Catechism/ 1821; 6th ed. 1857. 
2. < Serious Poetry/ 1822; 2nd ed. 1823. 
4. ' Death, and other Poems/ 1823. 5. ' The 
Scripture Reader's Guide/ 1828 ; 16th ed. 
1849 ; new edition, 1864 (this is part of the 
'Assistant of Education'). 6. ' Scripture 
Principles of Education/ 1833; 4th ed. 
1839; new edition, 1864. 7. ' The Gospel 
of the Old Testament/ 1834. 8. 'Daily 
Scripture Readings/ 1835; 2nd ed. 1840. 
9. 'TheTableoftheLord/1837. 10. 'Gather- 
ings/ 1839, 1849. 11. 'The Listener' in 
Oxford,1839,1840. 12. 'A Word to Women/ 
1840. 13. Christ our Law/ 1842 ; 9th ed. 
1893. 14. 'Sunday Afternoons at Home/ 
1844; 2nd ed. 1847, 15. 'The Great Com- 
mandment/ 1847. 

[Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Julian's Diet, of 
Hymuology, p. 1825 ; An Autobiography, Letters 
and Remains of the author of The Listener, ed. by 
h$r husband, 1848.] B. L. 

1882), art teacher and author, eldest son of 
Andrew Wilson (1780-1848) [q. v.] ; the land- 
scape-painter, was born in London in Sep- 
tember 1809, He studied art under his father, 
and in 1826 accompanied him to Italy. 
After seven years, he returned to Edinburgh, 
where he practised as an architect, and was 
for some time teacher of ornament and design 
in the school of art. His pictorial work was 
principally landscape in watercolour, but he 
also etched a number of book illustrations, 
of which the more important are in Piflfori's 
'Viaggip Antiquario' (Koma, 1832), and 
James Wilson's ' Voyage round the Coasts 
of Scotland' (Edinburgh, 1842). In 1835 
he was elected A.R.S.A., but resigned 
in 1858. While in Edinburgh he wrote 
and published, in collaboration with Wil- 
liam Dyce [q. v.], a pamphlet (addressed to 
Lord Meadowbank) upon ' The Best Means 
of ameliorating the Arts and Manufactures 
of Scotland/ which attracted much attention. 
A co])y in the British Museum is annotated 
by Wilson himself. Shortly afterwards Dyce 
was made director and secretary of the re- 
cently established schools of art at Somerset 
House, but resigned in 1843 ; and Wilson, 
who had meanwhile been director of the 
Edinburgh school, was appointed his suc- 
cessor. His position there was not much 
more comfortable than Dyce's had been, and 
in 1848 he also resigned, but the following 
year accepted the head mastership of the new 
Glasgow school of design. In 1840 he had 
visited the continent to make a report to 
government on fresco-painting, and while in 
Glasgow he was occupied for nearly ten yearn 
under the board of trade in superintend ing 
the filling of the windows of Glasgow Cathe- 
dral with Munich pictures in coloured glass, 
He selected the subjects and wrote a descrip- 
tion of the work (prefaced by some account of 
the process), which went through many edi- 
tions. In 1864 the board of trade master- 
ships were suppressed and Wilson was pen- 
sioned, but continued to live in Glasgow lor 
some years longer, doing architectural work. 
In 1869 he and his family finally left Scot- 
land and settled at Florence, where he be- 
came the life and centre of a large literary and 
artistic circle. Much interested in Italian 
art, on which he wrote occasionally, and par- 
ticularly in Michael Angelo, of whom Jie 
published a life (London and Florence, 1870; 
2nd edit. London, 1881), which, begun as a 
compilation from Gotti, developed into a 
quite independent work, * enriched with not 
a few ingenious criticisms/ he had, for these 
and other services, the cross of the * Corona 
d' Italia* conferred upon him by Victor 

Wilson i 

Emmanuel. He died at Florence on 3 July 

He was twice married: first, on 8 Oct. 
1838, in Edinburgh, to Louisa Orr, daughter 
of Surgeon John Orr, E.I.C., with issue one 
son and two daughters ; and, secondly, on 
16 Aug, 1848, also in Edinburgh, to Johanna 
Catherine, daughter of William John Thom- 
son, portrait-painter, issue a son and a 
daughter, A portrait of Wilson, as a young 
man, by Sir John Watson Gordon, is m the 
possession of his son, 0. A. Wilson, 

[Rodgraves* Century of Painters, 1856; 
Times, 17 July 1882; Academy, 22 July 1882; 
Athenseum, 15 July and 19 Aug. 1882 ; informa- 
tion from 0. A. Wilson, osq., Genoa.] J. L. C. 


whose maiden name was MABCIABWT HABJJLES 
(1797-1846), author, born in Shropshire in 
1797, was the only child of Roger Harries of 
Canonbury Place, Islington, and afterwards 
of Woburn Place, llmsoll Square, by his 
wife Sophia, daughter of Mattuew Arwouin 
of Mincing Laiio (cf, PABBY, Wetoh Melodm, 
vol. iii.) Her literary attainments were ver- 
satile; she wrote poems, romantic dramas, 
comic interludes, novels, and biographies. 
Her first book of poems, * Melancholy Hours/ 
was published anonymously in 1 81 ; her 
second, ' Astarte : a Sicilian Tale ; with other 
Poems/ to which she prefixed her name, at- 
tracted some attention. It reached a secoud 
edition in 1818, a fourth in. 1827, and was 
republished in 1840. On 15 April 1819 she 
married Cornwell Baron Wilson of Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, a solicitor, In 1829 Mrs* Wilson 
wrote the words for the third volume of 
Parry's ' Welsh Melodies/ Mrs, Jlemans 
had contributed the verses for the first 
volume. In 1888 she commenced an ephe- 
meral publication, ' La Ninon, or Leaves for 
the Album/ which ran to three numbers. A 
fourth number, entitled ' Ihe Bas Bleu's Scrap 
Sheet, or La Ninon improved/ appeared in 
the same year. In 1833 she also commenced 
to edit * The Weekly Belle Assemble/ In 
1884 the title was changed to 'The New 
Monthly Belle Assemble 1 / It continued to 
appear until 1870. In 1834 Mrs, Wilson 
gained a prize for a poem on the Princess 
Victoria, awarded at the Cardiff bardic festi- 
val ; there were two hundred candidates. 

In June 1836 her * Venus in Arms, or the 
Petticoat Colonel,' a comic interlude in one 
act, adapted from the French, was performed 
at the Strand Theatre, London, with Mrs. 
Stirling in the title r61e(cf. BUNCOMBE, Brit, 
Theatre t vol. xxvi, ; CCTMBBBX.AND, Minor 
Theatre, vol. xiv.) Her other dramatic ven- 
tures were : ' The Maid of Switzerland,' a 


romantic drama in one act in prose (1830?) ; 
and ' Venus, a Vestal, 7 a mythological drama 
in two acts (1840). 

Her excursions into biography include 
' Memoirs of Harriot, Duchess of St. Alban's ' 
$ vols, 12mo, 1839; 2nd edit. 1840; 3rd 
edit. 1886). In 1839 also appeared in two 
volumes her 'Life and Correspondence of 
Monk Lewis.' They are useful compilations, 
without much literary merit. 

Mrs. Wilson died at Woburn Place, Lon- 
don, on 12 Jan, 1846, leaving several children. 

Other works by Mrs. Wilson are: 1. 'Hours 
at Home; a Collection of Miscellaneous 
Poems/ 1826; 2nd edit. 1827. 2, "The 
Cypress Wreath: a Collection of Original 
Ballads and Tales in Verse/ 1828. 3. 'Poems/ 
1831. 4. 'A Volume of Lyrics/ 1840, 
5, * Chronicles of Life/ 1840, 3 vols. 6. ' Popu- 
larity : and the Destinies of Woman: Tales of 
the World/ 1842, 2 vols. 7. ' Our Actresses; 
or Glances at Stage Favourites past and 
present/ 1844, 2 vols. 

[Allttxme's Diet: of Bngl. Lit. ; Gent. Mag. 
1794 i. 480, 1819 i. 368, 1846 i. 662.] B. L. 

WILSON, DANIEL (1778-1858), fifth 
bishop of Calcutta, son of Stephen Wilson 
(d. 1813), a wealthy London suk manufac- 
turer, by Ann Oollett (d. 1829), daughter of 
Daniel West, one of Whitefield's trustees, 
was born at Church Street, Spitalfields, on 
% July 1778, He was intended for the silk 
business, and apprenticed to his uncle, Wil- 
liam Wilson, but in October 1797 he felt a 
call to the ministry, and, consent having 
"been wrung from his father, he matriculated 
from St, Edmund Hall? Oxford, on 1 May 
1798, and graduated B.A in 1802, and M. A. 
in 1804 (he was created D.D. by diploma on 
12 April 1832). While a graduate at Oxford 
he won the chancellor's prize in 1803 for an 
essay on * Common Sense ;' Reginald Heber 
won a prize for his poem on 'Palestine' in 
the same year. Having been ordained, he 
became curate of Bichard Cecil [<j. v, ] at 
Chobham and Bisley in Surrey, was to a 
large extent moulded by Cecil, and became 
a strong evangelical preacher. He returned 
to Oxford a short while before 1807, when 
he became vice-principal or tutor of St. Ed- 
mund Hall, at the same time taking mini- 
sterial charge of the small parish of Worton, 
Oxfordshire* In 1808 he was licensed as- 
sistant curate of St. John's Chapel, Bedford 
Row, Bloomsbury (formerly the chief sphere 
of Cecil's great influence), and in 1812 he 
resigned his college offices on becoming sole 
minister of that chagel, which during the 
twelve years of his incumbency was well 
known ae the Headquarters of the evange- 




lical party in London. Among his hearers 
at St. John's were Charles Grant (afterwards 
Lord Glenelg), Bishop Ryder, John Thorn- 
ton, Zachary Macaulay, the Wilberforces, 
and Sir James Stephen. In June 1824 Wil- 
son was appointed to the vicarage of St. 
Mary's, Islington, the living being in the 
patronage of his family. In 1832, mainly 
through the influence of Lord Glenelg and 
his brother, Sir Kobert Grant, Wilson was 
nominated bishop of Calcutta, with a diocese 
extending over the entire presidency of Ben- 
gal, and exercising a quasi-metropolitan 
jurisdiction over the other sees of Bombay 
and Madras. He was appointed visitor of 
*J3ishop 7 s College, Calcutta, and insured an 
income of 5,0002. a year. He was consecrated 
at Lambeth by the archbishop (Howley), 
assisted by Bishop Blomfield and other pre- 
lates, on 29 April 1832, On 16 May he 
spoke at the East India banquet at the Lon- 
don Tavern, and on 19 Junejae embarked in 
the ship James Sibbald, sailing from Ports- 
mouth, and landing at Calcutta on 6 Nov. 

India had been thrown open to mis- 
sionaries through the influence of Wilber- 
force in 1813, and in the following year 
Thomas Fanshaw Middleton [q. v.] had been 
appointed Enc-lish bishop of Calcutta. He 
was succeeded in 1823 by .Reginald Heber 
[q. v.], since whose death in 1826 the see had 
twice been vacated by death. Upon his 
arrival in Calcutta Wi^on found the juris- 
diction of the bishop ill defined, the rems of 
authority much relaxed owing to the frequent 
vacancies in the see, and the records very 
deficient. Wilson, however, was a strong 
and masterful man, and, after a preliminary 
encounter with the presidency chaplains, he 
lost no time in showing his determination to 
establish his authority upon a firm basis. 
He made a large outlay upon the palace and 
accessories of state, and was accused of 
ostentation, as his predecessors Heber and 
Turner had been blamed for neglect in mat- 
ters of etiquette. Eventually, by strict habits 
of business, in which he took delight, and by 
genuine administrative capacity, Wilson suc- 
ceeded in establishing hia own standard of 
episcopal propriety. His relations with the 
governor-ffeneral, Lord William Bentinck, 
were excellent, and, having been once ac- 
climatised at Calcutta, he enjoyed robust 

The chief events of his episcopate were the 
seven visitations, in the first of which, in 
1834, he visited Malacca and Ceylon, while in 
the last he met Dalhousie at Rangoon in 
November 1865, and founded an English 
church. there. On 14 Feb, 1838 he visited the 
Tenerable missionary William Carey (1761- 

1834) [q. v.], and received his blessing. In 
January 1835 the bishop visited the scene of 
Schwartz's labours at Tanjore, and took the 
important step of altogether excluding the 
caste system from the native churches of 
southern India, in which it had hitherto 
survived. In March 1839 the idea of build- 
ing a new cathedral for Calcutta first took 
possession of his mind. The foundation-stone 
was laid on 8 Oct. 1839, and henceforth the 
bishop dedicated a large portion of Ms income 
to this object. In 1845, having been attacked 
by jungle fever, he was ordered to England, 
and on 19 March 1846 he was introduced by 
Peel, and had a private audience with the 
queen, to whom he submitted plans of the 
cathedral. The queen undertook to present 
the communion plate. He collected con- 
siderable sums for the building, and, after a 
farewell sermon at Islington on 81 Aug. 
1846, he sailed for India the same evening. 
The cathedral church, St. Paul's, was finally 
consecrated on 8 Oct. 1847. During his later 
years the bishop spent much of his time 
at Serampore, and he was there when the 
mutiny broke out in the spring of 1 857 . 1 1 in 
last sermon upon i Humiliation ' was preached 
in^ the cathedral on 24 July 1857, and waa 
printed with a dedication to Lord Canning 1 , 
He died at Calcutta on 2 Jan. 1858, and an 
extraordinary gazette requested the principal 
officers of the government to attend at riis 
interment in the cathedral on 4 Jan. The 
coffin ^was borne by twelve sailors of the 
warship Hotspur, and his remains buried at 
the east end of the chancel, A memorial 
was erected in St. Mary's ? Islington, while 
four scholarships and a native pastorate fund 
were founded at Calcutta in bis memory* A 
t Bishop Wilson Memorial Hall ' was inaugu- 
rated at Islington in January 1691, 

Wilson married, on 23 Nov. 1803, at St, 
Lawrence Jewry, Ann, the daughter of his 
uncle, William Wilson ; she died at Isling- 
ton on 10 May 1827. The progress of the 
courtship was thus recorded in his Latin 
journal : * Ap, 1. Rem patri expoaui do uxore* 
26. Literas ad patrem dedi. TMaii 7, Con- 
sensit avunculus. ^ 14. Voluit conaobrina 
mea. 17 Nov. Londinium porveni. 28* Nup- 
tise celebrate felicissimie auspiciifl? Of a 
large family two survived him. Of thette 
his eldest son, Daniel, born in November 
1805, graduated B. A, from Wadliam College, 
Oxford, on 14 June 18^7, and became vicar 
of Islington, in succession to his father (1832), 
He became rural dean (1860), and prebendary 
of St; Paul's (Chiflwick) in 1872, and died 
on 14 July 1886, aged *0. 

Both as a parish priewt and bishop Wilfion 
was distinguished for independence, resolu- 



tion, ami energy, an a he accomplished muc 
valuable work both at home and abroad 
lie was a jealous opponent of the principle 
maintained m the Oxford tracts, against th 
tendencies of -which he both spoke an 
preached with vehemence. His style o 
preaching wua vigorous ; his short pithy sen 
tences were meant to have the effect o 
goads, and they were often pungent ; but 
as his biographer admits, < things wer 
said many tunas that might have better been 
left, unsaid. But though men might smile 
they never slept. India is a sleepy place 
and he effectually roused it.' As a European 
traveller his narrowness is often conspicuous 
and he is too frequently congratulating hi 
fellow countrymen upon their freedom from 
'gross popish impostures.' In his spiritua 
egotism and his eminently technical view 
ot religion ho was a typical evangelical 
But he did not pride himself upon his taste 
or his tact j his qualities were more of the 
primitive apostolic order, and for his pure 
simplicity of mind and artlessness of demea- 
nour he has boon termed < a Dr. Primrose in 
lawn sleeves/ 

A portrait of Wilson by Claxton, now in 
w i^ 1 ' Calcutt ^ was engraved by 
W. Holl for the * Life ' by Josiah Bateman 
who married one of the bishop's daughters. 

Wilson'smostixn^ortant publications were : 
1 . Sermons on various Subjects of Christian 
?QcS r i ne *f * T p * ao *fce/ London, 1818 and 
18 J7, 8vo, & Letters from an absent Brother, 
containing some Account of a Tour through 
parts of the Netherlands, Switzerland, North- 
ern Italy, and France in the Summer of 1828/ 
,m! on .k *^' vols> (several editions). 
3. The Evidences of Christianity : Lectures/ 
1828-30, 2 vols. 8vo; 4th edit, 1860, 12mo 
(a r6chaufF6 of Paley, praised by Mcllvaine 
in his subsequent < Lectures'). 4. < The Di 
vine Authority and Perpetual Oblig-ation of 
the Lord's Day/ 1831, 1840. 5. 'Sermons 
in India during* a Primary Visitation/ 1838, 
8vo. 6. ' Sufficiency of the Scripture as a 


Bule of Faith/ 1841, 8vo. 7. ' Expository 
Lectures on St. Paul's Epistle to the Oo- 
loasians/1845,8vo; New York, 1846; Lon- 
don,3rdedit, 1853. Intheseleoturesthewriter 
protests against the erroneous teaching of 
the Oxford tracts* A similar view was 
echoed in his son's ' Our Protestant Faith in 
Danger* (London, 1850). 8. 'The Bishop 
of Calcutta's Farewell to England/ five ser- 
mons, Oxford, 1846, 12mo. 

[Baternan's Life of the Rt. Rev. Daniel Wilson, 
D.D., London, 1860, and condensed, 1861 (with 
portrait) ; Bishop Wilson's Journal Letters, ad- 
dressed to his Family during the first nine years 
of Ms Episcopate, edited by his son, Daniel 

Wilson, London, 1863; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886; Gardiner's Wadhaxn College Eegi- 
fcro ; ?kMag. 1858, i; 552; Times, 4 Feb. 
1858; Smith's Life of William Carey, 1887, p. 

?!&* f ist ; ,<>* Christianit y in India > Madras, 
1895; btock's History of the Church Missionary 
Society, 1899, vols. i. and ii. passim ; Allen and 
McClure's History of the S.P.C.K. 1808; pp. 
298 sq, ; Smith's Life of Alexander Dnff, 1879, 
n. 334; London Review, July I860 ; Quarterly 
Keview, October 1863 ; Good Words, 1876, pp. 
190, 271 (an interesting character sketch by Sir 
John Kaye) ; Illustrated London News, 6 Feb. 
in ' ^ nderson ' s Colonial Church, ii* 370; 
Wheatley and Cunningham's London, iii. 293 ; 
Bnt, Mus. Cat.] T, S. 

WILS03ST, SIB DANIEL (1816-1892), 
archaeologist and educational reformer, was 
the son of Archibald Wilson, wine mer- 
chant, of Edinburgh, who married, on 2 June 
1812, Janet, daughter of John Aitken of 
Greenock, a land surveyor. He was one of 
eleven children: a younger brother waa 
George Wilson (1818-18591 [a. v.l He was 
born in Edinburgh on 6 Jan, 1816, and edu- 
cated first at the High School, then at the 
university of Edinburgh. Embarking on a 
literary career, he went to London in 1837, 
and wrote with varying success for the press: 
but in 1842 he returned to Edinburgh, and 
ave special attention to archaeological sub- 
jects, publishing in 1847 his 'Memorials of 
Edinburgh in the Olden Time/ which he 
illustrated with his own sketches ; a revised 
edition appeared in 189L In 1845 he WAS 
appointed honorary secretary of the Scottish 
society of Antiquaries, and in 1861 pub- 
ished his great work on the arch^oloffv of 

In 1853 Wilson was appointed professor 
jf history and English literature in Toronto 
Jmversity. From his arrival in Canada be 
Levoted himself with marked success to the 
urtherance of education in the colony. In 
854 he was offered, but did not accept, the 
jost of principal of McGill University, 
MEontreaL In 1854 he became editor of the 
ournal of the Canadian Institute, and in 
.859 and 1860 was president of the institute. 
.n 1863 he received the first silver medal of 
he Natural History Society for original 
esearch. In 1881 he became president of 
Toronto University, in 1882 vice-president 
c the literature section of the Canadian 
.Royal Society, and in 1885 president of that 
ection. He was knighted in 1888. 

Wilson's work in Canada is fairly de- 
cnbed in his own words: 'I have reso- 
utely battled for the maintenance of a 
ational system of university education in 
pposition to sectarian or denominational 

Wilson 9 

colleges. In this I have been successful, 
and I regard it as the great work of my 
life.' The position now held by Toronto 
University is largely due to Wilson. He 
died at Toronto on 6 Aug. 1892. He mar- 
ried, in 1840, Margaret, daughter of Hugh 
Mackay of Glasgow. A daughter survived 
him unmarried. 

Apart from papers of high philosophic and 
scientific merit in journals of various learned 
societies, and articles in the * Encyclopaedia 
Britannica/ Wilson's chief works were: 
1. 'Oliver Cromwell and the Protectorate/ 
Edinburgh, 1848. 2. 'The Archaeology and 
Prehistoric Annals of Scotland/ Edinburgh, 
1851 ; 2nd edit. 1863. 3. 'Prehistoric Man: 
Researches into the Origin of Civilisation 
in the Old and New Worlds/ Cambridge, 
1862; 3rd edit. London, 1876. 4. 'Chatter- 
ton : a Biographical Study/ London, 1869. 
5. ' Caliban, the Missing Link/ Oxford, 1873. 
6. ' Spring Wild-Flowers : a collection of 
poems/ London, 1876. 7. * Reminiscences of 
Old Edinburgh/ Edinburgh, 1878. 8. 'An- 
thropology/ 1885. 9. ' William Nelson : a 
Memoir ' (privately printed), 1890. 10, 'The 
Right Hand : Left-handedness/ 1891. 

[Times, 9 Aug. 1892; Montreal Gazette, 
9 Aug. 1892; Eose's Cyclopaedia of Canadian 
Biogr. 2nd ed't. ; Appleton's Cyclopaedia of 
American Biogr.; Morgan's Bibl. Cauadensis; 
Proceedings of .Royal Society of Canada, xi. ii. 
55.1 C. A. H. 

WILSON", EDWAED (d. 1694), 'Beau 
Wilson/ was the fifth son of Thomas Wilson 
(d. 1699) of Keythorpe in Leicestershire, 
"by Anne (d, 1722), eldest daughter, by his 
second wife, of Sir Christopher racke [q. v.] 
The Wilson family was of old standing at 
Didlington in West Norfolk, but had become 
somewhat impoverished (for pedigree, see 
NICHOLS, Leicestershire, iii. 523). About 
1693 Edward, or, as lie was styled, 'Beau' 
Wilson, became the talk of London on account 
of the expensive style in which lie lived ; the 
younger son of one who had not above 200/. 
a year estate, it was remarked that ' he lived 
in the garb and equipage of the richest no- 
bleman for house, furniture, coaches, saddle 
horses, and kept a table and all things ac- 
cordingly, redeemed his father's estate, and 
gave portions to his sisters.' ( The mystery 
is/ wrote Evelyn, ' how this so young a gen- 
tleman, very sober and of good fame, could 
live in such an expensive manner ; it could 
not be discovered by all possible industry or 
intreaty of his friend to make him reveal it. 
It did not appear that he was kept by women, 
play, coining, padding, or dealing in che- 
mistry ; but he would sometimes say that 
should he live ever so long, he had where-. 

> Wilson 

with to maintain himself in the samo manner. 
He was very civil and well natur'd, but of 
no great force of understanding. This was a 
subject of much discourse' (Diary, 22 April 
1694). Some people said that he was sup- 
plied by the Jews, others that he had dis- 
covered the philosopher's stone, while certain 
good-natured folk averred that he had robbed 
the Holland mail of a quantity of jewellery, 
an exploit for which another mau had suffered 

On 9 April 1694 Wilson and his friend, 
Captain Wightrnan, were in tho Fountain 
Inn in the Strand when John Law, after- 
wards the celebrated financier, came in and 
fixed a quarrel upon Wilson. They proceeded 
to Bloomsbury Square, where after one pass 
the Beau fell wounded in the stomach, mid 
died without speaking a single word. Tho 
quarrel arose, it was said, from Wilson re-* 
moving his sister from a lodging-house whore 
Law had a mistress (one Mrs. Lawrence). 
Law was arrested and tried at the Old Bailey 
on 18 to 20 April 1694. The prisoner de- 
clared that the meeting was accidental, but 
some threatening letters from hitn to Wilson 
were produced at the trial, and the jury, be- 
lieving (with Evelyn) that the duol was 
unfairly conducted, held Law guilty of 
murder, and on 21 April he and * four other 
criminals only/ says Luttrell, were con- 
demned to death. Law pleaded benefit of 
clergy, on the ground that his otlenco 
amounted only to manslaughter, and hin 
punishment was commuted to a fmo. Against 
this commutation Wilson's family uaed all 
their influence, and on 10 May Law wu 
' charged with an appeal of murther at tho 
king's bench bar ; ' he escaped from tho clutchoa 
of the Wilsons only by filing through tlm 
bars of the king's bench prison. *ltoau' 
Wilson left only a few pounds behind him, 
and not a scrap of evidence to onlightou 
public curiosity as to the origin of his extra- 
ordinary resources. An ' Epitaph on Beau 
Wilson' by Edmund Killingworth appeared 
in the ' Gentleman's Journal' for May 1(M)-I, 

In 1695 appeared ' Some Let/tors between 
a certain late Nobleman (the Karl of Bun* 
derland) and the famous Mr. Wilson, dis- 
covering the True History and SurpasHiTiff 
Grandeur of that celebrated Beau/ print w 
for A. Moore, near St. Paul's* The work in 
curious, but the solution of the mystery in 
only hinted at in the rumoured scandal of 
the day. 

In 1708, as an appendix to the second 
edition of the English translation of Mine, 
de La Mothe's (D'Aulnoy) 'Memoira of the 
Court of England in the Keign of Charles TI/ 
entitled 'The Unknown Lady's Pacquet of 



Lot torn* (and possibly mnanating from Mr**, 
Manloy), the lirnt lotto in doMcribod as * A 
Discovery and Account of Beau Wilson'fl 
secret mipport of Lin public manner of living 
and the occasion of aw Doath,' According 
to the improbable wtory horo rttlatod at great 
length, the flwcrttt financier of Wilnon waH 
no other than Klixaboth Villiwfl [<j, v], the 
mistress of William HI, and afterwards 
Countess of Orknoy, I Lor arrangumonts for 
assignation with f ho Beau woro raudo with 
such extromo caro, according to thi narra- 
tive, aw to reduce the chanco of dotoction to 
a minimum, Tho lady auppliod WilHon 
lavishly with monoy, ntipulatiutf only that 
the mootinga Hhoul'd always^ tako pfaco in 
darkness, cmaliliod with tho light of but one 
candle, and that hor identity should bo per* 
foctly concealed. When at length Wilson 
became incurably inquisitive, tho lady ar- 
ranged for his outihanusia, and finally sup- 
pliod John Law with tho moans of escapo 
ami a largo Hum of monoy, 

Whothor this Htory wan a mere invention 
by an onomy of Lady Orkney (as HtwtnB most 
]m>bable)y or whtjthot it bo founded upon 
fact, it is imposHiblo to dotormiuo, Beau 
Wilson 1 ** myfttoriouw life and doath are woven 
wit.h eonHidorable skill into the early chap- 
turw of Harrison Aiuaworth's 'John Law, 
tho Projector ' 

[Wood's Memoirs of John law, 1B24, p, 6j 
Wood's Hist, of Cratuond, 1704, p. 164; London 
Journal, 3 Boo. 1721 ; Niaholh's LeieeHtomhiro, 
iii. 487; Ooehut's The Financier Law, 1856; 
Kvolyn'0 Diary, ad. Whentioy; Luttrell'a Brief 
JCIiflt IlolafcioD, iii. 291, 200; Chambers'* Book 
of Days, ii, ^SO ; Burko'a Vicissitudes of Noble 
Families, 2nd aor, p, 384 ; Timb^s Bomatice of 
];ondon, i. 420 ; Notoa and QuorifiH, 2nd a^r. ii. 
400, iv, 06, 219, 3rd sor. v. 150, 284 t vi. 459,] 

T, S, 

WILSON, EDWARD (1814-1878), 
Australian politician, was bom at Hampstead 
in 1814. After completing his education he 
was employed in the London branch of a 
Manchester firm. Finding* this occupation 
not to his taste, he proceeded to Australia 
in 1842, His first intention was to settle at 
Sydney, but on arriving at Melbourne he 
bought a small place upon Mem Creek, and 
remained there until 1844, when, in con- 
junction with J. B Johnston, he took up a 
cattle station near Dandenong. While thus 
employed he wrote a series of letters, signed 
' lota/severely criticising the administration 
of Charles Joseph LatrobS [q. v,] Their 
reception encouraged him to turn to jour- 
nalism, and in 1847 he and his partner pur- 
chased the * Argus ? from William Kerr, who 
had founded it in the preceding year. In 

Iftfll tlioy also incorporated tho Melbourne 
* 1 )ttily News * with the ' Argus/ Notwith- 
standing the disorganisation of society pro- 
duced m 185SJ by the discovery of gold, 
Wilson ftiicceodod in continuing the daily 
issue of his paper, and its circulation became 
in ^ consequence extremely large. Prior to 
this Wilson took a leading part in opposing 
tho influx of convicts from Tasmania, co- 
operating with the Anti-transportation 
founded in 1851, and supporting the 
of the Convicts Prevention Act* 
vocated the separation of Port Phillip 
from N&w South Walea, denounced the con- 
duct of the governor, fc3ir Charles Hotham 
[q. vA towards the miners, and strongly op- 
posed the tendency of Earl Grey's order m 
council of 1847 to convert the temporary 
liconsee of the crown's pastoral tenants into 
tho equivalent of an aKignable freehold. His 
vigorous ^attacks in the* Argus ' on all kinds 
of abuses involved him in several Hbol actions, 
the moat notable being that brought against 
him in 1857^ by George Milner Stephen, for- . 
merly colonial secretary, the result of which 
closed Stephen's political career in "Victoria, 
and that occasioned by his exposure of the 
Garra Bend lunatic asylum. Finding his 
sight failing, Wilson returned to England, 
and in 1864 published * Bambles in the Anti- 
podes.* In 1868 he was one of the founders of 
the Colonial Institute, and in the same year 
he settled at Hayes in Kent, where he died 
on 10 Jan, 1878. lie was buried in the 
Melbourne cemetery on 7 July ; Wilson 
was the founder of the Acclimatisation So- 
ciety of Victoria in 1861 j and while he is 
credited with having introduced the lark 
and thrush into Australia, and with attempt- 
ing to naturalise the llama, he is also accused 
of having brought over the sparrow. 

fHeaton's Australian Dictionary, 1879 ; M<m* 
nea'a Diet, of Australian Biogr. 1B92 ; Eusden's 
Hist, of Australia, 1883, ii. 527, 640 ,* McCombie's 
Hist, of Victoria, 185$, p. 329 ; Westgarth's 
Colony of Victoria, Ifffc pp. 297, 349, 371, 
374, 382,] " E. I. 0. 

WILS03ST, SniEKASMUS (1809-1884), 
surgeon. [See WZLSOK, SIB WIIXIAM 

WILSON^ rLOEENCB_(1504P~1547?), 

WILS03ST, GEORGE (Jl. 1607), writer 
on cock-fighting, was vicar of Wretton in 
Norfolk- In spite of his profession he took 
a keen interest in the pastime of cock-fight^ 
ing, and in 1607 he wrote 'The Commenda- 
tion of Cockes and Cock-fighting. Wherein 
is shewed that Cooke-fightmg was before the 
Commingof Christ . , . London, Printed for 


Henrie Tomes, and are to be sold at his Shop, 
ouer against Graies Inne Gate in Holburne, 
1607,' 4to. In this work, after descanting 
with some learning on the antiquity of the 
amusement, he launches into a eulogy of the 
manly qualities which it fostered, and con- 
cludes with some instances of prowess which 
he himself had witnessed, mentioning with 
especial commendation a gamecock named 
Tarlton after the famous comedian, because 
before combat it was accustomed to drum 
loudly with its wings. The tract was written 
partly with the object of reviving public in- 
terest in the sport. It was dedicated to Sir 
Henry Bedingfield, and was several times 
reprinted, reaching a third edition in 1631, 
and a tenth in 1656. 

[Wilson's Commendation of Cockes ; Collier's 
Bibliogr. Cat. ii. 529 ; Hazlitt's Handbook to the 
Literature of Great Britain ; Allibone's Diet of 
Engl. Lit.; Blackwood's Mag. 1827, xxii. 587.1 

E I 

WILSON, GEORGE (1818-1859),' che- 
mist and religious writer, son of Archibald 
Wilson, a wine merchant who came from 
Argyllshire and his wife Janet, was born 
at Edinburgh on 21 Feb. 1818 with a twin- 
brother, John, who died in 1836. His elder 
brother, (Sir) Daniel, is noticed separately. 
Wilson went to school first to a Mr. Knight, 
and, with Philip Maclagan and John Alex- 
ander Smith, founded a 'juvenile society for 
the advancement of knowledge.' He went 
in 1828 to the high school, which he left in 
1832 to enter the university as a medical 
student. He was apprenticed at the same 
time for four years at the laboratory of the 
Royal Infirmary. He attended the classes 
of Thomas Charles Hope [q.v.] and Kenneth 
Kemp for chemistry, and that of (Sir) Robert 
Christison [q. v.l for materia medica. In 
September 1837 he passed the examination 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edin- 
burgh, 'fell overhead and ears in love ' with 
chemistry (Memoir, p, 98), and became assis- 
tant to Christison. About this time he con- 
tributed to < Maga/ a university magazine 
edited by Edward Forbes [q. v.] In 1838 he 
joined his brother Daniel in "London, and 
shortly after became unpaid assistant to Tho- 
mas Graham (1805-1869) [q, v.l at Univer- 
sity College, the other assistants being James 
Young (1811-1883) [q.v/1 and Lyon (after- 
wards Baron) Playfair, With David Living- 
stone [q. v.], who was a student, Wilson 
formed a friendship. In Graham's laboratory 
he prepared his doctor's thesis, ' On the Exis- 
tence of Haloid Salts of the Electro-nega- 
tive Metals ' in solution, an ingenious inves- 
tigation of the action of hydrobromic acid 
on gold chloride. 

2 . Wilson 

Somewhat disappointed with his position 
in London, he returned to Edinburgh in 
April 1839, and in the following June pro- 
ceeded M.D. In the autumn he went to the 
British Association meeting at Birmingham, 
and was present at the first ' Red Lion ' 
dinner. He was elected in the same year to 
the f Order ' in Edinburgh founded by Forbes, 
which included many of the most brilliant 
students of the university (ib. pp. 225 et seq.) 

For medicine Wilson had no taste what- 
ever, and, after some futile applications for 
other chemical posts and the rejection of a 
chemical lectureship in one of the smaller 
schools in London, he received in 1840 a 
license from the Royal College of Surgeons 
of Edinburgh to lecture on chemistry, at- 
tendance at these lectures being recognised 
on behalf of candidates for their diploma. 
His lectures were the first chemistry lec- 
tures in what has developed since into the 
' extra-mural ' school. Simultaneously with 
the beginning of his professional career his 
health began to fail, and he writes of himself 
about this time as 'bankrupt in health, 
hopes, and fortune.' A slight injury to his 
left foot, followed by severe rheumatism, 
led to its amputation at the ankle by James 
Syme ("q. v,] in January 1843. In a letter 
to (Sir) James Young Simpson [q. v.] in ad- 
vocacy of the use of anaesthetics then 
strongly combated by some, who regarded 
them as * needless luxuries ' (SIMPSON, 0- 
stetric M&noirs, ii. 796), he speaks of ' the 
black whirlwind of emotion, the horror of 
great darkness, and the sense of desertion by 
God and man* that 'swept through' him 
during the operation. A little later ho wan 
attacked by phthisis, of which he realised 
the gravity, and the rest of his life is tho 
record of an extraordinary and cheerful fight 
against ill-health. He soon won success as 
a lecturer, obtained private work as an 
analyst, and in 1843 was appointed lecturer 
at several Edinburgh institutions the Edin- 
burgh Veterinary College, the School of Arts, 
and the Scottish Institution, a girls' school. 
In 1844 he joined a congregational church 
belonging to the independent section, al- 
though he still considered himself a baptist. 
In 1846 he was elected fellow of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh. To the Royal Scot- 
tish Society of Arts, of which he became 
president later, among other papers he con- 
tributed in 1846 one < On the Employment 
of Oxygen as a Means of Resuscitation in 
Asphyxia.' In* the same year he bftgan a 
long series of researches on the distribution 
of fluorides, which he showed to be prasftnt 
in small quantities in animal and vegetable 
tissues, in many minerals, and in sea*water. 




In 1 851 he published in the collection of 
the ' Cavendish Society ' a ' Life of Henry 
Cavendish' [q, v,], his most notable per- 
formance in scientific history, which became 
his favourite jmrsuit. Wilson fulty esta- 
blished the priority of Cavendish with re- 
gard to the experimental results on which the 
theory of the composition of water is based ; 
he showed that the advocates of James 
Watt's claims, including James Patrick 
Muirhead and Francis, lord Jeffrey [q.v.], 
had overestimated Watt's merits; but, in 
spite of much knowledge and labour, he 
did not fully master the mass of material he 
had accumulated relating to the * water con- 
troversy/ Their common interest in this 
matter had already in 1846 (Lift of Caven- 
<//V*,p. viii) led to a warm friendship between 
Wilson and Jeitrey, In 1852 Wilson pub- 
lished a vigorous letter addressed to Spencer 
Horatio Walpole [q.v.], the home secretary, 
on 'The Grievance of University Tests/ 
with reference to the chair of chomistry 
vacant at Glasgow by the death of Thomas 
Thomson (1778-1852) [q.v.] He published 
in the same year the ' Life of Dr. John Eeid ' 
[q. v.] (a personal friend), which reached a 
second edition immediately. In November 
1853 Wilson published in the ' Edinburgh 
Monthly Journal of Medical Science ' the 
first of a long series of papers on ' Colour- 
Blindness/ continued in trie 'Transactions 
of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts/ and 
republished with additions, under the title 
' Researches on Colour-Blindness/ in 1865. 
Wilson examined personally 1,164 cases of 
colour-blindness, and was the first in Eng- 
land to point out the extreme importance 
of testing railway-servants and sailors for 
this defect. The researches of the Abbe* 
Moigno (1804-1884), who claimed to have 
preceded Wilson in this, were unknown to 
him. The Great Northern Railway at once 
adopted Wilson's recommendations, and 
other bodies followed suit. James Clerk 
Maxwell [q.v.], then working at his colour- 
top, contributed an appendix to Wilson's 
book, of which he thought highly* 

In February 1855 Wilson was appointed 
director of the Scottish Industrial Museum 
about to be founded, and, later in the same 
year, regius professor of technology in the 
Edinburgh University. His inaugural lec- 
ture, * What is Technology ? * was published 
in extenso* In the autumn of 185o he pre- 
pared for the press at Melrose his 'Five 
Gateways of Knowledge,' a popular and 
ornate account of the five senses, His open- 
ing lecture for the session of 1856-7, ' On 
the Physical Sciences which form the Basis of 
Technology/ written about the same time, is 

far more mature than Wilson's other popular 
lectures, and shows a real grip of the cor- 
relation of the various sciences, while his 
natural exuberance of imagination and dic- 
tion is chastened, In 1858 William Gre- 
gory (1803-1858) [q. v.], then professor of 
chemistry in the university, died, and Wilson 
became a candidate for the vacant chair; 
but, although assured that he would be 
elected unanimously, he withdrew his can- 
didature on account of his ill-health (Me- 
moir, p. 456). His salary as director of the 
museum was at the same time increased 
from 300J. to 400J. a year. 

He had weakened steadily from year to 
year; in November 1859 a cold brought on 
by exposure proved fatal, and he died on 
2z Nov. A public funeral was decided on, 
and he was buried in the Old Calton burial- 
ground on 28 Nov. 1859, He was unmarried ; 
his mother, his brother Daniel, his sister 
Jessie Aitken. Wilson (now Mrs. James Sime), 
his biographer, and another sister, survived 

Wilson's experimental work, although in- 
genious and solid, contains little of marked 
originality; it is by his * Life of Cavendish' 
and his work on ' Colour-Blindness ' that 
he will be chiefly remembered. From the 
literary point of view his writings, both 
prose and verse, show a fertile imagination, 
but little judgment or reserve, although 
here and there the expression is striking. 
Religion played an essential part in Wilson's 
life, and without a trace of either pedantry 
or unction he was genuinely anxious to exert 
religious influence over others. He pro- 
tested strongly against the existence of evil 
being* regarded as other than an unsolved 
problem; but his religious views do not 
otherwise differ markedly from those of ortho- 
doxy. By his popular lectures and writings, 
and still more by his force and charm of 
character, he exerted considerable influence 
on his Edinburgh contemporaries. 

A steel engraving of Wilson by Lumb 
Stocks, A.R A., precedes the 'Memoir' by 
his sister ; and there is another engraved por- 
trait prefixed to the ' Counsels of an Invalid.' 

Besides the works mentioned Wilson was 
the author of : 1. 'Chemistry/ 1st edit. I860; 
2nd edit, revised by Stevenson Macadam, 
1866 ; 3rd edit, revised by H. G. Madan, 
1871. 2. * Electricity and the Electric Tele- 
graph,' 1st edit. 1856 j 2nd edit. 1859. 3. ' The 
Five Gateways of Knowledge,' 1st edit. 1856; 
8th edit. 1880. 4. 'Memoir of Edward Forbes' 
(completed by Six ; Archibald Geikie, F.R.S.), 
1862. 6. l Religio Chemici,' essays, chiefly 
scientific, collected posthumously and edited 
by Jessie Wilson, 1862, 6* Counsels of an 




In valid/ letters on religious subjects collected 
posthumously and edited by his friend, Dr. 
John Cairns, 1862. The < British Museum 
Catalogue ' also contains a list of single lec- 
tures published separately. The Royal So- 
ciety's catalogue contains a list of forty-three 
papers published by Wilson alone, one in con- 
junction with John Crombie Brown, and one 
with Johann Georg Forchhammer. Miss 
Aitken's 'Memoir' (original edition 1860, 
condensed edition 1866) contains a list of 
Wilson's papers and of his contributions to the 
* British Quarterly Review,' which include 
biographical sketches of John Dalton (1766- 
1844) [q.v.l (1845), William Hyde Wol- 
laston [q. v.1 (1849), Robert Bovle [q. v.] 
(1849), and of his verses published in ' Black- 
wood's Magazine ' and ' Macmillan's Maga- 
zine/ William Charles Henry's *Life of 
Dalton ' (1864) contains an appendix by Wil- 
son on Dalton's ' Colour-Blindness.' 

[Besides the sources quoted, the Memoir of 
Wilson, by Jessie Aitken Wilson, 1870 (which 
contains many letters to his brother Daniel, his 
friend Daniel Macmillan [q. v.], and others), 
with an appendix by John Henry Gladstone, 
F.R.S., on Wilson's scientific work; Wilson's 
books and scientific papers; Brit, MTIS. Cat.; Mac- 
millan & Co.'s Bibliography ; Trans. Roy. Soc. 
of Edinburgh, 1857, xxi. 669 ; Lord Jeffrey's 
art. on * Watt or Cavendish ' in Edinburgh Re- 
view, 1848, Ixxxvii. 67 ; Jubilee of the Chemical 
Society, 1896, pp. 2,5, 184 ; Note by J. Syme in 
London and Edinburgh Journal of Medical 
Science, 1843, iii. 274; North British Review, art. 
by Sir David Brewster (?), 1856, xxiv. 325, and 
Obituary, 1860, xxxii. 226; Obituary by Dr. 
John Cairns in Macmillan's Magazine, 1860, i. 
199; Brown's Howe Subsecivae, 2nd ser. p. 
151 ; Kopp's Beitrage zur Gesch. der Chemie, 
drittes Stiick, 1875, p. 239; information kindly 
given by Mrs. James Sime.] P. J. H. 

WILSON, GEORGE (1808-1870), chair- 
man of the Anti-Oornlaw League, born at 
llathersage, Derbyshire, on 24 April 1808, 
was the son of John Wilson, corn miller, 
who removed in 1819 to Manchester, where 
he established a corn merchant's business, 
George was educated at the Manchester 
commercial school and in evening- classes, 
and was at one time a pupil of Dr. John 
Dalton [q.v.], the chemist. 

He started business in the corn trade, 
afterwards he became a starch and gi 
manufacturer, but the greater part of his 
life was taken up with political and railway 
work. He was, when young, president of 
, the Manchester Phrenological Society, and 
an occasional writer for the press. He was 
secretary to the committee which obtained 
the charter of incorporation for Manchester 
in 1839, and sat as a member of the town 

council from 1841 to 1844. On the founda- 
ion of the Anti-Cornlaw Association in 
January 1839, he became a member of the 
executive committee, and in 1841, when the 
title was changed to that of the Anti-Corn- 
Law League, he was elected chairman, and 
occupied that position until the repeal of the 
corn laws was obtained in February 184C. 

During those five years Wilson presided 
over larger public meetings than had ever 
before been held to agitate constitutionally 
for a change in the law. The tact with 
which he controlled a gathering of men at a 
time of great political excitement, and the 
patience and good humour with which he 
directed matters from the chair, earned for 
him the reputation of being the best chair- 
man of the day ; and when the league was 
dissolved the council of that body presented 
him with 10,000 in recognition ot the great 
ability with which he had organised its 
political action. The origination and orga- 
nisation of the great bazaars in aid of the 
cause in Manchester and London were due 
to him. In 1862, when Lord Derby's go- 
vernment proposed to reimpose a ' moderate ' 
duty on corn, the league, resuscitated under 
Wilson's guidance, by a short campaign dis- 
posed of the protectionist reaction. He 
subsequently turned his attention to par- 
liamentary reform, particularly to the fair 
redistribution of seats, without which lie 
believed that extension of the franchise 
would be futile. He kept the question in 
the front at the numerous public meetings 
and reform conferences at which he presided, 
and he became chairman of the Lancashire 
Reformers' Union in 1858, and in 18(J4 was 
appointed president of the National Reform 
Union. In its operations he took an active 
part until the time of his death. Wilson, 
had many requisitions to become a candidate 
for parliament, as well as overtures to take 
government office, but ho declined all. As 
a director of the Electric Telegraph Company 
he assisted in developing the telegraphic sys- 
tem. With Joseph Adshead he establiHhod 
the Manchester Night Asylum. Wilaon 
joined in 1847 the board of directors of the 
Manchester and Leeds Railway, of which 
company he was deputy-chairman in 1848. 
In 1860 he became managing director and 
deputy-chairman of the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Railway Company. In 1867 he 
was appointed chairman. 

He died suddenly on 29 Dec, 1870 in the 
train, and was interred in Ardwick cemetery, 
Manchester. Wilson attended a Sandomanian 
chapel, but was most tolerant in his religious 
views. He married, in 1887, Mary, daugh- 
ter of John Rawson, merchant ana munu- 


ftomeiby GCWR IWt.'.n nn.l Urn ktto 
H S Loifchild, ar jmwrvod at th^ 
chrsuw town-hull. Another portrait, ap- ] 
w,Win J. K. Hl><-t' pi.-t.ur, of th- wmii- 
5nS llvta W vo,nmv in JVl J*rk Mumm, 
Salfonl. Tlil yirturti ww fngrnvctl by 
S. IMlin. Mol-hiv nurlnut w t to- group 
ofDOtabteH ammwlwil wit.H thn n.wjtml t.m 
oftlio I'Vmmh twaly ofeomnwmv wluchwiis 
ongnwud by Du Vitl. 

| Mandate-, 90 Dm-. WO, unit 
6 Inn. 1871; PtonlWH Htrtory f th Ai.ti- 
LwK, l fti{ ; HiilyiuiknH Hi*ly 

Oolxiwi; Mm'Hyn U if U niri i; 
Wnrf.Homin.f Al.u'hwti-r, 1HHI, p. tm ; i- 
fornmtion kindly mipplifld by T. Knht, Wilnoii, 

woman of faHhion, twrn ulwmt i7Ht t wurt 
tho daughter of John Jumtm Uubmidmt 
or Do Bouehot, of HWWH origin, who fcopt a 
small Bhop in May fain Hho mhoritiui tfii 
mannwrH and look* from hop umiltor, a liwly 
to whono charnw Hho toll* HH that fow won 
(horfatluii' unlwppily amiwtf thorn) wonun- 
MinHiblo, and Hho nomuM to have boon brought 
up to wtwak Wnpflinh and Fiwwh, both in- 
auforwntly, Tho wuiw of hr oarly wtiwr 
would appear to ho indicated m tho titlo 
of a Hmall chaphnok thrown nut toward* 
the oloflw of her ' public KiV an a ampl of 
hor < Mttmoiro;' it wan willed Th> Amofww 
AdvftivturttH of Harriotts WilHonj hor unit 
introduction into privuto lifo iw* tho kopt 
miHtruHM of Lord (irovon, hor imritfurH with 
tho lion, Frodorick Uainh, and how nho 
Imcamo kopt miHt.nHF tho l*uko ttf Arf(yl 
[ 18^51. '1 think I KiipjMui onno in hor HO* 

in Argyll Htnwt, whoro thu company chawmul 
to bo fairor than hornet, . . . Sho wa jar 
from boautiful, but a Kmart, naucy ffirt, with 
good eyes and dark hair, and tiuuuamwr* of 

585). After about IHiiO h umidod tua large 
extent in Paris, whmuw by thti kintlnoHM of 
Hir Charles Htuart h< wa onahlod to do- 
patchhor corvuHpondonci) through t ho inodhum 
of the foreign offico bag* Hhtj wan occupied 
for over a year in an intriflfiw with tn 
Marquis of WoMentw, of whidi nomti highly 
ridiculous details aro iiilordod; but tiuull- 
timed parsimony of the Duke of Bf*ufovt f 
who thought to compound a promin^d an- 
nuity of 50D& by a uingle payment of I $001., 
excited m Harrifttte, WUOB tumpitf wa 
impatient^ a lasting sono of illtratmiat. 

5 Wilson 

Taking Twonia Oonstantia Phillips [q_, -v,] as 
hor mod(d, sho announced hor intention of 
pithlrnhmg hor tnomoirfl, and she found a 
HyinpttthoticpubliBherin John Joseph Stock- 
dalo of tbo Opora Colonnade, llaymarkot 
| wo undor STGOKDAMB, JOHN]* The book 
%vaa avowedly written to extort money. 
* Tho Hon. Fred. Lamb/ wrote Harriette, 
MmR called on Stockdalo to threaten us 
with proHocution ; had ho oponod his purse 
to give mo but a low hundreds, there would 
' hnvo buon no book, to the infinito IOBA of all 
J piTHoim of goo<l taato and genuine morality.' 
! Tho book duly appoawid in four spaall 
volunum in 1825 w *Momoira of Jlarriette 
^S' t UM m, wri it in by 1 1 pwlf,' and created Hiich 
iiHoiimit ion t hut HtoelcdaWsdoor was thronged 
<.on doop on tho morningH announced for tho 
twbliuation of a now volume, and a special 
tnirrinr had to too orootod to direct the paanoge 
of t\w applicantH. Over thirty oAlticms wore 
Hfiitotl t,t> havo been i8od within the year. 
A French Towion, in wix volumes, was pub- 
liwbotl *cbo Ij'lluillior, Rue Poup6e, Paris/ 
in iH'J5. Th translntion is stated to have 
boon * corrig'flo par Tauteur/ though the 
I liilo M^moirB <fl I onriette Wilson' is Home- 
what tiUHloadhig, A sot of coloured plates 
wwo oxtunttod to accompany the text, and 
cnpUiH with thttiti illufttrations are now scarce 
(tni wan Mold in IHVHJ for BIX guineas ; an 
umtotourwl copy sold for $L fa. in 1 899), The 
work wiu* dononncwd m amost ' disgustmgand 
KrtwH pWHlitution of tho press* (see apamphlet 
tnliful ^1 Ommmtary on tfa Luxntwa 
Liberty qf tkft PrWj London, 1826), but as 
a matt or of fact the book is on the whole re- 
markably ftttofrom lubricity, while m point of 
wmtwnoMH it does not approach the 'Memoirs' 
of a Lady of Quality' interpolated in < Pere- 
grine I'Uilo.' The tlialogue is often amusing, 
but tho loom* and slipshod style does no 
credit to the editor, * Thomas Little' (P Stock, 
dale). Thft jmtmdonym would seem to have 
bwm darinffly borrowed from Tom Moore, 
and wan aluo employed for the ' Confessions 
of an Oxonian/ 1826, and for some pseudo- 
" " i the Opera Colon- 
wrote Sir Walter 

Btrott on 9 Dec, WM, ' been ^ , in Kot 
water lately by this impudent publication . . . 
th wit is poor, but the style , rf ^ mterlo- 
cutors exactly imitated, , . . She beats Con 
Phiiipfl and Anno Bellamy and all former 
annum* out and out/ Among the well- 
known names that Bgur e FommeatN m the 
narrativaarethoseof theDuke ^Wog y 
ttoDuke of Uin8ter,LordHertford, Marqu^ 
" ' \the Barl of Fife, Prmce Ester- 
1 Granville Leveson-Gower, Lord 
J SaSBrummeU, Henry LuttreU 



and 'his inseparable fat Nugent/ Viscount 
Ponsonby, Richard Meyler, Lord Frederick 

Bentinck, Lord Byron, and Henry Brougham 
(who instigated the writer, as she informs us, 

to undertake her campaign against the 'paltry 
conduct of his grace of Beaufort'). Actions 
were brought by Mr. Blore, a stonemason of 
Piccadilly, who was awarded 300/. damages, 
an4 by Hugh -Evans Fisher, who received 
heavier damages in the court of common 
pleas on 21 May 1826 (Times, 22 May). 
Further instalments of the ' Memoirs' were 
threatened, but their appearance was averted, 
Harriette's former aristocratic admirers 
appear to have, made her up a purse, upon 
the strength of which she buried her past 
and married a M, Rochefort or Rochfort It 
is doubtful whether she had any share in 
f Paris iions and London Tigers' (London, 
1825, 8vo, with coloured plates, several edi- 
tions), a farcical narrative, describing the 
visirfe of an English family to Paris. ' This 
modern Aspasia/ as Sheil calls her,, is ^ be- 
lieved to have returned to England a pious 
widow, and to have died in 1846. Among 
the sisters who emulated her triumphs, and 
are frequently alluded to by name in the 
f . { Memoirs/ may be mentioned Fanny, who 
t lived for many years as Mrs. Parker, but 
whdse test hours (described by Harriette 
with an appearance of feeling) were soothed 
, by the kindness of Lord .Hertford (Thacke- 
ra^s * Marquis of Steyne'J; Amy, who having 
.relinquished the protection of Count Pal- 
mella and 20QZ. a month, ' paid in advance,' 

* * married' the disreputable musician, Robert 
Nicolas Charles .Bochsa; and Sophia, who 
married as a minor, on 8 Feb. 1812, at St. 
Marylebone, Thomas Noel Hill, second baron 
Berwick, and died at Leamington, aged 81, on 
S9 Aug. 1875 (Illustr. London News> 11 Sept. 
1875). An engraving of Harriette is in the 
British Museum print-room (no name or date). 
i [Memoirs of Harriette Wilson in British Mus. 
Library; this is the so-called second edition, 
rorapUte in four* volumes, with an appendix. 
Other sets were issued by Stockdale in eight 
volumes, ^considerably expanded by the nominal 
^editor, ' THomas Little,' and in 1831, as by the 
, same editor, was issued au * Index, Analytical, 
Referential, and Explanatory, of Persons and 

* t Matter,' which is very scarce. It is doubtful 

' -whether any sets were issued by Stockdale subse- 
quent to the 'thirty-third' edition of 1 825, for the 
protection of copyright was not extended to the 
volumes^ which were pirated by T. Douglas and 
pxol&hJy by otters. Some of, the sets were 
.^issued with plates, both plain, and coloured, and 
*some have as frontispieces portraits of the four 
sisters, ' Hajriette,' ' Fanny,' ' Amy/ and ' Sophy,' 

' with autographs. Stockdale sought to continue 
the^blackmailing campaign in a, weekly periodi- 

cal called Stockdale's Budget, December 1826- 
June 1827, which contains several letters attri- 
buted to Harriette Bochfort See also Biographie 
des Contemporains, Paris, 1834, vol. v. JSuppl.) 
p. 904; Amorous Adventures and Intrigues of 
Tom Johnson, 1870, vol. ii. chap, i.; Catena Li- 
brorum Tacendorum, 1885; A Commentary o a 
the Licentious Liberty of the Press, London, 
1825, 8vo ; Times, 2 July 1825, 22 May 1826; 
British Lion, 3 April 1825; Black-wood's Mag. 
November 1829, p. 739 ; Shell's Irish Bar, 1864, 
i. 348; [Gay's] Bibliographie des Ouvrages re- 
latifs a 1'amour, Nice, 1872, v. 51.] T, S. 

1853"), divine and antiquary, born on 28 Aug. 
1774, was a son of William Wilson of the 
parish of St. Gregdry, London, He left 
Merchant Taylors' school in 17Q2, and was 
admitted commoner of Lincoln College, Ox- 
ford, on 12 Feb. 1793. Elected scholar 
on the Trapped foundation in the following 
year (30 June),, he graduated B.A, on 
10 Oct. 1796, and MA. on. 23 May 1799. 
He proceeded B.D, on 21 'June lolt), and 
D.D. on 14 Jan. 1^18. In February 1798 
he became third master at Merchant Tay- 
lors', and from 1805 to 1824 was second 
master. He became curate and lectured of 
St. Michael's Bassishaw, and lecturer of St, 
Matthias and St. John the Baptist, Lbndpn, 
in 1807, and in 1814 received in addition 
the Townsend lecturership at St. Michael's, 
Crooked Lane. On 2 Aug. 1816 he was 
collated by Archbishop Manners-Sutton to 
the united parishes of St. Mary Aldefmary 
and St. Thomas the Apostle. There he was 
continually involved^ in litigation with his 
parishioners. But in spite of these dif- 
ferences he established a parochial lending 
library, and abolished fees for baptism, 

Wilson was a learned adherent of the 
evangelical school, with more of the scholar 
than the divine. His chief theological 
works were a pamphlet against the catholic 
claims (' An Earnest Address respecting the 
Catholics/ 1807, 8vo), and a volume of ser- 
mons issued the same year. But he published 
some valuable antiquarian books, The ohiof 
of these was his ' History of Merchant Tay- 
lors' School,' issued in two quarto parts in 
1812 and 1814 respectively. He received a 
subsidy from the company of 100/, towards 
the expenses of publication. The work ia 
scholarly, if spinewhat diffuse. 

In 1831 Wilson published another quarto 
on * the History of tne Parish of St Ikurfcnce 
Pountney, including four documents unpub- 
lished, an account of Corpus -CHristi or 
Pountney College/, within which Merchant 
Taylors' school was established in 1661, The 
work remained unfinished on account of the 



expenses in which "Wilson's litigation in- i 
volved him. 

Wilson also published : ' Observations on 
the Law and Practice of the Sequestration 
of Ecclesiastical Benefices,' 1836, 8vo ; and 
6 Brief Notices of the Fabric and Glebe of 
St. Mary Aldermary/ 1840, 8vo. The coy 
of the latter work in the British Museum 
contains an autograph letter by the author. 

He died on 21 Nov. 1853. He married 
Mary Anne, daughter of John Moore (1742- 
1821) fa. v.], by whom he had two sons and 
a daughter. The elder son, Henry Bristow 
Wilson, is separately noticed. 

[Gent. Mag. 1854, i. 535, 536; Clark's Hist, 
of Lincoln Coll, p. 187 ; Poster's A 1-nn\ini Oxon. 
1715-1886 j An Aged Bector's Valedictory Ad- 
dress, 1853; Allibones Diet. Engl. Lit.; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] O. LB G-. N. 

1888), divine, born on 10 June 1803, was 
elder son of Harry Bristow Wilson [q.v.], 
by his wife Mary Anne, daughter of John 
Moore (1742-1821) fq. v.] He entered Mer- 
chant Taylors' school in October 1809, and 
was elected to St. John's College, Oxford, 
in 1821. Matriculating on 25 June 1821, 
he graduated B.A. in 1825, M.A. in 1829, 
and B.D, in 1834, and received a fellowship 
in 1825, which he retained until 1850. In 
1831 he was appointed dean of arts, and he 
acted as tutor from 1833 to 1835. He also 
filled the office of Rawlinsonian professor of 
Anglo-Saxon from 1839 to 1844. In 1850 
he was presented by St. John's College to 
the vicarage of Great Staughton in Hunting- 
donshire, which he retained until his death. 

Wilson identified himself in theology with 
the school of which Benjamin Jowett (after- 
wards master of .Balliol]) and Frederick 
Temple (afterwards archbishop of Canter- 
bury) became the best-known members. In 
the spring of 1841 WHson joined Archibald 
Campbell Tait [<j. v.] in the 'protest of the 
four tutors' against 'Tract XC.' In the 
Lent term of 1851 he delivered the Bampton 
lectures^ taking as his subject 'The Com- 
munion of the Saints: an Attempt to illus- 
trate the True Principles of Christian Union' 
(Oxford, 1861* 8vo)* His lectures were re- 
markable for eloquence and power, and still 
more aa * the first clear, note of a demand 
for freedom in theological enquiry.' The 
widening of theological opinion and of 
Christian Communion was thenceforward the 
main interest of his life. i In 1857 he con- 
tributed "Schemes of Christian Compre- 
hension' to ' Oxford Essays,' and in 1861 he 
published a dissertation on 'The National 
Church ' in ' Essays and Reviews.' Passages 


in the latter essay were regarded as inculca- 
ting erroneous doctrine, particularly in regard 
to the inspiration of scripture and the future 
state of the dead. John William Burgon 
(afterwards dean of Chichester) was especially* " 
dissatisfied with his views, anjd in 1862 
proceedings for heresy were instituted 
against Wilson in the court of arches. On 

25 June Wilson, whose case was tried $o- 
ffether with that of Eowland Williams 
[. v.], was found guilty on three out of 
eight of the articles brought against him, 
and was sentenced to suspension for a year 
by the judge, Stephen Lushington [q. v.] 
Wilson and Williams both appealed to the 
judicial committee of the privy council, and 
their appeals were heard together in 1 863. 
Wilson's defence occupied 19 and 20 June, 
and was afterwards published. The appeal 
was successful, and on 8 Feb. 1864 the 
judicial committee reversed Lushington's 
decision. Wilson's health, however, was 
broken by the anxieties of his position, and 
he never f completely recovered from the 
strain. During later life he did not reside 
in his benefice. He died at 1 Lawn Yillas, 
Eltham Road, Lee, on 10 Aug. 1888. 

Wilson wrote an introduction to * A Brief ^ 
Examination of prevalent Opinions on &he 
Inspiration of the Old and New Testaments ' * 
(London, 1861, 8vo). 

[Funeral Sermon by B. B. Kennard, 1888^ 
Poster's Yorkshire Pedigrees, 1874:, vol. ii,, s>. y ^ 
' Fountayne- Wilson ; ' Robinson's Beg. of Tfynj* ' f \ 
chant Taylors' School, 1883, ii. 188; Foster's * 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; Mrs. Wilson's Lite 
and Letters of Rowland Williams, 1874, vol. ii. ; , 
Abbott and Campbell's Life and Letters of Ben- 
jamin Jowett, 1897, i. 209, 73, 300-1, 404 ; 
Brodrick and Preemantle's Judgments of the 
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, 1865, * 
pp. 247-90; Liddon'sLife of Pnsey, ii. 167, iv. y 
38-68 ; Prothero's Life and Letters of Dean 
Stanley, 1893, ii. 30-44, 157-8; Kennard's : 
Essays and Reviews, 1863; Peterborough andr 
Huntingdonshire Standard, 18 -^iig. 18881 Mea^ 
of the Time, 1887; Allibone's ftict. of *BngL . 
Lit.] RI.C. > 

1860), orientalist, was born in London on 

26 Sept. 1786. Receiving his general edu- 
cation in Soho Square, London, he com-, 
menced medical studies in 1804 at St. Tho~ , 
nias's Hospital, and in 1808 was nominated 
assistant-surg-eon on the Bengal establish- 
ment of the East India Company.,, Ihe 
voyage occupied six months, and during it , 
he commenced his oriental studies by learn- i 
ing Hindustani. On his arrival ae was* 
appointed, owing to his proficiency in t 
chemistry and metallur^, assistant to J<An 



Leyden [q. v.] at the Calcutta mint, where 
in 1816 he became assay-master. ' Excited 
by the example and biography of Sir Wm. 
Jones * (to use his own words), he ' entered 
on the study of Sanskrit with warm interest, 
as soon after' his ' arrival in India in 1808 
as official occupations allowed/ In 1813 we 
find him publishing his first Sanskrit work, an 
annotated text of the ' Meghaddta of Kali- 
dasa*' It is still more remarkable to note 
that as early as 1819 he completed the first 
' Sanskrit-English Dictionary.' It was greatly 
improved in the second edition (1831), which 
remained until the completion of the great 
German lexicon in 1875 the standard refe- 
rence-book for European scholars. In the 
same year (1819) he was sent by government 
to Benares for the inspection of the college 
there, a visit which he utilised for the collec- 
tion of materials for his great work on the 
Indian drama. 

During nearly the whole of his stay in 
India Wilson held the office of secretary 
to the Asiatic Society of Bengal (appoint- 
ment dated 2 April 1811), contributing to 
its journal some of his most important 
papers. He was also secretary to the com- 
mittee of public instruction and visitor to 
the Sanskrit College of Calcutta. 

In 1832 he was selected to fill the chair 
of Sanskrit at Oxford, which had been founded 
by Joseph Boden [q.v.] in 1827. He resided 
in Oxford from 1833 to 1836, when he suc- 
ceeded Sir Charles "Wilkins [q.v.] as librarian 
to the East India Company, and moved to 
London, merely visiting Oxford for a part 
of each term, but giving instruction to all 
who needed his help. He became likewise 
examiner at the company's college at Hailey- 
"bury, visiting it twice yearly. In London he 
was an original member of the Royal Asiatic 
Society (1823), in which he held the office 
of director from 1837 till his death. Wilson 
was elected F.R.S. in 1834, and was member 
of numerous foreign learned societies. 

Up died on 8 May 1860 in London at 
Upper Wimpole Street. He married a 
daughter of George Siddons of the Bengal 
service, who was a son of the great actress. 
Several descendants of this marriage survive. 

An engraving, dated 1851, by William 
Walker, gives has portrait from a painting 
(now at the Royal Asiatic Society) by Sir 
John Watson-Gordon. A portrait by Sir 
George Hayter is in possession of Wilson's 
grandson at Brighton, and several other pic- 
tures (including one by Robert Tait), sketches, 
and drawings are extant. In the National 
Portrait Gallery, London, is a sketch from 
life by James Atkinson, There is also a 
bust by Chantrey in the Bodleian library, 

and another bust on the facade of the India 

Wilson did much to promote a real know- 
ledge of the very numerous branches of In- 
dian learning which he made his own. Be- 
neath his writings and teaching there flowed 
an undercurrent of enthusiasm which, in 
spite of a certain dryness of manner and 
baldness of style, often communicated itself 
to pupils or readers. His point of view, 
natural to an early scholar educated in India, 
and the limitations of his scholarship were 
shown in an appreciation by Bothlingk and 
Roth, the greatest of Sanskrit lexicographers, 
who, while expressing their sense of Wilson's 
immense erudition, lamented that he had 
taken the point of view of native scholars 
rather than advanced in the path of European 
students (Sanskrit Worterbueh, Bd. L, Vor- 

A complete list, mainly compiled by him- 
self, of his separate works, editions, joint pro- 
ductions, and papers in journals, is given with 
his obituary in the ' Annual Report of the 
Royal Asiatic Society ' for 1860. Besides 
the 'Dictionary' (1819, 1832, and 1874) 
already mentioned, the moat important are : 
1. ' Select Specimens of the Theatre of the 
Hindus/ 1826-7, 2 vols. (this has gone 
through several editions, and was translated 
into French; Wilson, himself an accom- 
plished actor, seems to have entered into 
this work with special enthusiasm). 2. * Oata- 
logueof the Mackenzie MSS./ Calcutta, 1828, 
8vo. 3. * San-khyarkarika/ London, 1837, 
4to. 4. <Vishnupurana/ London, 1840, 4to* 
5. ' Lectures on the Religious and Philoso- 
phical Systems of the Hindus/ 1840. 6, < Con- 
tinuation of Mill's British India, 1805-35,' 
London, 1844-8. 7. * Translation of the 
Rig- Veda' (according to the native school of 
interpretation), 6 vols. ; vol. i. was published 
in 1850, and vols. v. and vi have been com- 
pleted and published since his death. 8, ' Glos- 
sary of Judicial and Revenue Terms of ... 
India/ London, 1866, 4to, A collected edi- 
tion (12 vols.) of his works was also pub- 
lished in London (1862-71) under the editor- 
ship of Reinhold Rost fa .v J, one of his suc- 
cessors at the India ofcce. Wilson was a 
great collector of Sanskrit manuscripts. No 
xewer than five hundred and forty, compris- 
ing both vedic and classical works, were 
brought together by him, and form the most 
important part of the Sanskrit manuscripts 
now in the Bodleian Library. 

[An*mal Report of Royal Asiatic Society for 
1860, and other records of the Society; Memorials 
of Haileybury College (biography by Sir M. 
Momer- Williams, Wilson's pupil and successor 
at Oaford); English Cyclopedia; AsMc Soc. 




Bengal, Centenary vol. ; communications from 
family and from Professor Cowell, his pupil 
and frienu "< C. B. 

WILSON SIB JAMES (1780-1847), 
major-general, born in 1780, received a com- 
mission as ensign in the 27th foot on 12 Dee. 
1798. His further commissions were dated : 
lieutenant, 31 Aug. 1799 ; captain, 27 May 
1801 ; major, 20 June 1811 ; "brevet lieutenant- 
colonel, 27 April 1812; colonel, 22 July 
1830; major-general, 28 June 1838. ^ He 
served with his regiment in the expedition 
to the Helder in 1799, took part in the action 
on landing on 27 Aug., in the actions of 10 
and 19 Sept., in the battle of Alkmaar or 
Bergen on 2 Oct., and the action of Be- 
verwyk on 6 Oct. In July 1800 he accom- 
panied the expedition under Sir James 
Pulteney to Ferrol, and under Sir Ealph 
Abercromby to Cadiz, and in the following 
year went with Abercromby to Egypt, took 
part in the battle on landing in Aboukir Bay 
on 8 March 1801, in the action at Nicopolis 
on the 13th, in the battle of Alexandria on 

21 March, and in the further operations of 
the campaign. 

Wilson exchanged into the 48th foot on 
9 July 1803. He served with Sir John 
Moore in Leon during the campaign of 1808. 
In 1809 he accompanied the 48th to the 
Peninsula, and was at the battle of Talavera 
on 27 and 28 July, and of Busaco on 27 Sept., 
took part in the retreat to Torres Vedras, 
and in the subsequent advance in 1810 in 
pursuit of Masse" na. At the battle of Albuera 
on 16 May 1811 Wilson succeeded, on the 
death of Lieutenant-colonel Duckworth, to 
the command of the 48th, and was twice 
severely wounded. He again commanded 

in January 1812, taking part in the storm. 
He commanded the column of assault on the 
ravelin of San Rogue at the storm of Badajoz 
on 6 April 1812, when he carried the gorge, 
and, with the assistance of Major John Squire 
[q. v.] of the royal engineers, established him- 
self in the work. & was particularly men- 
tioned in despatches by Sir Thomas JPicton 
and by the Duke of Wellington. 

Wilson commanded his regiment in the 
advance to the Douro, in the retreat to Oas- 
trajon, and in the battle of Salamanca on 

22 July 1812, wheu^ he succeeded to the 
command of the fusilier brigade, and was 
mentioned in despatches." He commanded a 
light battalion at the battle of ^Vittoria on 
21 June 1813, and during the operations in 
the Pyrenees, until he was twice severely 
wounded at the battle of Sauroren on 28 July 
1813. He was again mentioned in despatches. 
In 1814 he commanded the 48th in the 

advance to the Garonne, and was present at 
the battle of Toulouse on 10 April, was again 
wounded, and again mentioned in despatches. 
For his services he was made a knight com- 
mander of the order of the Bath, military 
division, on 2 Jan. 1815, and .received the 
gold cross, with clasp, for Albuera, Badajoz, 
Salamanca, Vittoria, and Toulouse, and the 
reward for distinguished service. He was 
also presented with a sword of honour by 
the officers of the 48th foot in memory of 
his having so often led them t6 victory. He 
died at Bath in February 1847. 

[Despatches; Royal Mlitary Cal. 1820; Gent. 
Mag. 1847, i 424; United Service Mag. 1847; 
Napier's Hist of the Peninsular War ; Wilson's 
Expedition to Egypt] E. H. V. 

WTLSOtf, JAMES (1795-1856), zoolo- 
gist, the youngest son of John Wilson (d. 
1796), a gauze manufacturer, and his wife 
Margaret (born Sym), was born at Paisley in 
November 1795. ' Christopher North' (John 
Wilson, 1785-1854 [q.v.J) was his eldest 
brother. The father having died during 
James's first year, the family removed to 
Edinburgh, where young Wilson passed his 
school and college days. In 1811 he began 
to study for the law, but his health did not 
allow of his following this for long. In 1816 
he visited Holland, Germany, Switzerland, 
and Paris. He afterwards returned to Paris 
to purchase the Dufresne collection of birds 
for the museum of the Edinburgh University. 
These he arranged in their new home, a con- 
genial employment for one who from boy- 
hood had had a great love for natural his- 
tory. In 1819 he visited Sweden, soon 
after which symptoms of pulmonary 'disease 
appeared that compelled him to reside in 
Italy during 1820-1. In 1824 he married 
and settled down at Woodvflle, near Edin- 
burgh, devoting himself to scientific and 
literary pursuits. Losing his wife in 1837, 
he took a winter residence in George Square, 

In 1841, with Sir Thomas Dick Lauder 
[q. v.], he made a series of excursions round 
the coasts of Scotland, at the request of the 
fisheries board, to study the natural history 
of the herring, and mate other observations 
of interest to the fishing industry. Other 
trips followed at intervals between 1843 and 
1850, besides which he took many fishing 
excursions inland. In 1854 he was offered 
but declined the chair of natural history in 
the Edinburgh University, then vacant by 
the death of Professor Edward Forbes [q. v.] 

He died at Woodville on 18 May 1856. 
In 1824 he married Isabella Keith (d. 1837). 
Wilson had joined the Wernerian Society 




when only seventeen, and was also a fellow 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 

He was author of: 1. ' Illustrations of 
Zoology,' Edinburgh, 1826, 9 pts. 4to. 
2. ' Entomologia Edinensis,' written in con- 
junction with James Duncan, Edinburgh, 
8yo, 1834. 3. ' Treatise on Insects, 7 Edin- 
burgh, 1835, 8vo, 4 ' Introduction to the 
Natural History of Quadrupeds and Whales,' 
Edinburgh, 1838, 4to, 5. ' Introduction to 
the Natural History of Fishes/ Edinburgh, 
1838, 4to. 6. ' Introduction to the Natural 
History of Birds/ Edinburgh, 1839, 4to. 
7. < The Bod and Gun/ Edinburgh, 1840, 
8vo ; new edition, 1844. 8. t A Voyage round 
the Coasts of Scotland/ Edinburgh, 1842, 
2 vols. 8vo. 9. ' Illustrations of Scripture. 
By an Animal Painter, with Notes by a 
Naturalist 7 [signed <J. W,'], Edinburgh 
[1855], fol. For the ' Edinburgh Cabinet 
Library' he wrote the zoology of India, 
China, Africa, and the northern regions of 
North America; while he contributed the 
greater part of the natural history and a 
life of Professor Forbes to the seventh, edi- 
tion of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica.' He 
moreover published many articles in the 
' Quarterly/ in * Blackwood/ and in other 

His niece, HENRIETTA WILSON (d. 1863), 
was a "daughter of Andrew Wilson of Main 
House* She lost her mother in early life, 
but found a home with her grandmother and 
her uncle, Professor John Wilson (1812- 
1888) [q. v.], in Edinburgh. Subsequently 
she went to live with her other uncle, 
James Wilson, at Woodville, where, after 
the death of her aunt in 3837, she took 
charge of the house and remained till her 
death on 19 Sept. 1863. 

She was author of: 1. 'Little Things' 
(anon,), Edinburgh, 1851, 18mo, which went 
through two German editions. 2. 'Things 
to be thought of 7 (anon.), Edinburgh, 1853, 
12mo. 3. 'Homely Hints from the Fireside 7 
(anon., the first edition of which appeared 
probably about 1858 or 1869) ; 2nd edit. 
Edinburgh, 1860, 12mo; new edit, 1862. 
4. 'The Chronicles of a Garden: its Pets/ 
London, 1863, 8vo ; 2nd edit, 1864. 

[Memoirs of J. Wilson (with a portrait), by 
the Rev. J. Hamilton ; Encycl. Brit* 8th edit. 
xxi. 876 ; Memoir of Henrietta Wilson, by the 
Rev. J. Hamilton, prefixed to her * Chronicles ; ' 
Brit. Mus, Cat. ; AUibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.] 

T> -r> w- J 

WILSON, JAMES (1805-1860^olitician 
and political economist, born at Hawick in 
Roxburghshire on 8 June 1805, the third son 
in a family of fifteen children, was the son 
of William Wilson (5, a* Ha wick 1764, d. of 

cholera in London 1832), a thriving woollen 
manufacturer. His mother's maiden name 
was Elizabeth Richardson, and she died at 
Hawick in 1815. Wilson was placed from 
1816 to 1819 in the school at Ackworth 
belonging to the Friends, of which religious 
body his father was a member, and then for 
six months in a similar school at Earl's 
Oolne in Essex. His taste at this time 
was for books, and he wished to become a 
schoolmaster. A desire for a more active life 
next inspired him, and he wanted to practise 
at the Scottish bar, but the rules of the 
Society of Friends did not permit of this 
occupation. * 

At the age of sixteen Wilson was ap- 
prenticed to a hat manufacturer at Ilawick, 
but he still pursued far into the night the 
practice of reading and study. After a short 
time his father purchased tho business lor 
him and an elder brother named William. 
The two young men prospered in their 
undertaking, and their native town proved 
too small for their energies. In 1824 they 
removed to London, and commenced busi- 
ness with a partner, the firm being known 
as Wilson, Irwin, & Wilson. Their pecuniary 
gains were considerable, and James Wilson 
acquired a thorough practical knowledge of 
commercial life, both at home and in foreign 
countries. The firm was dissolved in 1831, 
but he continued, as James Wilson & Co,, 
to carry on the business. On 5 Jan. 183ii 
he married Elizabeth Preston of Newcastle, 
and voluntarily ceased to bo a member or 
the Society of Friends, He moved to Dul- 
wich Place, then a secludod spot, though 
only about four miles from tho city, llore 
he entertained his friends, and was fond 
of conversing with them on politics and 

For twelve years Wilson succeeded in 
business, but about 1836 ho was tempted 
into large speculations in indigo, and within 
three years nearly all his capital had vanished* 
He called his creditors together and made a 
proposition to them, which was accepted. 
Some time afterwards the property which ho 
had assigned to them was realised and did 
not produce the sum which he had antici- 
pated. He thereupon in the most honour- 
able manner, without any ostentation, made 
good the deficiency. The firm was unaffected 
by his private failure, continuing its opera- 
tions under another name and with Wilson 
as a partner. In 1844 he retired from busi- 

Three works published before his retire- 
ment made Wilson's name conspicuous in 
financial circles, The first of them, called 
' Influences of the Corn-laws as affecting all 




Classes of the Community/ came out in the 
spring of 1839, and its third edition was 
issued in the next year. Its object was to 
show that the duty on corn did not benefit 
the agricultural interest any more than that 
of the manufacturers. The argument was 
clearly threshed out, and he followed it up 
by frequent speeches in the same sense. His 
reasoning had considerable influence over the 
mind of Cobden, and, by removing from the 
agitation the stigma that its object was to 
promote the interests of one class at the ex- 
pense of another, had much effect on the 
success of the anti-cornlaw movement. 

In the second of these pamphlets, that on 
the 'Fluctuations of Currency, Commerce, 
and Manufactures' (1840), Wilson traced 
their rise and fall to the artificial operation 
of the corn laws. The third of them, ' The 
Revenue, or what shall the Chancellor do ? * 
1841, was all but written in a ' single night,' 
and it contained an outline of the changes 
subsequently introduced by Sir Robert Peel 
and his follower in finance, Gladstone. He 
urged the increase of direct taxation through 
the medium of the assessed taxes and the 
reduction of the tariff regulating the custom 
and excise duties, as these had largely di- 
minished in yield from the decreased re- 
sources of the mass of the people. He showed 
in detail how the consumption of coffee and 
sugar had been augmented by the diminu- 
tion of the duties thereon. 

Wilson about 1843 wrote the city article 
and occasional leaders for the 'Morning 
Chronicle.' For several years he contri- 
buted letters and articles to the 'Examiner/ 
and he was desirous of increasing his papers 
in its columns, but the space was denied 
him. He thereupon, after consultation with 
Cobden and YiUiers, as the spokesmen of 
the Anti-Cornlaw League (MoKCEY, Cpbden, 
i. 291-2), determined on establishing a 
weekly patter for financial and commercial 
men. He invested in it most of his capital 
and obtained some help from Lord Radnor, 
an ardent free-trader. 'The Economist,' 
which appeared for the first time on 2 Sej>t. 
1843, at once became a recognised power in 
the newspaper world, and has maintained its 
position ever since. It advocated the repeal 
of the corn laws, and strenuously upheld 
the principles of free trade. In the early 
stages of its existence Wilson wrote nearly 
the whole of the paper. It was as a prac- 
tical man, writing for those engaged in the 
daily routine of ousiness life, that he pri- 
marily expounded his views, but the effect 
of his opinions was not limited to any single 
section in society. Under the title of ' Capita] 
Currency and Banking' he published in 1847 

a volume containing 'his articles in "The 
Economist" in 1845 on the Bank Act of 1844, 
and in 1847 on the crisis. With a plan for 
a secure and economical currency.' A second 
edition came out in 1859 ; it was issued in 
1857 in the 'Biblioteca dell' Econornista' 
(2nd ser. vi. 455-662) ; and a translation 
was published at Rio de Janeiro in 1860. It 
embodied his criticisms on the currency acts 
of Peel, with an analysis of the panic of 1847 
and of the railway mania which preceded it. 
He was a strenuous advocate for the sure 
convertibility of the banknote, but ' opposed 
to the technical restrictions of the act of 
1844.' He also advocated the repeal of the 
navigation laws, regarding them as ' restric- 
tions on our commerce.' A pamphlet by him 
on the * Cause of the present Commercial 
Distress, and its Bearings on Shipowners,' 
was printed at Liverpool in 1843, and he 
printed in 1849 a speech on ' The Navigation 

A chance conversation at Lord Radnor's 
table induced Wilson to become a candidate 
for parliament at the general election of 1847 
for the borough of Westbury in Wiltshire. 
He was returned by 170 votes against 149 
given to his tory opponent, Matthew James 
Higgins [q.v.], wei known as 'Jacob Om- 
nium.' He was re-elected in 1852, when he 
won by six votes only. From 1857 until his 
departure for India he represented Devon- 
port. Wilson's first speech in parliament 
was on the motion for a committee to in- 
quire into the commercial depression which 
then existed, and he soon obtained consider- 
able influence as a speaker. Within six 
months of the date on which he took his 
seat office was offered to him, and from 
16 May 1848 to the dissolution of Lord John 
Russell's ministry he was one of the joint 
secretaries to the board of control. 

On the formation of the Aberdeen ministry 
Wilson was offered the important post of 
financial secretary to the treasury, and he 
remained in this place, dealing ably with the 
vexed questions daily referred to the holder 
of that position, from January 1853 until the 
defeat of Lord Palmerston's administration 
in 1858. During his tenure of this office he 
was offered, but declined, first the vice-presi- 
dency of the board of trade in 1855, secondly 
the chairmanship of inland revenue in 1856. 
This was ' a good pillow,' he said, ' but he 
did not wish to lie down.' 

Lord Palmerston returned to power in 
June 1859, when Wilson accepted the vice- 
presidency of the board of trade, coupled 
with that of paymaster-general, and was 
created a privy councillor. He had scarcely 
been seated in oifice^hen he was offered the 




post of financial member of the council of 
India, which had just been created. He 
hesitated about accepting it, for he ap- 
preciated his influence in the House of Com- 
mons, recognised the ' gigantic difficulties ' 
which awaited him in India, and was not 
tempted by the high salary, as through the 
success of his paper, aided by some prudent 
investments, he was possessed of affluence. 
On public grounds, however, he determined 
upon going thither, and on 20 Oct. 1869 he 
left England for his new position. Through 
a 'fortunate accident J he visited immediately 
after his arrival the upper provinces of Hin- 
dustan. He travelled from Calcutta to 
Lahore, and back again, visiting every city 
and town of importance within that area, 
and returned much ' impressed with the un- 
developed resources of the country. The 
principles of his budget were explained by 
him on 18 Feb. 1860. He found himself 
face to face with a great deficiency of re- 
venue and an enormous increase in public 
debt, He proposed certain increased import 
duties with a tax on home-grown tobacco, 
a small and uniform license duty upon traders 
of every class, and the imposition of an 
income-tax on all incomes above 200 rupees 
a year, but with a reduction for those not 
exceeding 500 rupees per annum. These 
propositions met with considerable opposi- 
tion, mainly through the action of Sir Charles 
Edward Trevelyan [q. v.], but that official 
was promptly recalled. Wilson's budget 
and Trevelyan's recall excited much criticism 
in England. 

Wilson's next act was to establish a paper 
currency. He set up at Calcutta a govern- 
ment commission charged with the functions 
exercised in this country by the issue de- 
partfeent of the Bank of England. Branch 
establishments were erected at Madras and 
Bombay, and the three presidencies were 
divided for the issue and redemption of 
notes into convenient districts called cur- 
rency circles. The notes were to be for 6, 
10, 20, 60, 100, 500, or 1,000 rupees, and 
they were to be redeemable with silver. 
Wjlson then commenced a reformation of 
1& system of public accounts. He it was 
1 that first evoked order put of the chaos of 
Indian finance, and rendered it possible for 
the future to regulate the outlay by the in- 

For some time after his arrival in India 
Wilson remained in good health, but with 
the advent of wet weather hi& physical 
strength declined, Tinder the pressure of 
work he neglected his condition, but about 
the middle of July 1860 he went for a week's 
change to Barrackpore. He returned to 

labour with only a slight improvement in 
his state. The dysentery increased, on 
2 Aug. he took to his bed, and on the even- 
ing of 11 Aug. he was dead. Mourning for 
his ^loss was universal in Calcutta j he was 
buried in the Circular Road cemetery, where 
a monument was erected to his memory. 
His widow died in London in 1886, and was 
buried in the churchyard of Curry Rivel, 
Somerset. ^ They had six daughters: the 
eldest, Elizabeth, married Walter Bagehot 
[q. v.] ; the next, Julia, was the second wife 
ot William Rathbone Greg [q.v.]; the fourth 
daughter, Zenobia, married Mr. Orby Ship- 
ley ; the fifth, Sophia Victoria, married Mr. 
Stirling Halsey of the Indian civil service, 
private secretary to his father-in-law until 
his death. 

Wilson was very active in his tempera- 
ment, fertile in ideas, and lucid in exposi- 
tion. To the last hour of his life he was of 
a sanguine disposition. His memory was 
marvellous, his judgment was remarkably 
even, and an iron constitution enabled him 
to accomplish a vast amount of work. In 
society hia vivacity of conversation was 
always conspicuous. Ho was a foreign asso- 
ciate of the Institute of France. 

A full-length statue of Wilson, by Steole 
of Edinburgh, the cost of which was defrayed 
by the mercantile community of the city, is 
in the Dalhousie Institute at Calcutta, A 
marble bust, by the same sculptor, is in the 
National Gallery of Edinburgh; it was 
placed there by the Royal Academy of Scot- 
land, in recognition of his services in ob- 
taining 1 a gprant from the treasury for the 
erection of the buildings in its occupation. 
That body presented Mrs, Wilnon in 1859 
with a portrait of him by Sir John Watson 
Gordon. It is now in Mrs, Bagehot/s pos- 
session j a copy of it was given by Wilson's 
children to the gallery of local worthies in 
Hawick town-hall, A pen-and-ink sketch 
by Richard Doyle of Wilson, together with 
Sir William Molesworth, is in the print- 
room at the British Museum* They are both 
drawn with flowing hair, and underneath 
are the words: 'Is that your own hair, or 
is it a whig?' He is also represented in 
J. R, Herbert's picture of the leading mem- 
bers of the Anti-Comlaw League. 

[Economist, supplement by Walter Bajyehot 
to number for 17 Nor. 1860 ; it was reprinted 
as a separate publication in 1861, and included in 
his Literary Studies (1879), I 367-406(1898 
edit,), iii. 304-67 j Gent. Mag, 1860, ii, 432; 
Vapereau, 1868 ed, ; Encyclop. Brit. 8th ed, also 
by Mr, Bagehot ; information from Mrs, Walter 
Bagehot of Herds Hill, Langport, Somerset.] 

W, &%0, 




1882), physician, son of James Wilson, the 
surgeon and teacher of anatomy at the Hun- 
terian school in Great Windmill Street, was 
born in Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, in 1795. His mother was a daughter 
of John Clarke of Wellingborough, and sister 
to Sir Charles Mansfield Clarke [q. y.] He 
was admitted a king's scholar at Westminster 
school in 1808, and was elected to Christ 
Church, Oxford, on 9 May 1812. He gra- 
duated B.A. on 6 Dec. 1815, and obtained a 
first class in both classics and mathematics. 
On leaving Oxford temporarily, he entered 
his father's school in Great Windmill Street, 
and during the winter of 1817 he studied at 
Edinburgh. He proceeded M. A. at Oxford on 
13 May 1818, M.B. on 6 May 1819, and M.D. 
on 17 May 1823. He was elected a Radcliffe 
travelling fellow in June 1821, and, having 
been nominated to a 'faculty studentship/ 
remained a student of Christ Church. In 1819 
and 1820 he travelled through France and 
Switzerland to Italy as physician to George 
John Spencer, second earl Spencer, and 
his wife, and in the early part of 1822 he 
left England for the continent, in compliance 
with the requirements of his Radcliffe fel- 
lowship, and, with occasional intervals, was 
abroad for the five following years. He 
was admitted a candidate of the College of 
Physicians on 12 April 1824, a fellow on 
28 March 1825, and was censor in 1828 and 
1851. He delivered the materia medica 
lectures at the college ^in 1829, 1830, 1831, 
and 1832, the Lumleian lectures in 1847 
and 1848 ' on Pain/ and the Harveian ora- 
tion in 1850; the last-named was one of 
the most original and noteworthy in matter 
and style of any that have been delivered 
within the present century. He was elected 
physician to St. George's Hospital on 29 May 
1829, and held the office until 1857, .when 
he was appointed consulting physician. Wil- 
son died at Holmwood, Surrey, on 29 Dec. 

Wilson was author of: 1. 'On Spasm, 
Languor, Palsy, and other Disorders termed 
Nervous of the Muscular System/ London, 
1843, 12mo. 2. ' Oratio Harveiana in JSdi- 
bus Collegii Regalis Medicorum habita die 
Junii xxix., MDOOOL./ London, 1850, 8vo. His 
contributions t to periodical literature were 
valuable and important. Among them were 
papers on ( erysipelas and rheumatic fevers/ 
published in the l Lancet/ Under the signa- 
ture of 'Maxilla* he contributed to the 'Lon- 
don Gazette ' of 1833 a series of characteristic 
and rut cresting letters addressed to his friend 
Vestibulus (Dr. George Hall of Brighton). 
These letters are memorable in the history 

of the College of Physicians, for they struck 
the keynote for its reform. 

[Munk's Coll, of Phys. ; Roll of Westminster 
School ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; Cat. 
Brit. Mus. Libr.] W. W. W. 

WILSON, JOHN (1595-1674), musician, 
born at Faversham in Kent on 5 April 
1595, was distinguished as a lutenist, and in 
1635 succeeded Alphonso Bales as musician 
to the king. Personal popularity won for 
his compositions something more than a just 
appreciation both at the court of Charles I, 
when Oxford was the stronghold of the 
royal cause, and among the young men of 
the university. Wilson's influence in spread- 
ing the love of music has been acknowledged 
as far-reaching. * The best at the lute in 
all England/ he sometimes played the lute 
at the music meetings of Oxford, but more 
often presided over 'the consort' (WoOD, 
Zife, p. xxiv), In 1644-5 Wilson graduated 
Mus. Doc. Oxon.; in 1646, on the surrender 
of the Oxford garrison, he entered the house- 
hold of Sir William Walter of Sarsden. 
On the re-establishment in 1656 of the Ox- 
ford professorship of music, Wilson was ap- 
pointed choragus, the lectureship having by 
this time been diverted from the intention 
of its founder. In 1661 he resigned this post 
for that of chamber musician to Charles II, 
and in 1662 he was appointed gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal in the place of Henry Lawes. 

He lodged at the Horseferry, Westminster, 
died there * aged 78 yeares, 10 months, and 
17 dayes' on 22 Feb. 1673-4, and was 
buried in the little cloister of Westminster 
Abbey. He married his second wife, Anne 
Peniall, on 31 Jan. 1670-1. 

Wilson's portrait is among others fcejtynjg- 
ing to the Oxford Music School. *'i&4J^tea- 

rving by Caldwall (1644) was published 
Hawkins (Hist. 2nd edit. p. 582; cf. 
B'BOMLEY, Cat, Engr. Portr. p. 153). 

The theory has been raised by Dr. Eim- 
bault, but has never been seriously accepted, 
that Dr. John Wilson was identical with 
Shakespeare's Jack Willson, who sang ' Sigh 
no more, ladies/ and other lyrics. The folip 
of 1623 gives the stage direction, * Enter th# 
Prince, Leonato, Claudio, and Jack WillsoB- 
(M uoh Ado, act u, sc. 3). That Wilson had 
frequent intercourse with contemporary com- 
posers of Shakespearean lyrics, and himself 
set to music 'Take, oh! take those lips 
away/ are known facts. That he had a' 
humorous nature and a love of practical 
joking, such as would better beseem an actor 
of those days, was commonly reported, and 
that he was the Willson who, in company 
with Harry and Will Lawes, raised a tavern 




, is possible (Harl. MS. 6395, quoted 
>y RIMBATTLT, Who was Jack Wilson ? 
1846}. But these coincidences are not of 
sufficient weight to establish identity. On 
the other hand, there is a letter of 21 Oct. 
1622 from Mandeville to the lord mayor 
and aldermen, soliciting for John Willson 
the place of one of the servants of the city for 
music and voice, vacant by the death of 
Bichard Balls (Itemembraneia, viii. 48, 121), 
and a list of musicians for the ' waytes/ 
17 April 1641, records the same name. It 
is unlikely that Wilson commenced his 
career by these city appointments, which 
may be presumed to have been enjoyed by a 
humbler namesake, John Wilson, actor and 

The Playfords published airs and glees 
by Wilson in (1) 'Select Ayres,' 1652; 
(2) Catch that catch can ; ' and (3) Plea- 
sant Musical Companion/ 1067. In Clif- 
ford's * Collection ' (2nd edit. 1664) are the 
words of (4) Wilson's Hearken, God ; ' 
(5) f Psalterium Carolinum, the devotions of 
His Sacred Majestic in his solitude and suf- 
fering, rendered in verse by T, Stanley, and 
set to musick for three voices and an organ 
or theorbo/ 1657; (6) 'Cheerful Ayres or 
Ballads, first composed for one single voice, 
and since for three voices/ Oxford, 1660, 
3 yols. This was the first attempt at music 
printing at Oxford. In manuscript there 
are at the British Museum many of Wilson's 
songs in Additional MS. 29396, most of 
which is said to be in the handwriting of 
Ed. Lowe; an Evening Service in G (vol. v. 
of Tudway*s ' Collection ') and nine songs 
and part-songs in Additional MSS. 10337 
and 11608; and at the Bodleian Library 
music to several * Odes ' of Horace and to 
passages in Ausonius, Claudian, Petronius 
Arbiter, and Statius. Among Wilson's com- 
positions was the air * From the fair Lavinian 
shore/ from which (and Savile's ' The Waits') 
Sir Henry Bishop compounded the popular 
glee ' 0, by rivers.' 

[Burner's Hist, of Music, iii. 389 ; Hawkins's 
Hist. ii. 582 j Grove's Diet. iv. 462 ; Cheque- 
book of the Chapel Royal, p. 13; AbdyWilliams's 
Degrees of Music, pp. 36, 82 ; Davey'e Hist, 
pp. 279, 284, et seq. ; OaJ. State Papers, Dom. 
Charles I and Charles n ; will in "Westminster 
Act Book, fol. 86 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ii. 
171, viii. 418, 6th ser. x. 455 ; Coll. Top. et Gen. 
vii. 164; authorities cited.] L. M. M. 

WILSON, JOHN (1627 P-1696), play- 
wright, the son of Aaron Wilson, a native 
of Caermarthen, who has, however, been 
claimed as of Scottish descent, was born in 
London in 1627. 

The father, AABOST WIISON (1589-1643), 

matriculated from Queen's College, Oxford, 
on 16 Oct. 1607, as 'cler. fil. set. 18.' He 
graduated M. A. in 1615, and D.D, on 17 May 
1639. He was collated rector of St. Ste- 
phen's, Walbrook, in December 1625, was 
appointed chaplain to Charles I and in- 
stalled archdeacon of Exeter in January 
1634; in this same year he became vicar of 
Plymouth (St. Andrew's), to which benefice 
he was instituted by Charles I. He and his 
flock quarrelled over temporalities, and he 
took proceedings in the Star-chamber, but 
failed to prove the alleged encroachments, 
The corporation, nevertheless, thought it wise 
to surrender the right of presentation to the 
king, who regranted it under conditions. 
When the civil war broke out, the vicar 
was sent prisoner by the townsfolk to Ports- 
mouth ; he died at Exeter in July 1643, be- 
queathing to his son an unswerving faith in 
tkegreatness of royal prerogative (sue WORTH, 
Plymouth, p. 241; tansd. MS. 985, t 3] j 
HuOTEesy, Novwn Re$wrt. p, cliv), 

John Wilson matriculated from Exeter 
College on 5 April 1644, agod 17, but 
did not proceed to a degree ; ho was admitted 
of Lincoln's Inn on 31 Oct. 1640 (Jfry&frr, 
i. 254), and was called to the bar from that 
inn about 1649. His plays mado his name 
known to^the courtiera, and his high views 
on the subject of tho prerogative commendud 
him to James, duke of York, who recom- 
mended him for a place to Jamos Butlor, 
first duke of Ormonde. He may have ac- 
companied Ormonde to Ireland in 1077 ; in 
any case, he was appointed about 1681 to 
the office of recorder of Londonderry, and 
in 1682 he issued from a Dublin pross his 
'Poem, To his excellence Bichard, Earl 
of Arran, lord deputy of Ireland/ Two 
years later he dedicated to Ormonde *A 
Discourse of Monarchy, more particularly 
of the Imperial Crowns of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland ... as it relatos to the 
Succession of His Boyol Highness Jamas, 
Duke of York/ London, 8vo, Early in the 
following year he was ready with t A Pin- 
darique to their Sacred Majesties James II 
and his Royal Consort Queen Mary, on 
their joynt Coronation at Westminster, April 
23, 168&V London, folio. James probably 
mentioned his deserts to Richard Talbot, 
earl of Tyrconnel, and there is a suggestion 
that Wilson was employed by the new 
viceroy during 1687 in the capacity of secre- 
tary. His loyalty was equal to every strain, 
and in 1688 he produced his erudite and 
casuistical 'Jus regium coronas, or the King's 
Supream Power in Dispensing with Penal 
Statutes' (London, 1688, 4to) which he dedi- 
cated 'to the Honorable Society of Lincoln's 




Inn.' A second part was projected, "but never 
appeared. He probably retained the recorder- 
ship until the sie$e of Derry (April-August 
168?), during which period, in the absence 
of mayor and sheriff, the office must have 
been a dead letter. It is evident that Wilson 
shortly after wards went to Dublin with a view 
to j oining James there, and that, counting upon 
the ultimate triumph of the Jacobite cause, 
he stayed there for one or two years. He is 
said to have written his tragi-comedy of 
* Bolphegor ' in that city during 1690. He 
may nave returned to London to see it pro- 
duced at Dorset Garden in the October of 
that year. Langbaine, writing in 1699, states 
that he died ' near Leicester Fields about three 
years since.' There is a somewhat obscure 
reference to John Wilson in (Buckingham 
and Rochester's P) ' The Session of the Poats, 
to the Tune of Cock Laurel/ 

Wilson was the author of two prose come- 
dies of merit, besides a five-act tragedy in 
blank verse and a tragi-comody. Liko tho 
Sliadwells in the next generation, he was a 
follower of 'the tribe of Bon.' lie was a 
scholar, and his plays aro full of adaptations 
from the antique cornody j but as a delineator 
of rascality, if raroly original, he is always 
vigorous and often racy, with a strong mas- 
culine humour, His plays in order of pro- 
duction are : L 'The Cheats : a Comedy,' Lon- 
don, 1664, 4to (1671, 4to; 3rd edit. 1684 ; 4th 
edit. 1693, with a new song^This excellent 
farcical comedy was written in 1602 (so we 
are told in 'The Author to the Iteador,' dated 
Lincoln's Inn, 16 Nov. 1608), and performed 
with great applause by Killigrew's company 
atVere Street, Clare Market, in 1663. Lacy 
played Scruple, the nonconformist minister, 
who in his fondness for deep potations 'too 
good for the wicked; it may strengthen 
them in their enormities/ strikingly antici- 
pates the Shepherd in 'Pickwick.' Botl 
this character and Mopus the astrologica 
quack are strongly suggestive of Jonson 
throughput. The timo appears not to have 
been quite ripe for the breadth of the satire 
for in a letter to John Brooke, dated 28 March 
1663, Abraham Hill remarks, ' Tho now play 
called " The Cheats " has been attempted on 
the stage ; but it is so scandalous that it is 
forbidden ; (Familiar Letters, p. 103), ^ The 
piece is just mentioned by Downes in his 
'Roscius Anglicanus/ S, 'Andronicus Com 
menius : a Tragedy,' London, 1664, 4to. Th< 
history is derived from the ' Cosmography 
of Peter Heylyn [<j. v.l and coincides with 
the narrative given in the forty-eighth chap 
ter of Gibbon. An anonymous play of littl 
merit upon the same subject, written in 
1643, had been published in 1661, Thr 

jassage between Andronicus and Anna,]) 
widow of his victim Alexius (act iv. sc. i 
eems to have been inspired by the famoi 
cene in ' Richard III. 7 The play was dedi- 
cated (15 Jan, 1663-4) < To my friend A. B/ 
5. 'The Projectors : a Comedy,' London, 
1666, 4to. This comedy of London life 
was licensed for the press by L'Estrange 
on 13 Jan. 1664-6, but Genest doubts if it 
were ever acted. It betrays more clearly 
than Moli&re's 'L'Avare' its debt to their 
sommon original, the * Aulularia' of Plautus ; 
Sir Gudgeon Credulous again bears consider- 
able resemblance to Fabian Fitzdottrell in 
Jonson's 'The Devil is an Ass/ while the 
She-Senate scene between Mrs. Godsgood, 
Mrs, Gotam, and Mrs. Squeeze is strongly 
reminiscent of the 'Ecclesiazusse' of Aristo- 
phanes. The fault of the play resides, not 
in the characters, which are excellent, espe- 
cially the Miser, Suckdry and his servant 
Leanchops, but in the dearth of incident. 
Ther,e appears to be no connection between 
' The Projectors ' and ' L'Avare,' which was 
hastily written in 1668 and ' transplanted ' 
many yoars later by Henry Fielding (' The 
Miser/ February 1733). 4. ' Beljjhegor, or 
the Marriage of the Devil: a Tra^i-comedy,' 
London, 1691, 4to; the British Museum has 
a second copy with a slightly variant title- 
>age. Licensed by L'Estrange on 13 Oct. 
^690, this play was probably performed at 
Dorset Garden at the close of 1690, The 
scene is laid in Genoa, and the story, which 
appears in the 'Notti' of Straparola, was de- 
nved by Wilson from the English version of 
Machiavelli, published in 1674 (ii. 165). 

A collected edition of Wilson's dramatic 
works was edited by Maidment and Logan 
for their series of dramatists of the Restora- 
tion in 1874. 

Besides his four plays and the tracts men- 
tioned above, Wilson brought out in 1668 
' Mori3 Encomium^ or the Praise of Folly. 
Written originally m Latin by Des. Erasmus 
of Rotterdam, and translated into English 
by John Wilson/ London, 12mo. 

[Wilson's Works, with MQtixoir, in Dramatists 
of the Restoration, 1874 ; Langbaine's Lives and 
Characters of the English Dramatick Poets, 1712, 
p. 149; Watt's Bibl. Britanniea ; Halliwell's 
Diet, of Old English Plays, 1860 ; Genestfs Hist, 
of the English Stage, i. 34, 489, x. 138-9; 
Downes's Roscius Anglicanus ; Ward's English 
Dramatic Lit,, 1898, iii. 337-40; Baker's Bio- 
graphia Dramatica; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1714; Notes and Queries ; Mas$on's Mil- 
ton, vi. 314, 365-6 ; Hazlitt's Bibl. Handbook 
and Collections and Notes; Poems on Affairs of 
State, 1716, i, 210-11; Advocates* Libr. Cat.; 
Brit Mus. Cat.] tf. S. 


1 06 


WILSOJST, JOHN (d. 1751), botanist, 
was born at Longsleddal, near Kendal, West- 
morland, and began life as a journeyman 
shoemaker, or, according to another account, 
as a stocking-maker. Being asthmatic, how- 
ever, he required an outdoor life, and acted 
as assistant to Isaac Thompson, a well-known 
land surveyor of Newcastle-on-Tyne, while 
his wife carried on a baker's shop. Probably 
in connection with this last trade he obtained 
the nickname of * Black Jack.' He possibly 
learnt his botany in part from John Robinson 
or FitzRoberts of the Gill, near Kendal, a 
correspondent of Bay and Petiver ; but wifch 
1 uncommon natural parts ' he made himself 
' one of the most knowing herbalists of his 
time' (Newcastle Journal, 27 July 1751), 
and is said at one time to have earned 601. 
a year by giving lessons in botany once a 
week at his native place and at Newcastle, 
many pupils coming to him from the south 
of Scotland. It is recorded of him that, 
being anxious to possess Morison's * Historia 
Plantarum,' he determined to sell his cow, 
almost the sole support of his family, but a 
lady in the neighbourhood, hearing of the 
circumstance, gave him the boo This 
anecdote and the character of his work show 
that Wilson must have acquired a knowledge 
of Latin. In 1744 he published ' A Synopsis 
of British Plants, in Mr. Ray's Method: . . . 
Together with a Botanical Dictionary. Illus- 
trated with several Figures' (Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, 8vo). This book is based upon, 
but not a mere translation of, Dillemus's 
edition of Ray's t Synopsis Stirpium Britan- 
nicarum ' (1724), but is the first systematic 
account or British plants in English, and 
shows considerable original observation and 
thought (PuLTEKBT, Sketches of the Progress 
of Botany, ii. 264-9). The introduction of 
the artificial Linneean system led to Wilson's 
work being overlooked ; but Robert Brown, 
in his ' Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae' 
(p. 490), dedicated the convolvulaceous genus 
Wilsonia 'inmemoriam JohannisWilsonauc- 
toris operis haud spernandi.' The descriptions 
of trees, grasses, and cryptogams, which were 
to have Formed a second volume, were left in 
manuscript, which, in 1762, it was, according 
to Pulteney (ot>. cit. p. 269), proposed to pub- 
lish. Wilson aied at Kendal on 15 July 1761, 
the last three or four years of his life having 
been spent in so debilitated a state of health 
as to entirely unfit him for work. 

[Hone's Year-Book, p*827: Nicholson's Annals 
of Kendal, p, 343.] G.S.B. 

WILSON, JOHN (1720-1789), author 
of 'The Clyde/ son of William Wilson, 
farmer and blacksmith, was born in the parish 

of Lesmahagow, Lanarkshire, on 30 June 
1720. He was educated at Lanark grammar 
school till the age of fourteen, when the 
death of his father and the straitened cir- 
cumstances of his family constrained him 
to teach for a living. In 1746 he was 
appointed parish schoolmaster of Lesmaha- 
gow, whence he was invited in 1764 to 
superintend the education of certain families 
in Rutherglen, near Glasgow. In 1767 he 
was appointed master of the Greenock 
grammar school, a stipulation of his engage- 
ment being that he was to forsake 'the 
profane andunprofitable art of poem-making.' 
Referring to this in 1803 as a survival of 
the puritanical covenanting spirit, Scott 
writes, * Such an incident is now as unlikely 
to happen in Greenock as in London ' (Min- 
strelsy of the, Scottish Border, ii. 176 n.) 
Wilson, burning his manuscripts, faithfully 
observed the conditions of his appointment, 
though conscious of passing ' an obscure 
life, the contempt of shopkeepers and brutish 
skippers ' (Letter to his son, 21 Jan. 1779), 
He was a diligent and popular teacher, 
retaining office till two years before his 
death, which took place at Greenock on 
2 June 1789. 

Wilson married, on 14 June 1751, Agnes 
Brown, by whom he had nine children. 
James, the eldest son, becoming a sailor, was 
killed in 1776 in an engagement on Lake 
Ohamplain, his heroism on tho occasion 
prompting government to bestow a small 
pension on his father* A daughter Violet, 
wife of Robert Wilson, a Greenock ship- 
master, supplied matter for Leydon's memoir, 

In 1760 Wilson printed *A Dramatic 
Sketch,' which he afterwards elaborated into 
* Earl Douglas/ and issued along with * The 
Clyde' in 1764. From an imperfectly 
amended and enlarged copy Leydon pub- 
lished the final version of 'The Clyde' in 
'Scotish Descriptive Sketches/ 3 80&. The 
dramatic pdem is important mainly as an 
exercise, exhibiting in its two forms the 
author's skill and copiousness of expression 
and his growing sense of style. * The Clyde ' 
is distinctly meritorious. Its heroic couplets 
are dexterously managed, its historical allu- 
sions are relevant and suggestive, and its 
descriptive passages reveal independent out- 
look and genuine appreciation of natural 
beauty, It is, in Leyden's words, * the first 
Scottish loco-descriptive poem of any merit/ 

[Biographical sketch of Wilson prefixed to 
Scotish Descriptive Poems, ed. John Leyden, 
1803 ; Lives of Scottish Poets by the Society 
of Ancient Scots ; Grant Wilson^ Poets and 
Poetry of Scotland.] T, B. 




WILSON, SIB JOHN (1741-1793), judge, 
born at The How, Applethwaite, in West- 
morland, on 6 Aug. 1741, was the son of 
John Wilson, a man of property in the parish. 
He was educated at Staveley, near Kendal, 
and en tered Peterhouse, Cambridge, on 29 Jan. 
1759, graduating B.A. in 1761 as senior 
wrangler, and M, A. in 1764, and being elected 
to a fellowship on 7 July 1764, While still 
an undergraduate he is said to have made 
an able reply to the attack on Edward 
Waring's 'Miscellanea Analytica' by Wil- 
liam Samuel Powell [q. v.], master of St. 
John's College (NiOHOLS, Lit. Anecd. ii. 
717). He entered the Middle Temple in 
January 1763, and, after being called to the 
bar in 1766, he joined the northern circuit 
in 1767, and soon acquired a considerable 
practice. He was patronised by John Dun- 
ning (afterwards first Baron Ashburton) 
[q . v.], and in his turn he befriended John 
Scott (afterwards Lord Eldon) (Twiss, Life 
of Lord Eldon, 1846, i. 88). On 7 Nov. 
1786 he was appointed by Thurlow to fill 
the vacancy in the court of common pleas 
occasioned by the death of Sir Q-eorge Nares 
[q. v.], and on 15 Nov. he was knighted. On 
the retirement of Thurlow he was made a 
commissioner of the great seal on 15 June 
1792, and held that office until 28 Jan. 1793, 
when Lord Loughborough became lord chan- 
cellor. He was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society on 13 March 1782. He died at 
Kendal on 18 Oct. 1793, and was buried in 
the church, where a monument was erected 
to his memory, with an inscription by his 
friend, Richard Watson (1737-1816) [q.v.], 
bishop of LlandaE On 7 April 1788 he 
married a daughter of James Adair [q. v.], 
serjeant-at-law. By her he had a son and 
two daughters 

[Atkinson'* Worthies of "Westmorland, 1850, 
ii. 100-8; G-ent. Mag. 1792 i. 39, 1793 ii, 965, 
1794 ii. 1051 jTownsend's Oat, of Knights, 1833; 
Foss's Judges of JEngland, 1864 viii. 408-9.1 

E. I. 0. 

WILSON, JOHN (1800-1849), Scottish 
vocalist, son of John Wilson, coach-driver, 
was born in Edinburgh on 25 Dec. 1800. 
At the age of ten he was apprenticed to a 
printing fern, and was subsequently engaged 
with the Ballantynes, where he helped to 
set up the ' Waverley Novels.' During the 
building of Abbotsford he was often chosen 
as one of the armed messengers who had to 
ride weeMy to Tweedside with money to pay 
the workmen. He conceived an early liking 
for music, studied under John Mather and 
Benjamin GleadhiU of Edinburgh, and was 
a member of the choir of Duddingston parish 
church during the ministry of John Thomson 

(1778-1840) [q.v.], the painter. For some 
time he was precentor of Roxburgh Place 
relief church, where his fine tenor voice 
drew great crowds, and from 1825 to 1830 
he held the same post at St. Mary's Church, 
Edinburgh. After this he devoted himself 
entirely to music teaching and concert giving. 
He studied singing in Edinburgh under Fin- 
lay Dun [q. v.J, and afterwards in London 
under Gesualdo Lanza [q. v.] and Crivelli, 
taking harmony and counterpoint lessons 
from George Aspull [q.v.] In March 1830 
he appeared in Edinburgh as Harry Bertram 
in 'Ghiy Mannering/ and was subsequently 
engaged in other operas notably in Balfe's, 
in some of which he created the principal 
part at Co vent Garden and Drury Lane. 
His acting was, however, somewhat stiff, 
and he abandoned the stage to become an 
exponent of Scottish song ; in that character 
he appeared before the queen at Taymouth 
Castle in 1842. His Scottish song entertain- 
ments, both in this country and in America, 
were an immense success, and brought him 
a large fortune. He died of cholera at 
Quebec on 8 July 1849. David Kennedy 
[q. v.], the Scottish vocalist, restored his 
tomb there, and made a bequest for its perma- 
nent preservation. Wilson published an edi- 
tion of < The Songs of Scotland, as sung by 
him at his Entertainments on Scottish Music 
and Song/ London, 1842, 3 vols.; and <A 
Selection of Psalm Tunes, for the use of the 
Congregation of St. Mary's Church, Edin- 
burgh' (1825), in which.appears the popular 
tune 'Howard,' generally attributed to him, 
although it is anonymous. He composed 
several songs, notably * Love wakes and 
sleeps,' and at his entertainments introduced 
many which, though unclaimed, are under- 
stood to be his own. 

[Love's Scottish Church Music; Baptie's 
Musieal Scotland ; Dibdin's Annals of the Edin- 
burgh Stage; Grove's Diet, of Music; Hadden's 
Q-eprge Thomson, the Friend of Burns, p. 249 ; 
Baird's John Thomson of Duddingston ; Becords 
of Canongate Parish, Edinburgh; information 
from the late James Stillie, Edinburgh.] 

J. 0. H. 

WILSON, JOHN (1785-1864), author, 
the * Christopher North' of ' Blackwood's/ 
and professor of moral philosophy in the 
university of Edinburgh, was born at Pais- 
ley on 18 May 1785. His father, John Wil- 
son (d. 1796), was a manufacturer of gauze, 
who had made a fortune in business ; his 
mother, Margaret Sym (1753-1825), a lady 
of remarkable dignity of manners and im- 
perious strength of character, was descended 
in the female line from the Marquis of Mont- 
rose, He was the fourth child but eldest 




son, being one of a family of ten. His 
youngest brother, JamesWilson (1795-1856), 
is noticed separately. John received his first 
education in the grammar school of Paisley 
and in the manse of Mearns, and in 1797 
proceeded to Glasgow University, where he 
was especially influenced by Jardine, the pro- 
fessor of logic, and Young, the professor of 
Greek. He obtained several prizes in logic, 
and his career as a student was in general 
highly creditable to him, though he was still 
more distinguished as an athlete. * I con- 
sider Glasgow College as my mother/ he 
wrote, ' and I have almost a son's affection 
for her/ From Glasgow he migrated to Ox- 
ford, where he became a gentleman commoner 
at Magdalen College, and matriculated on 
26 May 1803. He had previously, in May 
1802, afforded an indication of the direction 
which his thoughts were taking by addressing 
a long letter, partly reverential, partly ex- 
postulatory, to Wordsworth, who returned 
the boy an elaborate answer, inserted in his 
own memoir, and reprinted, with Wilson's 
letter, in Professor Knight's editions of his 
works. At Oxford * he was considered the 
strongest, the most athletic and most active 
maa of those days, and created more interest 
among the gownsmen than any of his con- 
temporaries/ He also studied methodically, 
and obtained considerable distinction in the 
schools, besides winning the Newdigate prize 
in 1806 (with a poem on ' The Study of Greek 
and Eoman Architecture '). He made many 
university friends (among them Reginald 
Heber and Henry Phiilpotts), but none 
whose acquaintance appears to have been 
especially influential upon his life. During 
the vacations he wandered over Great Britain 
and Ireland, associating with characters of 
all descriptions ; but the story related by the 
Howitts of his having actually married a 
gipsy is entirely devoid of foundation. In 
fact his deepest concern during the whole of 
his Oxford residence was his tender attach- 
ment to the lady he celebrates as ' Margaret, 
' an orphan maid of high talent and mental 
graces, which came to nothing from the 
violent opposition of his mother. Heart- 
broken from sorrow and disappointment 
Wilson went up for hisB.A. examinatior 
in the Easter term of 1807, under the full 
conviction that he should be plucked, bu' 
on the contrary passed < the most illustrious 
examination within the memory of man. 
He graduated MA. in 1810. Hehadalread^ 
purchased a cottage and land at Elleray on 
Wmdermere, and thither he betook himself 
to lead the life of a country gentleman, no 
at the time contemplating the pursuit o; 
any profession, 

The first four years of Wilson's life at 
Slleray were divided between improvements 
;o his estate, outdoor recreation, and the 
composition of poetry. ' The Isle of Palms ' 
and other pieces were written by 1810, 
and published at the beginning of 1812. 
He also contributed letters to Coleridge's 
Friend ' under the signature of * Mathetes/ 
)n 11 May 1811 he had married Jane Penny, 
;he daughter of a Liverpool merchant and 
the leading belle of the lake country/ who 
xad removed to Ambleside to be near her 
married sister. The union was most fortu- 
nate ; but four years afterwards a calamity 
overtook Wilson by the loss of his property 
(estimated at 50,00(M.) through the dishonesty 
of an uncle who had acted as steward of the 
estate. Wilson, so fearfully excitable when 
the affections were in question, bore the loss 
of fortune with magnanimity, and even con- 
tributed to the support of the delinquent 
uncle. The blow was indeed in groat measure 
broken by the hospitality of his mother, who 
received him and his family into her house ; 
nor was he even obliged to relinquish Elloray, 
though he removed from it for a time. 3lo 
was called to the bar at Edinburgh in 1815, 
but made little progress in a profession 
in which neither tasto nor ability qualified 
him to excel ; of the few briefs which came 
to him he afterwards said, ' 1 did not know 
what the devil to do with them/ II o culti- 
vated literature to better purpose, following 
up 'The Isle of Palms 7 with * The City of 
the Plague' and other poems (18.1 0). In 
1815 he made a pedestrian highland tour in. 
company with his wife, in those days an 
almost unparalleled undertaking for a lady. 
Encouraged by Jeffrey, who had reviewed 
' The City of the Plague > very kindly, Wil- 
son contributed an article on the fourth canto 
of 'Ghilde Harold' to the ' Edinburgh/ but' 
was almost immediately afterwards cauglit 
in the vortex which swept the literary talent 
of Scottish toryism into the new tory organ, 
* Blackwood's Magazine/ established in April 
1817. Up to this time periodical literature 
in Scotland had been a whig monopoly : all 
the loaves and fishes had been on one sido, 
and all the pen and ink on the other, This 
was now to be altered, and although Wilson 
was not in reality a fierce, much loss a bitter 
or intolerant, partisan, the vehemence of his 
temperament and the unwonted strength of 
his language sometimes made him appear 
the very incarnation of political ferocity* 

The early management of 'BlackwoocV 
was designedly involved in mystery, but 
Mrs. Oliphant's 'Annals of the Publishing 
House of Blaclcwood 7 has recently made it 

clear that the sole editor was William Black- 




wood [q.v.] himself, and that, contrary to the 
general belief at the time, neither Wilson nor 
Lockhart was ever entrusted with editorial 
functions. The first six numbers had ap- 
peared as ' The Edinburgh Monthly Magazine/ 
under the nominal conduct of James Cleghorn 
[q. v.] and Thomas Pringle [q. v.] The en- 
deavours of these gentlemen to make them- 
selves something more than editors by cour- 
tesy speedily estranged them from Black- 
wood; they seceded to the rival publisher 
Constable, and Blackwood organised a new 
staff, of which Wilson and John Gibson 
Lockhart [q. v.l were the most conspicuous 
members. Seldom has so great a sensation 
been produced by a periodical as that which 
attended their first number (October 1817), 
overflowing with boisterous humour and at 
the same time with party and personal ma- 
lignity to a degree to which Edinburgh so- 
ciety was utterly unused. Besides attacks 
on Coleridge and Leigh Hunt, able and tell- 
ing, but disgraceful to the writers, the num- 
ber contained the renowned ' Chaldee Manu- 
script ' (afterwards suppressed^, which was in 
fact a satire, in the form of biblical parody, 
upon the rival publisher and his myrmidons. 
The authorship was claimed by James Hogg 
[q. v.], the ' Ettrick Shepherd ; ' but Pro- 
fessor Terrier authentically states that, al- 
though Hogg conceived the original idea, not 
more than forty out of the 180 verses are 
actually from his pen. It may be added that 
the British Museum possesses a proof-sheet 
with numerous additions suggested in manu- 
script by Hogg, not one of which was 

'Blackwood/ now fairly launched, pur- 
sued a headlong and obstreperous but irre- 
sistible course for many years. Wilson's 
overpowering animal spirits and Lockhart's 
deadly sarcasm were its main supports, but 
'The Leopard' and 'The Scorpion' were 
powerfully assisted by the 'Ettrick Shep- 
herd/ by William Maginn [q.v.], and Robert 
Pearse Gillies [q.v.] No one but Blackwood 
himself, however, can bear a general respon- 
sibility ; his correspondence with Wilson in 
the latter's life shows how invaluable he was 
to his erratic contributor, and also what fric- 
tion, often existed between them. The at- 
tacks on Keats and Leigh Hunt, applauded 
at the time, were in after days justly re- 
garded as dark blots on the magazine. Wil- 
son assuredly was not responsible, and may 
even be deemed to have atoned for them by 
the enthusiastic yet discriminating enco- 
miums of Shelley in the articles he wrote at 
this time, under the inspiration, as now 
known, of De Quincey, an old associate in 
the lake district. These were days of fierce 

exasperation on all sides, and much allow- 
ance should be made for the attitude of 
'Blackwood/ which was nevertheless dis- 
approved even in friendly quarters. Jeffrey 
was driven to renounce all literary connec- 
tion with Wilson ; and Murray, though the 
publisher of the tory ' Quarterly/ gave up 
his interest in the magazine. An. unpro- 
voked attack by Lockhart on the venerable 
Professor John Playfair [q.v.] was especially 
resented, Wilson's temperament continually 
carried him beyond bounds. His correspond- 
ence with Blackwood reveals him as at least 
once in a condition of abject terror at having 
committed himself, not from any fear of per- 
sonal consequences, but from the perception 
that he had spoken in a manner impossible 
to justify of men whom he really revered. 

During 1819 Wilson left his mother's roof 
and removed with his wife and family to a 
small house of his own in Ann Street, where 
Watson Gordon was his immediate neigh- 
bour, and where he also enjoyed the society 
of Raebura and Allan. Next year the chair 
of moral philosophy in Edinburgh University 
fell vacant, and Wilson, who had no obvious 
qualification and many obvious disqualifica- 
tions, was elected by the town council over 
the greatest philosopher in Britain, Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton, by twenty-one votes to nine, 
given him on the one sufficient ground that 
he was a tory [see art, STBWABT, DFOALD]. 
Having so freely assailed others, his own re- 
putation was not likely to pass unassailed 
through the excitement of the contest. His 
wife ' could not give any idea of the mean- 
ness and wickedness of the whigs if she were 
to write a ream of paper; ' and Wilson found 
it necessary to get not only his literature but 
his morals attested by Mrs. Grant of Laggan 
as well as Sir Walter Scott. Opinion on the 
other side is summed -up by James Mill, 
when he says, writing to Macvey Napier, 

* The one to whom you allude makes me sick 
to think of him.' The appointment was 
certainly an improper one, but turned out 
much better than could have been expected. 

* He made/ says Professor Saintsbury, * a 
verjr excellent professor, never perhaps 
attaining to any great scientific knowledge 
in his subject or power of expounding it, 
but acting on generation after generation of 
students with a stimulating force that is far 
more valuable than the most exhaustive 
knowledge of a particular topic.' It is only 
to be regretted that his professorship was 
not one of English literature. There he 
would have been entirely at tome ; his 
geniality, magnanimity, and ardent appre- 
ciation of everything which he admired 
would have found an eager response from 




his young auditors; while the diffuseness 
and extravagance of diction which so greatly 
mar his critical writings would have passed 
unnoticed in an oral address. 

For some years Wilson's more elaborate 
efforts in ' Blackwood ' belonged to the depart- 
ment of prose fiction. Most of the * Lights 
and Shadows of Scottish Life* appeared in 
the magazine prior to their collective publi- 
cation in 1822, < The Trials of Margaret 
Lyndsay'was published in 1823, and "The 
Foresters' in Io25. These were all works 
of merit, "but are little read now, and would 
scarcely be read at all but for the celebrity 
of their author in other fields. It was not 
until 1822 that Wilson found where his real 
strength lay, and began to delight the public 
with nis ' Noctes Ambrosianae.' The idea of 
a symposium of congenial spirits is as old as 
Plato, and Wilson's application of it had 
been in some measure anticipated by Pea- 
cock. But Plato's banqueters keep to one 
subject, while Wilson's range over intermi- 
nable fields of discussion, usually suggested 
by the topics of the day. As Plato created 
a Socrates for his own purposes, so Wilson 
embodied his wit and wisdom, and, more 
important than either, his poetry, in the 
'Ettrick Shepherd,' a character tor which 
James Hogg undoubtedly sat in the first 
instance, but which improved immensely 
upon the original in humour, pathos, and 
dramatic force; while the dialect is by 
common consent one of the finest examples 
extant of the classical Doric of Scotland. 
Wilson himself, as t Christopher North/ acts 
in a measure as prompter to the Shepherd; 
yet many splendid pieces of eloquence are 
put into his mouth, and he frequently enacts 
the chorus, conveying the broad common- 
sense of a subject* The literary form, or 
rather absence of form, exactly suited Wilson. 
Here at last was a great conversationalist 
writing as he talked, and probably few books 
so well convey the impression of actual 
contact with a grand, primitive, and most 
opulent nature. The dlamatic skill shown 
in the creation of the ' Shepherd/ though it 
has been much exaggerated, is by no means 
inconsiderable : the other characters, Tickler 
(Mr. Robert Sym, Wilson's maternal uncle), 
'the opium eater/ JDe Quincey, and Ensign 
O'Doherfcy, are comparatively insignificant. 
The original idea or the 'Noctes' seems to 
have "been Maginn's, and between 1822 and 
1825 they were the work of so many hands 
that Professor Ferrier has declined to include 
these early numbers in Wilson's 'Works.' 
After this date until their termination in 1885 
they are almost entirely from his pen. Their 
conclusion was probably thought to "be ne- 

cessitated by the death of Hogg, who could 
no longer appear before the world as a con- 
vivial philosopher. But a blow was impend- 
ing upon Wilson himself which must have 
destroyed his power of continuing a work the 
first requisite of which was exuberant animal 
spirits. In 1837 he lost his wife, and was 
never the same man again. For nearly 
twenty years he had been enriching ' Black- 
wood/ wholly apart from the * Noctes/ with 
a torrent of contributions critical, descrip- 
tive, political so representative of the gene- 
ral spirit of the periodical as fully to warrant 
the erroneous inference that he was its con- 
ductor. The death of William Blackwood 
in September 1834 was a severe blow to him, 
but he * stood by the boys/ and his relations 
with them continued to be much the same 
as they had been with the father, troubled 
by occasional suspicions and misunderstand- 
ings, but on the whole as consistently ami- 
cable as was possible in the case of one ao 
wayward and desultory, 'He was/ Mrs. 
Oliphant justly says, ' a man for an emer- 
gency, capable of doing a piece of super- 
human work when his heart was touched/ 
but not to be relied upon for steady support. 
In some years the abundance of his contri- 
butions was amazing, and in 1838 he wrote 
no fewer than fifty-four articles for the 
' Magazine.' Among the most remarkable of 
his contributions before the death of Black- 
wood were a series of papers oa Homer and 
his translators, abounding in eloquent and 
just criticism; similar series of essays on 
Spenser and British critics, and the memo- 
rable review of Tennyson's early ^ oems, 
bitterly resented by tho poet, but which, in 
fact, allowing for *MagaV characteristic 
horseplay, was both sound and kind, Of 
a later date were some excellent papers en- 
titled the 'Dies Boreales/ his last literary 
labour of importance, and an edition of 

Wilson's spirits had greatly waned after 
the death of his wife, and his contributions 
to * Blackwood' became irregular, but he was 
unremitting in his attention to the duties of 
his professorship, and continued to nil the 
conspicuous place he held in Edinburgh so- 
ciety until 1850, when his constitution gave 
manifest signs of breaking up. In 1851 he 
resigned his professorship, and a pension of 
800& was conferred upon him in the hand- 
somest spirit by Lord John Eussell, the 
object of so many bitter attacks from him, 
Wilson exhibited the same spirit by record- 
ing his vote at the Edinburgh election of 
1852 for his old political opponent Macaulay* 
This was his last public appearance* On 
1 April 1854 at his house in Gloucester 



Place, Edinburgh, his home since 1826, he 
had a paralytic stroke, which terminated his 
life two days afterwards. He was buried in 
the Dean cemetery with an imposing public 
funeral on 7 April, and a statue of him by 
John Steell was erected in Princes Street 
in 1865. Wilson left two sons, John and 
Blair, one a clergyman of the church of 
England, the other for a time secretary to 
the university of Edinburgh. He had three 
daughters : Margaret Anne, married to Pro- 
fessor James Frederick Ferrier [q. v.]; Mary, 
his biographer, married to Mr. J. T. Gordon, 
sheriff of Midlothian; and Jane Emily, 
married to William Edmonstoune Aytoun 

Wilson was a man of one piece. His 
personal and literary characters were the 
same. The chief characteristic of both is a 
marvellously rich endowment of fine qua- 
lities, marred by want of restraining judg- 
ment and symmetrical proportion. As a 
man he was the soul of generosity and mag- 
nanimity, but exaggerated in everything, and 
by recklessness and wilfulness was fre- 
quently unjust where he intended to be the 
reverse. As an author he must have at- 
tained high distinction if his keen perception 
of and intense delight in natural and moral 
beauty had been accompanied by any re- 
cognition of the value of literary form. In 
the * Npctes ' this is in some measure enforced 
upon frim by the absolute necessity of main- 
taining consistency and propriety among his 
dramatis persona. Elsewhere the perpetual 
frenzy of rapture, although perfectly genuine 
with him, becomes wearisome. His style is 
undoubtedly colloquial and sometimes mere- 
tricious. Nassau Senior thought so badly 
of both 'his dulda as well as his tristia 
vitia* that 'he would almost as soon try to 
read Carlyle or Coleridge/ Such a verdict 
has no terrors now. Yet it is true that there 
are few writers of Wilson's calibre who dis- 
course at such length, and from whom so 
little can be carried away. His descriptions 
both in prose and verse read like improvisa- 
tions, leaving behind a general sense of 
beauty and splendour, but few definite im- 
pressions. He will live nevertheless by his 
ofben imitated but never rivalled ' Noctes/ 
and should ever be held in honour for the 
manliness and generosity of his character as 
an author. The same qualities characterised 
the mass of his criticism, although at times 
some insuperable prejudice or freak of per- 
versity intervened, as when in his old age he 
recanted his former sentiments respecting 
Wordsworth in an essay which fortunately 
never saw the light. Such were aberra- 
tions of judgment ; he was entirely free from 

malice or vindictiveness, and never cherished 
resentment. His review of his former ad- 
versary Macaulay's < Lays of Ancient Kome * 
affected Macaulay 'as generous conduct 
affects men not ungenerous.' Long before 
his death he was entirely reconciled to 
Jeffrey, and he wrote in 1834 of his bygone 
enmity with Leigh Hunt, 'The animosities 
die, but the humanities live for ever.' His 
own function, whether as a painter of natural 
or an expositor of literary beauty, may be 
truly and tersely summed up in another 
dictum, that it was to teach men to admire. 

Portraits of Wilson, painted by Raeburn 
and Watson Gordon, are in the National 
Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh, and in the 
National Portrait Gallery, London, respec- 
tively ; an engraving of the latter is prefixed 
to 'Professor Wilson: a Memorial and a 
Sketch' [by George Cupples], Edinburgh, 
1854. A fine engraving of a portrait taken 
at the age of sixty is prefixed to Mrs. Gordon's 
biography of her father. Thomas Duncan 
painted Christopher in his Sporting Jacket ' 
(engraved by Armytage for the collected 
works), and a sketch from a statue by 
Macdonald, with a caricatured background, 
appeared in the Maclise Gallery in * Eraser's 

Wilson's works were collected in twelve 
volumes by his son-in-law, Professor Ferrier, 
1855-8. Four volumes are occupied by the 
' Noctes Ambrpsianae ; ' four by ' Essays, Cri- 
tical and Imaginative ;' two by 'The ftecrea- 
tions of Christopher North/ one by the 
poems, and one by the tales. The col- 
lection is not complete, the earlier numbers 
of the 'Noctes' being omitted, as well as 
the papers on Spenser, ' Dies Boreales,' and 
other matter which but for space might well 
have been reprinted. A complete and elabo- 
rate edition of the ' Noctes ' was published 
at New York by Dr. R. Shelton Mackenzie 
(in five volumes with an excellent index) 
and revised in 1866. 

[Christopher North : a Memoir of John Wilson 
by his Daughter, Mr$. Gordon, 1862 ; Mrs. OU- 
phant's Annals of the Publishing House of 
Blackwood, William Blackwood and his Sons, 
1-897; Cupples's Professor Wilson, a Memorial 
and [Estimate by one of his Students, 1854; 
Blackwood's Mag. May and December 1854; 
Athenaeum, April 1854 and 8 July 1876 (a bril- 
liant but severe estimate of the ' Noctes,' which 
are pronounced to be * dying of dropsy'); 
Quarterly Reyie-w, vol. cxiii, ; Professor Fenier's 
prefaces in Wilson's Works ; Bang's Life of John 
G-ibson Lod&art, 1807; Pe Quincey's Portrait 
Gallery and Autobiographic Sketches ; G-illies's 
Memoirs of a Literary Veteran, 18*51 ; Douglas's 
The 'Blactwood* Group, 1897 ; Selections from 
the Correspondence of Macvey Napier; Lock* 




hart's Peter's Letters to his Kinsfolk, vol. in, ; 
OKlfillan's Gallery of Literary Portraits ; Find- 
lay's Personal Recollections of De Q-uincey, 1886 ; 
Haclise Portrait G-allery, ed. Bates ; ParmenicJes 
[De Quincey] in the Edinburgh Literary Gazette 
of 1829.] R, $. 

WILSON, JOHN (1774-1855), sea- 
painter, son of James "Wilson, shipmaster, 
and Eleonora Masterton, his wife, was bom 
at Ayr on 20 Aug. 1774= (Ayr Paiish Regis- 
ter). When thirteen years of age he was 
apprenticed to John Norie of Edinburgh, 
who, although by business a house-painter, 
not infrequently executed landscape panels 
of some merit in the rooms he decorated. On 
the completion of his apprenticeship, which 
was nob without influence upon his future, 
he had some lessons in picture-pain ting from 
Alexander Nasmyth [q_. v.], and then prac- 
tised as a drawing-master in Montrose for 
two years, at the end of which he went to 
London. There he soon found employment 
as a scene-painter at Astley's Theatre in 
Lambeth Road, and his scenery is said to 
have been good. His name appears for the 
first time in the Royal Academy catalogue 
of 1807, but, although he exhibited a good 
many pictures there, his principal works 
were sent to the British Institution and the 
Society of British Artists. In 1826 he was 
awarded a 100/. premium for a picture of the 
battle of Trafalgar (purchased ^by Lord 
Northwick), painted in competition for a 
prize offered by the directors of the former 
society, and in the formation of the latter in 
1823-4 he took a leading part. He was also 
elected an honorary member of the [Royal] 
Scottish Academy in 1827, and contributed 
regularly to its exhibitions. His later years 
were spent at Folkestone, where he found 
congenial subjects for his pictures, which 
usually represent coast scenery and the sea 
with shipping. His work is fresh and vigo- 
rous, ana ; if somewhat lacking in delicacy, 
pictorial in motive and arrangement, while 
it is marked by much truth of observation 
and directness of expression. He was a 
prolific painter, and between 1807 and 1856 
showed 525 pictures at the three London 
exhibitions already named. There are two 
pictures by him in the National Gallery of 
Scotland and one at South Kensington Mu- 
seum. On 20 April 1865 he died at Folke- 
stone. Wilson, who was familiarly known 
as < Old Jock,' was of a sociable disposition, a 
keen observer, a brilliant conversationist, and 
his stories of Robert Burna [c[. v,] and other 
famous men he had met were in great request 
among those who knew him, 

In 1810 he married a Miss Williams, and 
tlieir son, John W Wilson, who died in 1875, 

followed his father's profession, choosing 
landscape and farmyard subjects with figures. 
[Gibson's Vie^w of the Arts of Design, 1816; 
Kedgraves' Century of Painters, 1865; Bed- 
grave's, Bryan's, and Q-raves's Dictionaries ; 
Armstrong's Scottish Painters, 1888; Brydall's 
Art in Scotland, 1889 ; Catalogue of National 
G-allery of Scotland.] J, L. C. 

WILSON, SIB JOHN (1780-1856), gene- 
ral, born in 1780, was commissioned as ensign 
in the 28th foot on 26 March 1794, and be- 
came lieutenant on 12 Aug. 1795. He went 
with part of the regiment to the West Indies 
in 1796, and was present at the capture of 
St. Lucia in May and of St. Vincent in June. 
He was made prisoner and taken to Guada- 
loupe in July, and, after lie had been ex- 
changed, he was again made prisoner in the 
British Channel in 1797. lie rejoined his 
regiment at Gibraltar, and took part'in the cap- 
ture of Minorcain November 1798, On 18 Jan. 
1799 he was given a company in the newly 
formed Minorca (afterwards the 97th, or 
o^ueen's German) regiment. He served with it 
in the expedition to Egypt in 1801, and was 
resent at the battle of Alexandria on 
11 March, where the regiment greatly dis- 
tinguished itself. He was promoted major 
on 27 May 1802. 

In 1808 the 97th was sent to Portugal. 
It landed on 19 Aug., and two days after- 
wards fought at Vimievo as part of An- 
struther's brigade. Wilson was severely 
wounded. On 22 Dec, he obtained a lieu- 
tenant-colonelcy in the royal York rangers. 
In January 1809 he went back to the Penin- 
sula and joined the Lusitanian legion raised 
by Sir Robert Thomas Wilson [q.vT] He was 
employed with it in the neighbourhood of 
Ciudad Rodrigo, harassing the French posts, 
one of which he surprised at Barbara do 
Puerco, at the end of March. In 1810 he 
was made chief of the staif of Silveira, who 
commanded the Portuguese troops in the 
northern provinces. In August he saved 
the rear-guard of the corps, * in circumstances 
of such trying difficulty that he received the 
public thanks ' of Beresford (NAPIBB, bk, xi. 
chap. v). In October orders came out for him 
to rejoin his regiment (York rangers), but 
Wellington represented that 'the loss of his 
services will be seriously felt ' (Despatches, 
vi. 543), and he remained with the Portu- 
guese army. At this time he was harassing 
the rear of MasseWs army at Ooimbra, in 
concert with Colonel (afterwards * Sir ' Ni- 
cholas) Trant [q, v,] 

In 1811 he was made governor of the pro- 
vince of Minho. At the head of the Mmho 
militia he had a successful affair at Oelorico 
on 22 March, and was actively engaged on 



the frontier throughput that year and 1812. 
In June 1813 he joined Wellington's army, 
and commanded an independent Portuguese 
brigade at the siege of San Sebastian, the 
passage of the Bidassoa, and the battle of 
NiveUe. He was severely wounded on 
18 Nov. during the establishment of the 
outposts before Bayonne. He was made 
knight-commander of the Portuguese order 
of the Tower and Sword, a distinction 
which, it seems, he would have received two 
years before but for a confusion between 
him and Sir Robert Wilson (id. viii. 367, 
435). He was made brevet colonel on 4 June 
1814 and was knighted, and in 1815 he was 
made C.B. He received the gold medal for 
San Sebastian, and afterwards the silver 
medal with clasps for Vimiero and Nivelle. 

He was placed on half-pay on 25 Dec. 1816, 
and promoted major-general on 27 March 
1825. He commanded the troops in Ceylon 
from December 1830 till his promotion to 
lieutenant-general on 28 June 1838. He 
was made K.C.B. on 6 Feb. 1837, and colo- 
nel of the 82nd foot on 5 Dec. 1836, from 
which he was transferred to the llth foot 
on 10 May 1841. He became general on 
20 June 1854, and died at 67 Westbourne 
Terrace, London, on 22 June 1856, aged 76. 

[Annual Eegister, 1856, p. 260 ; Times, 25 June 
1856; Gent. Mag. 1856, ii. 257; Naval and 
Military Gazette, 28 June 1856 ; Narrative of 
the Campaigns of the Loyal Lusitanian Legion.] 

WILSON, JOHN (1804r-1875), ' mis- 
sionary and orientalist, born at Lauder in 
Berwickshire on 11 Dec. 1804, was the eldest 
son of Andrew Wilson, for more than forty 
years a councillor of the burgh of Lauder, 
by his wife Janet, eldest daughter of James 
fiunter, a farmer of Lauderdale. When 
about four years old he was sent to a school 
in Lauder taught by George Murray, and 
about a year later he was transferred to the 
parish school under Alexander Paterson. 
In his fourteenth year he proceeded to Edin- 
burgh University with a view to studying 
for the ministry. In his vacations he was 
employed at first as schoolmaster at Horn- 
dean on the Tweed, and afterwards as tutor 
to the sons of John Cormack, minister of Stow 
hi Midlothian. While at the university he 
became more and more inspired by Christian 
zeal, and on 22 Dec. 1825 he founded the 
' Edinburgh. Association of Theological Stu- 
dents in aid of the Diffusion of the GospeU 
His attention was drawn to the mission 
field, and in the same year he offered him- 
self to the Scottish Missionary Society as a 
missionary candidate. In 1828 he published 
anonymously l The Life of John Eliot, the 


Apostle of the Indians ' (Edinburgh, 16mo). 
His attention had been directed to India * 
while acting as tutor to Cormack's nephews, 
the sons of (Sir) John Rose, an Indian sol- 
dier, and by the influence of Brigadier-gene- 
ral Alexander Walker [q.v.l, former resident 
at Baroda ; and to prepare himself for work 
in that country he studied anatomy, surgery, 
and the practice of physic at Edinburgh in 
1827-8. In 1828 he was licensed to preach 
by the presbytery of Lauder, and on 21 June 
was ordained missionary. In the same year 
he was married, and sailed from Portsmouth 
in the Sesostris, East Indiaman. 

On his arrival at Bombay in 1829 Wilson 
devoted himself to the study of Marathi, and 
made such rapid progress that he was able 
to preach in the tongue in six months, de- 
livering his first sermon on 1 Nov. After 
visiting the older stations of the Scottish 
Missionary Society at Harnai and Bankot, 
Wilson and his wife returned to Bombay on 

26 Nov. 1829. Wilson immediately com- 
menced to labour energetically among the 
native population, and by 4 Feb. 1831 he 
had formed a native church on presbyterian 
principles. In 1830 he founded the ' Oriental 
Christian Spectator,' the oldest Christian 
periodical in India, which continued to ap- 
pear for thirty years. 

About 1830 an important undertaking 
was begun by Mrs. Wilson with her hus- 
band's advice the establishment of schools 
for native girls, the first of their kind in 
India. The first school was opened on 

27 Dec. 1829, and half a year later six others 
had been set on foot. These, and some ele- 
mentary schools for boys established by 
Wilson, were supplemented on 29 March 
1832 by the foundation of a more advanced 
college for natives of both sexes* Wilson's 
institution invites comparison with that 
founded almost contemporaneously in Cal- 
cutta by Alexander Duff [q, v.] Wilson 
devoted more attention to female education, 
and gave more prominence to the study of 
native languages. While Duff's instrument 
was the English tongue, Wilson employed 
the vernaculars of a varied population 
Marathi, Gujarathi, Hindustani, Hebrew, 
and Portuguese ; with Persian, Arabic, and 
Sanskrit for the learned classes. Both sys- 
tems, however, were equally adapted to their 
environment : neither could have flourished 
amid the surroundings of the other. Wil- 
son's college was at first known as the * Am- 
brolie English School/ On 1 Dec, 1835,after 
some differences with the Scottish Missionary- 
Society, Wilson and his colleagues in India 
were transferred to the church of Scotland, 
and the school was denominated the Scottish 



Mission School. In 1838 the arrival of John 
Murray Mitchell, a student of Marischal Col- 
lege, Aberdeen, and the return of the mis- 
sionary Robert Nesbit (d. 1855), rendered it 
possible to organise the school on a more 
extended "basis, and it became known as the 
General Assembly's Institution. A new 
building was completed in 1843, but Wilson 
was immediately afterwards obliged to re- 
linquish it on quitting the church of Scot- 
land at the time of the disruption. He car- 
ried on his school in another building which 
was finished in 1855, The present l Wilson 
College ' was completed about 1887. 

Wilson did not, however, confine his efforts 
to the native youth. He entered into public 
discussions with the Hindu Brahmans, and 
with the Muhammadans and Parsis. His 
courtesy and knowledge of oriental litera- 
ture made no less impression than his logic, 
and by familiarising the native mind with 
Christian modes of thought he prepared the 
way for further progress. In 1837,Jh.owever, 
a dispute arose which threatened serious 
consequences. Some of the Parsi pupils at 
the institution having shown an intention of 
becoming Christians, one of them was carried 
off by his friends, while two others evaded 
capture by taking refuge in Wilson's house. 
After various violent attempts a writ of 
habeas corpus was taken out for one of 
them, and on 6 May 1839 he appeared in 
court and declared his intention to remain 
with Wilson. The consequence of these 
proceedings was the removal of all but fifty 
out of 284 pupils at the institution, and it 
was some years before the former numbers 
were regained. 

In the meantime Wilson sought to spread 
the influence of the mission beyond Bombay 
by tours through various parts of the coun- 
try. In 1831 , with Charles Pinhorn Farrar, 
the father of Dean Farrar, he proceeded to 
Nasik on the Godavari, through Poona and 
Ahmadnagar. In the following year he 
went eastward to Jalna and the caves of 
Ellora in Haidartibad, and in the cold season 
of 1833-4 he visited the south Maratha, 
country and the Portuguese settlement at 
Goa. In 1836 he journeyed through Surat, 
Baroda, and Kathiawar; and between 1836 
and 1842 he visited the Gairsoppa Falls and 
Rajputana, besides returning to Kathiawar 
and Somnath. These frequent expeditions 
were used by Wilson as opportunities for 
spreading religious teaching, while at the 
same time he collected oriental manuscripts, 
and by constant intercourse with the natives 
increased his stock of oriental knowledge, in 
which he was acquiring a European reputa- 
tion. He was elected a member of the Bom- 

bay Literary 'Society in 1830, and became 
president in 1835. On 18 June 1836 he 
was elected a member of the Royal Asiatic 
Society. He was the first to partially de- 
cipher the rock inscriptions of Asoka at Gir- 
nar, which had so long remained an enigma 
to western savants, and on 7 March 1838 
James Prinsep [q.v.] made a full acknowledg- 
ment of his services to the Royal Asiatic 
Society. From 1836 onward he was fre- 
quently consulted by the supreme court and 
by the executive government on questions 
of Parsi law and custom. In 1843 he pub- 
lished 'The Parsi Religion unfolded, refuted, 
and contrasted with Christianity ' (Bombay, 
8vo), a work which obtained the favourable 
notice of the Asiatic Society of Paris, and 
which on 7 Feb. 1845 procured his election 
as a fellow of the Royal Society. 

In 1843 Wilson was compelled by ill- 
health to take a furlough, and visited I%ypt, 
Syria, and Palestine, on his way to Scotland. 
The fruit of his observations was the * Lands 
of the Bible visited and described' (Edin- 
burgh, 1847, 2 vols. 8vo), He arrived in 
Edinburgh immediately after the disruption 
of the church of Scotland, and without nesi- 
tation he joined the free church. After 
addressing the general assembly at Glasgow 
in October he accompanied Robert Smith 
Candlish [q. v.] to England, and advocated 
the cause of Indian missions at Oxford and 
London. The establishment of the Nagpur 
mission under Stephen Hislop was largely 
the result of his insistence of the need of a 
mission in Central India. 

Wilson returned to India in the autumn 
of 1847, and in 1849 he commenced a tour 
in Sind, in which he was joined by Alex- 
ander DufF m the following year. The con- 
quest of Sind had just been achieved, and 
Wilson was the first Christian missionary 
to traverse the country. 

From 1848 to 1862 was intellectually the 
most fruitful period of Wilson's career. 
About 1848 he was nominated president of 
the 'Cave Temple Commission* appointed 
by government, chiefly through his instances 
and those of James Fergusson (1808-1886) 
[q. v.], to examine and record the antiquities 
connected with the cave temples of India. 
To this commission he gave his labour gra- 
tuitously for thirteen years, receiving the 
hearty co-operation of the leading orienta- 
lists in India. He published in the t Journal 
of the Bombay Asiatic Society* (vol* iii.) 
'A Memoir on the Cave Temples and 
Monasteries, and other Buddhist, Brahma- 
nical, and Jaina Remains of Western India/ 
which was reprinted in 1860, and circulated 
.by government to all the district and politi- 



cal officers in and around the province of 
Bombay. With their assistance he published 
a second memoir in 1852, embodying the 
results of the commission's work on the 
larger caves, like Elephanta. In 1849 he 
declined the appointment of permanent presi- 
dent of the civil and military examination 
committee of Bombay, and in 1854 refused 
the post of government translator, fearing 
that acceptance might injure his missionary 
usefulness. In 1855 he published his ' His- 
tory of the Suppression of Infanticide in 
Western India' (Bombay, 8vo), and in 1858 
'India Three Thousand Years Ago' (Bom- 
bay, 8vo), a description of the social state of 
the Aryans on the banks of the Indus. At 
the time of the Indian mutiny his know- 
ledge of dialects was of great service to the 
government, for whom he deciphered the 
insurgents' secret despatches written to 
evade detection in various archaic characters 
and obscure local idioms. In 1857, when 
the university of Bombay was constituted, 
he was appointed dean of the faculty of arts, 
a member of the syndicate, and examiner in 
Sanskrit, Persian, Hebrew, Marathi, Guja- 
rathi, and Hindustani, and he soon after was 
made vice-chancellor by Lord Lawrence. 

In 1860 Wilson made a second tour in 
Rajputana, and in 1864 he was consulted 
by 'government in regard to the Abyssinian 
expedition. In 1870 he made a second visit 
to Scotland, and was chosen moderator of 
the general assembly. He returned to 
Bombay on 9 Dec. 1872, and laboured un- 
weariedly until his death at his residence, 
' The Cliff/ near Bombay, on 1 Dec. 1875. 
He was buried in the old Scottish burial- 

His portrait, engraved by Joseph 
Brown, is prefixed to his 'Life' by Dr. 
George Smith, C.I.E. Wilson was twice 
married: first at Edinburgh, on 12 Aug. 
1828, to Margaret, daughter of Kenneth 
Bayne, minister of Greenock. She died on 
19 April 1835, leaving a son Andrew (1831- 
1881), who is separately noticed. Wilson 
married, secondly, in September 1846, Isa- 
bella, second daughter of James Dennistoun 
of Dennistoun. She died in 1867, leaving 
no issue. 

Wilson's abilities as an orientalist were 
great, and would have earned him, yet higher 
fame had he not always subordinated his 
studies to his mission work. It is not easy 
to overestimate the importance of his labours 
for Christianity in western India, During 
later life Indian officials, native potentates, 
and European travellers alike regarded him 
with esteem and affection. Lord Lawrence, 
the governor-general, and Lord Elphinstone, 
governor of Bombay, wer.e among his personal 

friends. Through his educational establish- 
ments and his wide circle of acquaintances 
his influence radiated from Bombay over the 
greater part of India, and natives of Africa 
also came to study under his care. Besides 
the works already mentioned he was the 
author of: 1. ' Ai. Exposure of the Hindu 
Religion, in Reply to Mora Bhatta Dande- 
kara,' Bombay, 1832, 8vo. 2. ' A Second 
Exposure* of the Hindu Religion,' Bombay, 
1834, 8vo. 3. Memoirs of Mrs. Wilson/ 
Edinburgh, 1838, 8vo ;5thedit. 1858. 4. 'The 
Evangelisation of India,' Edinburgh, 1849, 
16mo. 5. ' Indian Caste,' edited by Peter 
Peterson, Bombay, 1877, 2 vols. 8vo ; new 
edit. Edinburgh, 1878. 

[Wilson's Works; Smith's Life of "Wilson, 
1878 ; Hunter's Hist, of Free Church Missions 
in India and Africa, 1873 ; Smith's Life of Alex- 
ander Duff, 1881 ; Marrat's Two Standard 
Bearers in the East, 1882.] R I. C. 

WILSOJST, JOHN (1812-1888), agricul- 
turist, was born in London in November 
1812. He was educated at University Col- 
lege, London, and afterwards completed his 
training in Paris, where he studied medicine 
and chemistry under Payen, Boussingault, 
and Gay Lussac. In 1845-6 he was in 
charge of the admiralty coals investigation 
under Sir Henry de la Beche. From 1846 
to 1850 he was principal of the Royal 
Agricultural College, Cirences'ter, His term 
of office was distinguished chiefly by an 
attempt to convert the college farm from 
pasture to arable land, which involved much 
expense and met with considerable opposi- 
tion. In 1850 a suggestion on the part of the 
council for a thorough change of the orga- 
nisation of the college into that of a school 
for farmers' sons led to Wilson's resignation. 
He was succeeded by the Rev. J. S. Hay- 
garth, and the college continued its work 
much on the former lines. 

In 1854 Wilson was, on the death of 
Professor Low, elected to the chair of agri- 
culture and rural economy in the university 
of Edinburgh. This professorship had been 
founded in 1790 by Sir William Pulteney, 
but the salary attached to it at this time 
was little more than nominal. In 1868 he 
succeeded Professor Kelland as secretary to 
the senate of the Edinburgh University, 
and in the course of the same year, chiefly 
owing to the exertions of the -Highland and 
Agricultural Society, the endowment of the 
chair of agriculture was increased (Journ. 
Roy. Agr. Soo. EngL 1885, xxi. 525). Wil- 
son's methods as a teacher were severely 
criticised, partly no doubt because some of 
the English, systems of farming which, he 
advocated ran counter to Scottish prejudices; 

I 2 




The fact, however, that most of the important 
chairs of agriculture in Scotland and many 
elsewhere were filled by his pupils is suffi- 
cient testimony to his merit as a teacher. 

In 1885 Wilson resigned his chair at 
Edinburgh, and was appointed emeritus 
professor. In the spring of 1886 the hono- 
rary degree of LL.D. was conferred upon 
him. He died at Sandfield, Tunbridge 
Wells, on 27 March 1888. 

An important characteristic of Wilson's 
career was his intercourse and relations with 
foreign agricultural authorities and societies. 
In 1851 he filled the position of deputy juror 
at the International Exhibition ; in 1853 he 
was sent as royal commissioner to the United 
States, and in the same year was appointed 
knight of the French Legion of Honour. In 
1855 he acted as commissioner to the British 
agricultural department in the exhibition at 
Paris. At different periods he also rendered 
important services to the agricultural de- 
partments of Canada, Austria, Denmark, 
and Germany. He was a corresponding 
member of numerous foreign agricultural 
societies, and in 1885 he was created knight 
commander of the Brazilian order of the 

Wilson wrote: 1. 'Catalogue de la col- 
lection des produits agricoles, vSgStaux et 
animaux de 1'Angleterre . . . exposes par 
le Board of Trade a TExposition TJniverselle 
de Paris en 1855/ Paris, 1855, 8vo, 2. ' The 
Agriculture of the French Exhibition : an 
Introductory Lecture delivered in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, Session L, 1855-6/ 
Edinburgh, 1855, 8vo. 3. 'Agriculture, 
Past and Present : being two Introductory 
Lectures delivered in the University of Edin- 
burgh/ Edinburgh, 1855, 2nd edit. 8vo. 
By far the most valuable, however, of his 
writings is 4. 'Our Farm Crops, being a 
popular Scientific Description of the Cultiva- 
tion, Chemistry, Diseases, Remedies, &c., pj 
the various Crops cultivated in Great Britain 
and Ireland/London, 1860, 2 vols, 8vo. This 
is still a standard work of reference, anc 
nothing better of its kind has ever appearec 
in agricultural literature. . 

Wilson edited a ' Report on the Presen 
State of the Agriculture of Scotland/arranged 
tinder the auspices of the Highland and Agri 
cultural Society, to be presented at the inter 
national congress at Paris in June 1878. 

[Scotsman, 29 March 1888; Times, 2 Apri 
1888; Agricultural Gazette, 9 April 1888 
p. 333.] E. O-B. 


1885), author of the 'Tales of the Borders 
was the son of a millwright, and was bap 

sed at Tweedmouth, Berwick-on-Tweed, on 
5 Au^. 1804. After receiving elementary 
ducation at^Tweedmouth he completed his 
pprenticeship as a printer in Berwick, and 
len settled for a time in London. Here 
e experienced hardship, and is said to have 
aid his last two shillings on one occasion to 
ee Mrs. Siddons in Oovent Garden Theatre. 
1/eaving London, he lectured in the pro- 
vinces for a time on literature with in- 
ifferent success. In 1832 he became editor 
f the * Berwick Advertiser,* working there- 
after steadily in the cultivation of his literary 
;alent and the advocacy of political reform, 
le died at Berwick on 2 Oct. 1835, and was 
mried in Tweedmouth clmrch.ya.rd. 

Wilson wrote various lyric and dramatic 
joems of little consequence. ' The Qowrie 
Conspiracy/ a drama, appeared in 1829. 
There was another drama, * Margaret of 
Anjou/ besides several poetical publications 
The Poet's Progress/ ' The Border Patriots/ 
&c.-~of smaller account. On 8 Nov. 1834 
Wilson began the weekly^ publication, in 
;hreehalfpenny numbers, of 'The Tales of 
the Borders/ which speedily attained an 
extraordinary popularity both in Great Bri- 
tain and in America. Idealistic narratives of 
simple sentiment and impressive situations, 
these stories made a direct appeal to the 
general reader, and the weekly circulation 
steadily rose from two thousand to sixteen 
or seventeen thousand. Wilson published in 
all forty-eight numbers, comprising seventy- 
three tales. Favourites among his stories 
are: 'The Poor Scholar ' (with manifest auto- 
biographical touches)/ Tibbie Fowler/ * The 
Vacant Chair/ and * My Black Coat, or the 
Breaking of the Bride a Chain/ The series 
was continued by Wilson's brother, and much 
prolonged by Alexander Leightpn (1800- 
1874) [a. y,l Several collected editions have 
been puolisned. In 1834 appeared Wilson's 

Enthusiast ; a metrical tale, with other 

[Berwick Advertiser, 8 Oct. 1836; Border 
Magazine, 1863 j living's Diet, of Eminent 
Scotsmen ; information from Bev. James Kean, 
Berwick-on-Tweed,] T. B. 

1881), president of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, eldest son of William Wilson of 
South Shields, was born at that town on 
24 Sept. 1813. He received his early edu- 
cation as a day scholar at the grammar 
school of Newcastle-on-Tyne, under .Dn 
Mortimer, subsequently headmaster of the 
City of London school. On 15 June 1832 
he was elected to a scholarship open to 
natives of the bishopric of Durham at Cor- 




Eis Christi College, Oxford. He graduated 
.A. in 1836, M.A. in 1839, and B.D. in 
1847. While still a bachelor scholar he be- 
came tutor in 1838, and succeeded to a 
fellowship on 28 April 1841. In 1846 he 
was elected to White's professorship of 
moral philosophy, then a terminable office, 
re-elected in 1851, and finally re-elected in 
1858, after it had been converted into a per- 
manent chair. His lectures given in this 
capacity, and perhaps still more the stimu- 
lating assistance in their private work which 
he ungrudgingly afforded to his pupils, pro- 
cured him a considerable reputation in the 
university as a teacher. In the fifties and 
sixties many of the best men in Oxford 
passed under his hands, and he gave a great 
impetus to the inductive study both of 
morals and psychology* This office he con- 
tinued to hold till 1874. Meanwhile, as 
a leading member of the Hebdomadal Coun- 
cil, to which he was elected soon after its first 
institution, he had taken a prominent part 
in the business of the university, for which 
his shrewd common sense specially fitted 
him, and, as an ardent university reformer, 
he was largely instrumental in bringing 
about the abolition of religious tests and in 
procuring the issue of the parliamentary 
commissions of 1854 and 1877. Prom 1868 
to 1872 Wilson held the college living of 
Byfield, Northamptonshire, in conjunction 
with his professorship, but this ecclesiastical 
preferment he resigned on being elected to 
the presidentship of his college, 8 May 1872. 
He entered on the duties of this office with 
much zeal and energy, but, unfortunately, 
soon after his election to- the presidency hia 
health gave way, and during the last few 
years of his life he was largely incapacitated 
from taking part in the administration of 
the college. After a long illness he died on 
1 Dec. 1881. He was buried in theHolywell 
cemetery, Oxford, but is commemorated by 
a mural tablet in the college cloisters. 

Though Wilson was a fluent talker and 
an impressive lecturer, he was singularly 
slow in composition, a circumstance due 
partly to his fastidiousness, and partly to 
the want of practice in early life. He did 
not produce any independent book, but was 
engaged for many years, in conjunction with 
the writer of the present article, on a work 
entitled * The Principles of Morals/ the first 
part of which appeared in the fifth year after 
his death, 1886, ynder their joint names, and 
the second part in 1887 under the name of 
Dr. Fowler alone. The share taken by Wil- 
son in the first part is indicated in the pre- 
face to the second part, and that taken in 
the second part itself in the advertisement 

at the beginning of the volume. The two 
parts were reissued with additions and cor- 
rections, in 1894, under the names of Fowler 
and Wilson. 

Wilson was a man of marked personality. 
Physically he was of strong build and com- 
manding presence. He had a determined 
will, and possessed great skill in bringing 
over other people to his own opinions. Though 
he did not lay claim to any extensive erudi- 
tion, he was full of intellectual life and 
interests, a shrewd observer, and an acute 
thinker, who, to use a favourite phrase of 
Locke, tried to ' bottom J everything. These 
qualities, combined with a deep sonorous 
voice, a frank outspokenness, a keen sense 
of humour, the knact of saying * good things,' 
and a genial manner, made him highly 
popular among his friends, and, during the 
more vigorous period of his life, one of the 
greatest powers in the university. He was 
unmarried. Two sisters, who had lived with 
him for many years before his death, sur- 
vived him. 

[Fowler's History of Corpus Christi College ; 
College Registers ; Foster's Aluinni Oxon. 1715- 
1886; personal knowledge ; private information,] 

T. F. 

(1783-1868), commandant of the Royal Hos- 
pital, Chelsea, son of John Wilson,, rector 
of Whitchurch, Yorkshire, was born in 1783. 
He entered the royal navy, and served as a> 
midshipman on the coast of Ireland during 
the rebellion of 1798, in the expedition to 
the Helder in 1799, and in the Mediterranean 
and Egypt in 1801. He received a medal 
from the captain-pasha of the Turkish fleet 
off Alexandria in 1801 for having saved 
the lives of the boat's crew belonging to a 
Turkish man-of-war. He was thrice wounded 
during his naval service, the third time so 
severely in the head that it produced total 
deafness, in consequence of which he was 
invalided and quitted the navy in 1803* 

After the restoration of his health he en- 
tered the army as an ensign in the 1st royals 
on 1 Sept. 1804. The dates of his further 
commissions were : lieutenant, 28 Feb. 1805 ; 
captain, I Jan. 1807 ; major, 5 July 1814 j 
lieutenant-colonel, 27 Nov. 1815; colonel, 
10 Jan. 1837. He served with the third 
battalion of his regiment at Walcheren in 
1809, and was twice wounded at the siege 
of Flushing. He afterwards served in the 
peninsular war, was present at the battle of 
Busaco, the retreat within the lines of Torres 
Vedras, the actions of Pombal, Eedinha, 
Oondeixa, Casal Nova, Foz d'Aronce, and 
Sabugal, the blockade of Almeida, and the 
battle of Fuentes d'Onor. 




Soon after the outbreak of war with the 
"United States of America in 1812, Wilson 
joined the first battalion of the 1st royals in 
Canada. He arrived towards the end of the 
year, and on 29 May 1813 was engaged in 
the attack under Sir George Prevost on the 
American depot at Sacketts' Harbour, and 
on 19 June on a strong position occupied by 
the Americans at Great Sodus, where he 
received a severe bayonet wound. He took 
part in the expedition against Black Rock 
on the Niagara River near Brie, which was 
captured and burned on 11 July. He was 
at the capture of Fort Niagara on 19 Dec., 
and distinguished himself in the action near 
Buffalo on 30 Dec. 1813. He was engaged 
on the Ohippewa under Major-general 
Phineas Rial! on 5 June 1814, and in the 
desperate victory of the Ohippewa orLundy's 
Lane on 25 July, when Lieutenant-general 
Sir Gordon Drummond commanded the 
British. Riall was taken prisoner, and 
Wilson, wounded seven times and left for 
dead on the field of battle, fell into the 
enemy's hands, and remained a prisoner 
until after the treaty of Ghent terminated 
the war in December 1814. 

For his distinguished conduct and bravery 
at Buffalo and Chippewa he received two 
brevet steps of promotion. He was also 
awarded the peninsular medal with clasps 
for Busaco and Fuentes d'Onor. He was for 
some time aide-de-camp to Major-general 
Biall at Grenada in the "West Indies. He 
went on the half-pay list on 25 July 1822, 
and on 16 Nov. following he was appointed 
adjutant of the Royal Hospital at Chelsea, 
He was gentleman usher of the privy chamber 
to Queen Adelaide for nearly twenty years 
till her death in 1849. He was made a com- 
panion of the order of the, Bath and a knight 
of the royal Hanoverian Guelyhic order. 
On 14 July 1865 he was appointed major 
and commandant of Chelsea Hospital, where 
he died on 8 May 1868. He married, in 
1824. Amelia Elizabeth Bridgman (d. 1864), 
daughter of Colonel John Houlton. 

[Despatches; Army Lists; Christie's War in 
Canada; Gent, Mag. 1868; Royal Military Cal. 
3820; Alison's Hist, of Europe; M'Queeu's 
Campaigns of 1812, 1813, and 1814; Carmichaol 
Smyth's Wars in Canada.] R, H. V. 

MARGARET (1667-1685), 
the * martyr of the Solway/ elder daughter 
of Gilbert Wilson (d. 1704), a yeoman of 
Penninghame, Wigtownshire, was born at 
Glenvemock in that pariah in 1667. Though 
her parents conformed to episcopacy, Mar- 
garet and her younger sister Agnes refused 
to do so, On 18 April 1685 the sisters, 

together with a much older person, Mar- 
garet MacLachlan (aged 63), were tried at 
Wigtown assize, before the sheriff-depute, 
David Graham (brother of Claverhouso), and 
three other judges, upon a charge of rebel- 
lion and attendance at field conventicles. 
All three having refused the abjuration oath, 
they were sentenced to be tied to stakes 
fixed within the flood-mark in the water of 
Bladenoch, where the soa flowed at high 
water, so that they should be drowned by 
the incoming tide. The prisoners were con- 
fined in the tower of Wigtown church. 
Agues, who was but thirteen, was bailed out 
by her father upon a bond of 100J, (duly 
exacted upon her non-appearance), but on 
the other two sentence was carried out on 
11 May 1685. Major Windram guarded 
them to the place of execution, whither 
they were attended by a throng of spec- 
tators ; Margaret appears to have taken the 
lead throughout. ' The old woman's stake,' 
says Wodrow, f was a good way in beyond 
the other, and she was the first despatched 
. . . ' but Margaret ' adhorod to her principles 
with an unshaken steadfastness. 7 After the 
water had swept over her, but before she was 
dead, another chance of taking the oath was 
afforded her. < Most deliberately she refused 
and said, '* I will not, I am one of Christ's 
children: let me go," Upon which she was 
thrust down again into the water, where she 
finished her course with joy. She died a 
virgin-martyr, about eighteen years of age/ 
An elaborate effort has boon made (NA.MW, 
Case for the Crown) to show that the sen- 
tence was never really executed, but that a 
recommendation to pardon, made by the lords 
of the privy^ council (which appears in the 
council registers), was carried into effect. 
Wodrow himself rotes to the signature of a 
letter of reprieve, but there is abundant evi- 
dence to prove tiiat the death sentence was 
carried out in all its barbarityprobably 
before the notice of remission hnd time to be 
conveyed from Edinburgh to Wigtown. A 
horizontal slab, upon which Margaret's namo 
and seven rude couplets were inscribed, was 
set up in Wigtown cemetery early in the 
eighteenth century, and a monumental 
obelisk was erected on Windy Hill to the 
memory of the martyrs in 1801, MUlais's 
well-known picture, 'The Martyr of the Sol- 
way ' (1871), was purchased by Agnew for 
472 guineas, and was subsequently given by 
Mr, George Holt to the Walker Art Gallery, 
Liverpool (1896V A statue of Margaret 
Wilson was exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1889 by C. B. Birch, A.R.A, 

[WocU-oVs Sufferings of the Church of Scot- 
land, 1830, iv. 248 ; Stewart's History vindi- 



cated in the Case of the Wigtown Martyrs, 
Edinburgh, 1867, 2nd edit. 1869 [affording a 
complete answer to] Napier's Case for the 
Crown in re the Wigtown Martyrs, proved to be 
Myth, 1863 ; Scott's Tales of a Grandfather, 
1847, p. 237; Macaulay's History, chap. iv. ; 
James Anderson's Ladies of the Covenant, 1851, 
pp. 427-48; Groome's Ordnance G-azetteer of 
Scotland s.v. ' Wigtown ; ' Notes and Queries, 
4th ser. v. 540 ; see also art. G-BAHAM, JOHN, 

WILSON, MARY ANNE (1802-1867), 
vocalist. [See under WELSH, THOMAS, 

MATTHEW (1682-1656), 
Jesuit. [See KNTOTT, EDWABD.] 

WILSON", NICHOLAS (d. 1548), Ro- 
man catholic divine, born near Beverley, 
was educated at Christ's College, Cambridge, 
graduating B.A. in 1508-9, and commenc- 
ing D.D. in 1533. He was related to John 
Wilson, prior of Mount Grace in Yorkshire 
(Letters and Papers of Hemy VIII, xiv. ii. 
748). Before 1527 he was appointed chap- 
lain and confessor to Henry VIII (ib. iv. 
2641). On 7 Oct. 1528 he was collated 
archdeacon of Oxford, and in the same year 
received from the king the vicarage of Thaxted 
in Essex (ib. iv. 4476, 4521, 4546). Wilson 
was a friend of Sir Thomas More and of 
John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, and was a 
zealous Roman catholic, frequently acting as 
an examiner of heretics (FoxE, Actes and 
Monuments, ed. Townsend, iv. 680, 703, 704). 
On 28 March. 1531 he was presented by the 
king to the church of St. Thomas the Apostle 
in London (Letters and Papers, v> 166), and 
in 1533 he was elected master of Michael- 
house at Cambridge. In the latter year, 
however, when the divorce of Catherine of 
Aragon was debated in convocation, he joined 
the minority in asserting that the pope had 
power to gprant a dispensation in case of 
marriage with a deceased brother's- widow, 
About that time he was employed by the 
papal party as an itinerant preacher in York- 
shire, Lancashire, and Cheshire. He also 
visited Bristol, where he encountered Lati- 
mer, and threatened him with burning unless 
he mended his ways (SiBYPB, Eccles. Mem. 
1822, i. L 245 ; Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, vL 247, 411, 433, XH. ii. 952), 
His opposition, to the king soon involved 
him in peril, and on 10 April 1534, a week 
before the arrest of Fisher and More, he was 
committed to the Tower for refusing to take 
the oath relative to the succession to the 
crown (ib. vii, 483, 502, 575,viii. 666, 1001 j 
FOXJB, v. 68). He was attainted of misprision 
of treason by act of parliament, deprived of 

all his preferments, and condemned to per- 
petual imprisonment. Confinement soon 
caused his resolution to falter. Before his 
own execution More wrote him two kindly 
letters, telling him that he heard that he 
was going to take the oath, and that he for 
his own part should never counsel any man 
to do otherwise (MoBE, English Works, i. 
443). Wilson, however, hesitated for many 
months longer, and on 17 Feb. 1535-6 Eustace 
Chapuys, the imperial ambassador, wrote to 
Granvelle that it was reported that Henry 
intended putting him to death {Letters and 
Papers, x. 308). In 1537 he took the oath, 
and on 29 May he received a pardon (ib. xn. 
i. 1315, 1330, ii, 181). On 7 June 1537 he 
was presented to the deanery in the col- 
legiate church of Wimborne Minster in Dor- 
set, receiving a second grant of the same 
office on 20 May 1538, and retaining the 
office until the dissolution of the deanery in 
1547 (id. xii. ii. 191, 2011. i. 1115). Soon 
after his release, however, he incurred the 
suspicion of communicating with recusants, 
and on 25 Aug. 1537 he wrote a submissive 
letter to Cromwell, professing his desire to 
conform to.the king's wishes (ib. xii. ii. 679). 
In September he and Nicholas Heath fq. v.] 
were appointed to confer with Cardinal Pole 
in the Netherlands, and to endeavour to per- 
suade him to acknowledge the king's eccle- 
siastical supremacy in England. 'They re- 
ceived written instructions, in which they 
were ordered to address the cardinal only as 
' Mr. Pole ; ' bu# Pole's sudden return to Italy 
prevented the mission, and Wilson was able 
to appear at Hampton Court on 15 Oct., at 
Prince Edward's christening (ib. xii. ii. 619, 
620, 635, 911). On 20 Dec. he was admitted 
rector of St. Martin Outwich in London, 
and earlier in the same year he was elected 
master of St. Johnfs College, Cambridge, in 
opposition to the king's nominee, George 
Bay [qv.v.],. aai event which nearly proved 
fatal to the-college. Wilson did not venture 
to accept the office, and in a letter to Thomas 
Wriothesley, now in the record office, he 
disclaimed all knowledge of the society's in- 
tention (ib. xn, ii. 425). In 1539 Wilson 
joined the majority of the lower house of 
convocation in declaring his intention to 
accept the determination of the king and 
bishops in regard to points of doctrine and 
discipline similar to those contained in the 
six articles (ib. xiv. i. 1065). 

Although Wilson professed to act only in 
complete submission to the king,yet accord- 
ing to Charles & Marillac, the French am- 
bassador, he was suspected of secret commu- 
nications with Rome (ib. xv. 736). In May 
1540 he was arrested for being privy to the 




flight of Richard Hilliard, Tunstall's chap- 
lain, to Scotland, and for ' relieving certain 
traitorous persons which denied the king's 
supremacy^ (HALL, Chron. 1548, p, 838). 
On 4 June he wrote an entreaty to Cromwell 
to intercede for him (Letters and Paper*, xv. 
747), but he remained in the Tower until 
1641, when, although excepted from the 
general pardon of the previous year, he was 
released by the king (#. xvi. 578 j HALL, p. 
841). On 20 Juty 1542 he was collated to 
the prebend of Bilton in York Cathedral, 
and on 14 Dec. to that of Hoxton in St. Paul's. 
He died "before 8 June 1548, his will being 
proved in the same year (P. 0. C. 14 Popul- 
well). He wrote a prefatory epistle, dated 
1 Jan. 1521, to a sermon preached by Fisher 
on the burning of Luther's books, which was 
printed in the Latin edition of Fisher's 
'Works,' published at Wurzburg in 1597. 
He was also the author of a book printed at 
Paris before 1535 against Henry s divorce 
(Letters and Papers, viii. 859). Several ma- 
nuscript treatises by him of a theological 
nature are preserved in the record office, and 
were probably seized at the time of his first 
arrest (ib. vih. 152, vol. ix. index, s.v. ' Wil- 
son '). John Leland has some lines to Wil- 
son in his 'Encomia ' (1589, p. 51)* 

[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. Brewer 
and Gairdner j Cooper's Atheaee Cantabr. i. 94; 
Tanner's Biblioth. Brit.-Hib. ; Le Neve's Fasti 
Eceies, Angl. ed Hardy; Baker's Hist, of St. 
John's Coll. Cambr. ed. Mayor, i. 79, 110-12, 
361 ; Newcourt's Eepert Eccles. Londin. 1710 
i. 164, 419, ii.682; Works of Hugh Latimer 
(Parker Soo.), ii. 365; Bale's Select Works 
(Parker Soc.), p. 510 ; Hennessy*s Novum Re- 
pert. Londin. 1897; Foxe's Actes and Monu- 
ments, ed. Townsend, v. 430, 599, vii. 455, 476, 
490, 505, 775 ; Firldes'a Life of Wolsey, 1724, 
pp. 198, 203; Zurich Letter* (Parker Soc.), 
1846, pp. 208, 211 ; Burnet's Hist, of the Befor- 
rotation, 1865; Hutchins's Dorset, 1868, iii. 188, 
190 ; Demaus'a Life of Lathaer, 1881, p, 135.1 

E. I. C, J 

WILSON, RICHARD (1714-1782), 
landscape-painter, was bom at Penegoes in 
Montgomeryshire, of which his father held 
the living, on 1 Aug. 1714, His mother 
was one of the Wynnes of Leeswold. His 
father was collated to Mold after Wilson's 
birth, and gave his son, who does not seem 
, tp have gone to school, an excellent classi- 
cal education. With the assistance of Sip 
George Wynne, Wilson was sent to London 
in 1729, and placed with Thomas Wright, a 
portrait-painter, of whom little is known. 
Wilson begftn his artistic career as a portrait-* 
painter, aftd attained some position in that 
the profession, A portrait by him 

of John Hamilton Mortimer was valued by 
John Britton [q. v.] at 150 guineas in 1842. 
There are several portraits by him at the 
Garrick Club, and he painted (about 1748) 
a group of the young Prince of Wales 
(George III}, his brother Edward Augustus, 
duke of York, and their tutor Dr. Ayscough. 
This picture is now in the National Portrait 
Gallery (London), as well as another of the 
two princes by themselves, evidently taken 
for or from the larger picture. In 1749 Wil- 
son went to Italy, and there he painted a 
landscape which excited the admiration of 
Francesco Zuccarelli [q,y.], who advised him 
to take to landscape-painting. This was at 
Venice, and either there or at Rome .Horace 
Vernet encouraged him to do the same. The 
French painter also exchanged landscapes 
with him and showed Wilson's in his own 
studio with generous praise to all comers. 
Wilson soon gained a considerable reputation 
in Italy as a landscape-painter, and Raphael 
Mengs painted his portrait in exchange for 
one of his landscapes. When at Venice he 
made the acquaintance of William Locke of 
Norbury [q.v.] (the patron of George Barret 
the elder [q. v.], Wilson's rival), for whom he 
painted some sketches and landscapes. Wil- 
son was six years in Italy (principally at 
Borne) painting and giving lessons, He 
seems to have mixed with the best society. 
In 1764 he sketched Maecenas Villa in com- 
pany with tlie Earls of Pembroke, Thanet, 
and Essex, and Viscount Bolingbroke. He 
travelled from Borne to Naples with Lord 
Dartmouth, for whom he painted some land- 
scapes, and reached England again in 1756. 
His reputation had preceded him to England, 
and his return excited much interest among 
his brother artists, but it is said that his 
merit was not at once appreciated even by 
them. ^ Paul Sandby [q,v.] is noted as an 
exception. He recommended Wilson to tho 
Duke of Cumberland, for whom Wilson 
painted his celebrated picture of 'Niobe/ 
which was exhibited at the Society of Artists 
in 1760, and engraved by Woollett in 1761. 
Wilson painted the subject three times; his 
earliest painting of it belonged to Sir George 
Beaumont, and was engraved by S. Smith 
(figures by William Sharp), and is now in 
the National Gallery ; another was bought 
by the Marquis of Stafford. His picture of 
a ' View of Rome from the Villa madama ' 
(exhibited 1766) was bought by the Marquis 
of Tavistock. These and other works brought 
him the reputation of the greatest landscape- 
painter of the day, but his fame gained him 
scanty employment, 

Between 1/60 and 1768 Wilson exhibited 
over thirty pictures at the Society of Brit idh 




Artists, including some of his best known, 
pictures. Besides the works already men- 
tioned there were ' Temple of Olitumnus * and 
. 'The Lake of Nerni* (1761) ; a landscape 
with hermits (1762) (possibly that engraved 
under the title of * The White Monk ? ) ; ' A 
large landscape with Phaeton's petition to 
Apollo/ exhibited in 1763 and afterwards 
repeated ; * A Summer Storm, with the Story 
of the two Lovers from Thomson (Celadon 
and Amelia) '(1765), and 'A Storm at Day- 
break, with the Story of Ceyx and Alcione 
Ovid's Metam.' (the picture, part of which 
is said to have been painted from a pot of 
porter and a Stilton cheese). Many of his 
pictures of this period were engraved by 
Woollett, William Byrne, J. Roberts, and 
others, most of them for Boydell. Although 
the subjects were principally Italian, he ex- 
hibited a few English and Welsh scenes, 
including 'View near Chester/ 'Carnarvon 
Castle/ and ' Snowdon/ and * A View of a 
Ruin in Her Royal Highness the Princess of 
Wales's Garden at Kew.' 

Wilson was one of the first members of 
the Royal Academy who were nominated by 
George III at its institution in 1768, and 
he contributed regularly to its exhibitions 
till 1780. During this period there was 
little change in his art. In 1770 he sent his 
picture of * Cicero and his two friends Atticua 
and Quintus at his villa at Arpinum ' (en- 
graved by Woollett for Boydell). In 1771 
he sent 'A View near Winstay, the seat of 
Sir Watkins W. Wynn, Bart.j r one of Crow 
Castle, near Llangollenj and another of 
Houghton, the seat of the late Marquis of 
Tavistock. In 1774 he painted a large 
picture, six feet by five, of the ' Cataract 
of Niagara, from a drawing by Lieutenant 
Pterie of the Royal Artillery ' (engraved by 
William Byrne), and a view of Cader Idris, 
perhaps the picture taken from the summit 
of this mountain which was engraved by 
E. and M. Rooker. In 1775 he exhibited 
* Passage of the Alps at Mount Cenis ' and 
three others, including a e Lake of Nemi/ 
a favourite subject with him and his few 
customers. In 1776 he sent 'A View of 
Sion House from Richmond Gardens/possibly 
the picture which at this date or before is 
said to have been the cause of the loss of 
court patronage. He asked sixty guineas for 
it, to which Lord Bute objected as too much, 
upon which the artist replied that if the king 
could not pay the sum at once, he would take 
it in instalments. This story is generally told 
of a date previous to the institution of the 
Royal Academy, but there is no trace of the 
picture before 1776. After this the only pic- 
ture of importance by him which appeared at 

the academy was c Apollo and the Seasons/ 
exhibited in 1779 ; but another celebrated 
picture, ' Meleager and Atalanta/ which was 
not exhibited, was engraved by Woollett 
and Pouncey and published in this year. 
The figures in tnis picture were supplied by 
Mortimer. A mezzotint by Earlom from, 
the same picture, or a replica of it, appeared 
in 1771. In 1780 he sent a ' View of Tabley, 
Cheshire, the seat of Sir F. Leicester/ his 
last contribution to the exhibitions. 

This was probably one of his commissions, 
and they were very few ; for in spite of his 
reputation, which was always high, he had 
to suffer from almost continuous neglect a 
neglect increasing with his years. At last 
the pawnbrokers were his principal custo- 
mers, but he found it difficult to sell even 
to them. While he could get scarcely suf- 
ficient employment to live, other inferior 
artists, like George Barret the elder, George 
Smith of Chichester, and Zuccarelli,fiourished 
exceedingly. Moreover, he had to suffer 
special mortifications. In a contest for fame 
with Smith of Chichester before the Royal 
Society that august body decided againat 
Wilson. His picture of Kew Gardens was 
returned to him by the king, and, worst of 
all perhaps, he had to listen to a deputation 
of artists headed by Edward Penny fa. v,], 
who recommended him to adopt the lighter 
style of Zuccarelli. He is said to Jiave 
offended them by the warmth of his remarks 
on this occasion. 

For many years Wilson lived in the Great 
Piazza of Covent Garden, and from 1771-2 
he was at 86 Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square, 
from which he was able to enjoy the view 
of the country away to Hampstead and High- 
gate, During 1777-8 he was at 24 Norton 
Street,andin 1779 in Great Titchfield Street, 
but as he grew poorer he had to seek more 
modest quarters, until at length he lived in 
a wretched lodging in Tottenham Street, 
Tottenham Court Road. He was reduced to 
such straits that when one day a young friend 
introduced a lady who gave hjt-n a commis- 
sion for two pictures he had not money to 
buy paints and brushes to execute them. On 
another occasion he asked Barry [see BABBY, 
JAMBS, 1741-1806] if he knew any one mad 
enough to employ a landscape-painter. 

In 1776, on the death of Francis Hayman 
[q. y.], he applied for and obtained the post 
oi librarian to the Royal Academy, for which 
he was well fitted by his education and taste^ 
and its slender stipend was a welcome addi- 
tion to his resources. A few years after this 
he inherited from his brother % small estate 
at Llanberis, which enabled fcto to live in 
comfort for the short remnant of Ms days. 




He retired into Wales in 1781, and died 
suddenly at Oolomondie, the residence of his 
relative, Mrs. Jones, near Llanberis, on 
15 May 1782. He was buried in the church- 
yard at St. Mary-at-Mold, 

Wilson is now acknowledged to be one of 
the greatest of English landscape-painters. 
His art was based upon that of Saivator 
Bosa, Q-aspar Poussin, and Claude. It was 
inspired by the scenery of Italy, and espe- 
cially of the Campagna, with its clear bright 
skies and ancient ruins. It was somewhat 
formal and careless of detail, but in grandeur 
of design, in breadth of treatment, in the 
harmony of its rich but quiet colour, and in 
the rendering of space and air, Wilson has 
few rivals. His pictures of his own country, 
like *he noble ' Snowdon from Nantlle,' lent 
by Mr. F. Worsley-Taylor to the 1899 exhi- 
bition in the corporation of London art gal- 
lory, are among his finest works ; and, though 
they have a strong resemblance to his pic- 
tures of Italy, they contain much local truth 
of form and atmosphere, He used a very re- 
stricted palette, and painted with one brush, 
In person Wilson was stout and robust, 
and above the middle size. In later years 
his face was blotchy and his nose red, the 
result possibly of large- potations of porter, 
which is said to have been his only luxury. 
His fondness for this beverage was so well 
known that ZofFany introduced him with a 
pot of it at his elbow into his picture of the 
royal academicians (1773), but painted it 
out when Wilson threatened to thrash him. 
He was shy of society, especially when years 
of neglect and poverty had embittered him. 
He lived in and for his art, confident in hia 
own genius and scornful of the opinions of 
others. His spirit never broke- 5 his faith 
never faltered; he made no concession to 
popular opinion, but fought for his own 
ideals to the last. Even among artists he- 
seems to have had few friends except Sir Wil- 
liam Beechey, Paul Sandby, James Barry, 
and J. H. Mortimer. With Sir Joshua 
Beynolds he was not on cordial terms, but 
there seems to be no sufficient grounds for 
Cunningham's charges of hostility on the 
part of Eeynolds. They seem principally 
based on tie story of Wilson's retort to 
Keynolds when, ignoring Wilson's presence 
at a social gathering of academicians at 
the Turk's Head in Qerrard Street, Sir 
Joshua proposed the health of Gainsborough 
as * the best landscape-painter/ on which 
Wilson added aloud, * and the best portrait- 
painter too* 1 On the other hand, Reynolds 
d commissions for two pictures by 
when the latter was in sore straits 
his manner and character Cunningham 

iells us 'he loved truth and detested flattery; 
le could enduro a joke, but not contradic- 
ion. He was deficient in courtesy of speech. 
lis conversation abounded with information 
and humour, and his manners, which were 
at first repulsive, gradually smoothed down 
as he grew animated. Those who enjoyed 
the pleasure of his friendship agree in pro- 
louncing him a man of strong sense, intelli- 
gence, and refinement/ 

Mengs's portrait of 'Wilson was engraved 
by W. Bond for John Britton'a ' The Fine 
Arts of the British School,' and appears as 
a frontispiece to Wright's 'Lifer 'of the 
artist. A caricature profile of him with a 
red nose, and a maulstick on his shoulder, 
was drawn by Sir Goorge Beaumont, and 
etched for the title-page of Thomas Ilast- 
nigs's ' Notes from Etchings from the Works 
of II. Wilson,' 1825. 

It must have been when Wilson was dead 
or dying that Dr. Wolcot (Peter Pindar) 
wrote his celebrated lines about * Red-nosed 
Wilson/ which were published in his firwt 
volume of ' Lyric Odes to the Boyal Acade- 
micians ' (1782), and conclude as follows : 
But, honest Wilson, never mind ; 
Immortal prnisos thou ahalt find, 
And for a dinner have no cause to foar. 
Thou start'st at my prophetic rhymoa : 
JDon't bo impatient for thoao tiwos ; 
"Wait till thou hast boon (load a himdrod year. 
This prophecy has been more than justified. 
In 1806 a Niobe ' (belonging- to tho Duke of 
Gloucester) was sold to Sir F. Baring for 
83(M. In 1814 the Exhibition of Deceased 
Masters at the British Institution contained 
over eighty of Wilson's paintings, In 1827, 
at Lord clo Tabley's sale, 'On the Arno' 
fetched 493. lOa* ThoHO prices have boon, 
exceeded since, especially during tho last 
five-and-twonty years, during which many 
rf his finest pictures have been exhibited at 
the Royal Academy, the G roavenor Gallery, 
and other exhibitions all over the country. 
At the Duke of Hamilton's sale in 1882 a 
'View of Borne Sunset* fetched 1,Q50J. 
Besides the 'Niobe' there are several small 
works by Wilson in the National Gallery, 
and two fine pictures in the South Kensing- 
ton Museum. At the British Museum are 
a large number of Wilson's sketches in Italy. 
They are very slight mere intimations of 
subjects for pictures. There is also the fine 
early drawing of a large head referred to in 
Edwards's * Anecdotes/ 

Wilson had several pupils, the most im- 
portant of whom were Joseph Faringtou 
[q..v,] and William Hodges [q.v.] 

[Some Account of the Life of Richard Wilson, 
by T. Wright of Norwood, 1824; Hastings's 




Notes from Etchings from. Works of B. Wilson ; 
Cunningham's Lives, ed. Heaton; Edwards's 
Anecdotes ; Smith's Nollekens and Ms Times ; 
Bedgraves' Century; Redgrave's Diet.; Leslie 
and Taylor's Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds ; Hea- 
ton's Concise History of Painting, ed. Monk- 
house; Catalogues of the Society of Artists, 
Koyal Academy, and British Institution.] 

0. M. 

WILSON, EGBERT, the elder (d. 1600), 
actor and playwright, was one of the players 
who joined the Earl of Leicester's company 
on its establishment in 1574. He at once 
gained a reputation as a comic actor almost 
equal to that of Richard Tarlton [q. v.] 
Gabriel Harvey wrote in 1579 to the poet 
Spenser, complaining that his friends were 
(figuratively speaking) thrusting him ' on the 
stage to make try all of his extemporallf acuity 
and to play Wylson's or Tarleton's parte' 
(HARVEY, Works, ed. Grosart, i. 125), In 
1583 Wilson was chosen to be one of twelve 
actors who were formed into the Queen Eliza- 
beth's company. With the queen's company 
he was connected till 1588. Stow remarked 
that among the twelve players of the queen's 
original company the most efficient were 
the 'two rare men' Wilson and Tarlton. 
Stow credited Wilson (to whom he erro- 
neously gave the Christian name of Thomas) 
with a * quick, delicate, refined, extemporal 
wit* (Slow, Chronicle, ed. Howes, London, 
1631, p. 698, sub anno 1683). After 1588 
Wilson seems to have transferred his ser- 
vices to Lord Strange's company of actors, 
which subsequently passed to the patronage 
of the lord chamberlain, and was joined by 
Shakespeare. Wilson maintained his repu- 
tation for extemporising until the end of the 
century. In 1598 Francis Meres, after re- 
calling the triumphs of Tarlton, who died 
in 1588, noted that his place had since been 
filled by * our witty WiL3 on > who for learning 
and extemporal wit in this faculty is with- 
out compare or compeer; as to his great 
and eternal commendations, he manifested 
in his challenge at the Swan, on the Bank 
Side.' No other reference is known to 
Wilson's ' challenge ' at the Swan Theatre. 
Meres also mentions * Wilson ' among 'the 
best poets for comedy,' but 'there he pro- 
bably refers to a younger Robert Wilson (see 
below) . Thomas Hey wood, in his * Apologie 
for Actors/ 1612, numbers the elder 'Wil- 
son ' among English players of distinction who 
flourished conspicuously 'before his time.' 

Wilson also made a reputation as a 
writer of plays. In 1580 Thomas Lodge 
replied in a 'Defence of Poetry, Musick, 
and Stage Plays' to Stephen Gosson's 
'Schoole of Abuse.' Lodge incidentally 

charged Gosson with plagiarism in a lost 
play on the subject of 'Catilines Con- 
spiracy,' and declared that he preferred 
to Gosson's effort 'Wilson's shorte and 
sweete [drama on the identical topic], a 
peece surely worthy prayse, the practise 
of a good scholler' (Hunterian Club edition, 
1879, p. 43). No play by Wilson dealing 
with Catiline is extant, but on 21 Aug. 1598 
the theatrical manager Philip Henslpwe 
advanced to ' Robert Wilson ' ten shillings 
on security of his play of * Catiline,' which 
he was writing in conjunction with Henry 
Ohettle (HjQNSLOWB, i)iary, p, 182). ^ This 
piece, like its forerunners, is lost, but it was 
possibly a version of Wilson's earlier play, 
revised by the younger Robert, who regu- 
larly worked for Henslowe. 

The four extant }>lays which may be 
assigned to the comic actor with some 
confidence are loosely constructed moralities 
in which personified vices and virtues 
play the leading parts. The characters 
are very numerous. There is hardly any 
plot. The metre employed is various, 
and includes ballad doggerel, slxort rhyming 
lines, rhyming heroics and blank verse, 
besides occasional passages in prose. The 
earliest of the extant pieces for which 
Wilson may be held responsible bears tho 
title, * A right excellent and famous 
Comedy called the Three Ladies of London. 
Wherein is Notablie declared and set foorth, 
how by the meanes of Lucar, Loue and 
Conscience is so corrupted, that the one is 
married to Dissimulation, the other fraught 
with all abhomination. A Perfect Patterns 
for all Estates to looke into, and a worko 
right worthie to be marked. Written by 
B. W., as it hath been publiquely played. 
At London [by Roger Warde]/ 1584, black 
letter, 4to. A second edition, with some 
variations, followed in 1592, Of the 1584 
edition copies are in the British. Museum, 
the Bodleian, and the Pepysian (Magdalene 
College, Cambridge) libraries. Of the 
second edition a perfect copy is at Bridg- 
water House, and an imperfect copy at the 
British Museum. At the end of opth im- 
pressions appear the words, ' Finis Paul 
Bucke.' Bucke was probably the copyist 
employed by the acting company which first 
produced the piece ; he seems to have been 
himself an actor. 'The Three Ladies' of 
the play are Lucre, Love, and Conscience. 
Love and Conscience are perverted by the 
machinations of Lucre and Dissimulation. 
A few concrete personages appear with the 
allegorical abstractions. One episode/"" 1 " 
with the effort of a Jewish creditor, G< 
tus, to recover a debt from an Italian 




chant, Mercatore. Many expressions in these 
scenes adumbrate the language of Shylock 
and Antonio in the ' Merchant of Venice/ 
and there can be no doubt that {Shakespeare 
was familiar with Wilson's portrayal of the 
Jew Geroatus (SIDNEY LTSE, Life of Shake- 
speare). The clown of the piece is called 
Simplicity, and that role may have been 
undertaken by the author. 

In 1690 there was published in continua- 
tion of * The Three Ladies ' a piece entitled 
' The Pleasant and Stately Morall of the 
three Lordes and three Ladies of London. 
"With the great Joy and Pompe, Solemnized 
at their Manages, cpmmically interlaced 
with much honest Mirth, for pleasure and 
recreation, among many Morall observa- 
tions, and other important matters of due 
Regard. By R, W., London ' (printed by R, 
Jhones), 1590 (black letter, 4to, with an 
engraving on the title). The volume was 
licensed for the press on 31 July 1690. A 
copy is in the Malone Collection in the 
Bodleian Library. The prologue is spoken 
by the City of London; the same three 
ladies as in the preceding pieces are wooed 
by three series of gallants, entitled re- 
spectively Lords of London (Policy, Pomp, 
and Pleasure), Lords of Spain (Pride, 
Ambition, and Tyranny), and Lords of 
Lincoln (Desire, Delight, and Devotion). 
Simplicity again figures as the clown. A 
tribute is incidentally paid by the author 
to the merits of the actor Tarlton. 

The < Three Ladies ' and the * Three Lords 
and Three Ladies' were reprinted by Mr, 
J. P. Collier in a volume entitled ' Five Old 
Plays' issued by the Rpxburghe Club in 
1851. They reappeared in Dodsley's 'Col- 
lection of Old English Playa ' (ed. w . Carew 
Haziitt, 1874, vi. 244-602). 

Wilson also wrote an interlude or mo- 
rality which was licensed for the press to 
Cutnbert Burby on 7 June 1594, and was 
published in that year (being printed by 
John Danter) under the title of 'The 
Coblers Prophesie. Written by Eobert 
Wilson, gent. 7 Most of the characters are 
allegorical, and include personifications o: 
Contempt, Newfangledness, Folly, and the 
like, but many of the gods and goddesses o: 
classical mythology also figure in the dra- 
matis persona. Copies of this rare quarto 
are in the libraries of the British Museum 
the Bodleian, Bridgwater House, and the 
Pepysian Collection at Magdalene College 
Cambridge. John Payne Collier describee 
a copy in which a few lines had been sup 
plied in manuscript by George Chapman 
(Notes and Queries, 3rd ser, li. 422). A 
similar production, licensed for the pres 

to Thomas Creede on 13 May 1694, and 
mblished anonymously next year under the 
itle of *The Pedlers Prophesy/ may on 
nternal evidence be attributed to Wilson. 
Copies are in the British Museum and Bod- 
elan libraries. 

Mr. Fleay, for reasons that are not con- 
vincing, assigns to Wilson the play of ' Fair 
Em, the Miller's Daughter of Manchester: 
with the love of William the Conqueror, 
of which the first known impression ap- 
peared in 1631. The piece was in existence 
Before 1591, when it was denounced by 
Robert Greene, in his 'Farewell to Folly/ 
for reflecting on himself (cf. SIMPSON, School 
of Shakspere. vol. ii.) 

There is little doubt that Wilson the 

actor and playwright was identical with. 

Robert Wilson, yoman (a player)/ who was 

juried at St. Giles's, Cripplegate, on 20 Nov. 


Another HOBBRT WILSON (1579-1610), 
one of the hack-writers regularly employed 
jy the theatrical manager Henslowe from 
1698 to 1600, was probably the comedian's 
son, and was baptised at St. Botolph's 
Uhurch, Bishopsgate, on 22 Sept. 1679, 
""" 'Wilson' mentioned by Meres among 
'best' writers of comedy of the day 
figures in Meres's list in close conjunction 
with Chettle, Hathaway, Munday, and 
others of Henslowe'a hack-writers. The 
reference was doubtless suggested by the 
dramatic work done by the younger Wilson 
in Henslowe's service. Only one of the pieces 
in which Robert Wilson, Henslowe's drudge, 
had a hand survives, and that * The First 
Part of Sir John Oldcastle ' has no resem- 
blance in style to the moral interludes 
that are assignable to the comic actor* The 
first and second parts of *Sir John Old- 
castle' were completed for Henslowe on 
16 Oct. 1599 by Wilson in collaboration 
with Drayton, Hathaway, and Munday. It 
was suggested by the puritan protest raised 
against Shakespeare's plays of * Henry IV/ 
in which the character Falstaff originally 
bore the appellation of Sir John Oldcastle* 
The first partan historical drama is alone 
extant, It was published in two editions 
by T[homas] P[avier] in 1600, and was im** 
pudently described on the title-page of one 
edition as the work of Shakespeare. ' Cati- 
line's Conspiracy /which Wilson and Chettle 
prepared for Henslowe in August 1599, may 
be based on the earlier effort by the elder 
Eobert Wilson, of which Lodge makes 
mention. In many other productions the 
younger man's collaborators were Chettle, 
Dekker, and Drayton ; but his contributions 
seem to have been the smallest of the four. 




Lost pieces for which. Robert Wilson and 
these three colleagues were paid by Hens- 
lowe were called ' The first part of Godwin 
and his three sons' (25 and 30 March 1598) ; 
Piers of Exton ' (28 March 1598) ; Bkck 
Batman of the North' (22 May 1598) ; and 
the second part of 'Godwin' (May-June 
1598). Wilson's collaborators in ' Richard 
Coeur de Lion's Funeral' were Chettle, 
Drayton, and Munday (June 1698) ; in the 
second part of * Black Batman,' Chettle 
([June- July 1598) ; in the 'Madman's Morris,' 
in 'Hannibal and Hermes, or one Worse 
Feared than Hurt,' and in ' Piers of Win- 
chester,' Dekker and Drayton (June-July 
1598); in 'Chance Medley,' Dekker and 
Munday (19-24 Aug. 1598) ; and in ' Owen 
Tudor,'* Drayton, Hathaway, and Munday 
(10 Jan. 1599-1600). On 8 Nov. 1599 Hens- 
lowe paid Wilson for a piece called ' Henry 
Richmond,' which he seems to have produced 
single-handed (cf. WABNBB, Dulwioh Qatar 
logue, p. 16). Wilson was usually in pecu- 
niary distress. He owed Henslowe money 
in June 1598, and borrowed ten shillings of 
him on 1 Nov. 1599 j a receipt for this loan 
in his autograph is extant at Dulwich (Etas- 
LOWB, Diary, ed. J. P. Collier, passim). He 
appears to nave married Mary Eaton at St. 
Botolph's Church, Bishopsgate, on 24 June 
1606, and to have died on 22 Oct. 1610, 
being buried in the church of St. Bartholo- 
mew the Less. 

[Collier's Introduction to Five Old Plays 
(Roxburghe Club), 1851, reprinted in Dodeley's 
Old Plays, ed. Hazlitt, pp. 3 seq. ; Collier's Me- 
moirs of the Principal Actors, p. xviii ; Collier's 
History of Dramatic Poetry; Ward's "English 
Dramatic Literature, 1898; Fleay's Chronicle 
of the English Drama ; Lee's Life of Shake- 
speare.] 3. L. 

WILSON, ROBERT (1803-1882), engi- 
neer, was born in 1803 at D unbar, Had- 
dingtonshire, where his father, a fisherman, 
was drowned in 1810. When quite a child 
he became an expert sculler, and he con- 
ceived the idea of making a propeller to be 
fixed to the stern of vessels. After a meagre 
education, he removed from Dunbar on 
bein^ apprenticed to a joiner. The problem 
of his propeller continued to occupy his 
attention, and in 1827 his model was brought 
by James Hunter under the notice of the 
Earl of Lauderdale, who, after satistying 
himself as to the feasibility of the invention, 
promised to introduce it to the admiralty. 
In the following year a committee of the 
Highland Society proved the success of the 
plan, and granted Wilson 10Z. on condition 
of receiving the model. In 1832 he was 
awarded a silver medal by the Scottish 

Society of Arts, and the invention was 
brought by them before the admiralty, 
It was discussed by the officials with scant 
courtesy, though they afterwards, in 1840, 
adopted the similar invention of Sir Francis 
Pettit Smith [q. v.] "Wilson, after spend- 
ing ^ a few years in Edinburgh as an 
engineer, removed to Manchester, and in 
188 was manager of James Nasmyth's 
Bridgwater foundry at Patricroft, near that 
city. He had an important share in per- 
fecting the steam-hammer invented by James 
Nasmyth [q. v.] Wilson's share in the tool 
was its self-acting motion, which was patented 
by Nasmyth in July 1843. The first ham- 
mer was in use at the Low Moor ironworks, 
near Bradford, Yorkshire, from August 1843 
to 1853, when Wilson, who was then en- 
gineer of that establishment, added to it the 
* circular balanced valve.' In 1856, on the 
retirement of Nasmyth, he left Low Moor 
and became managing partner of the firm of 
Nasmyth, Wilson, & Co. He afterwards 
constructed the great double-acting hammer 
at the Woolwich Royal Arsenal, this im- 
proved action being patented in 1861. la 
1880 the war department made him a grant 
of 500J. for the use of his double-action 
screw-propeller as applied to the fish tor- 
pedo^ The history of his first great inven- 
tion is contained in a pamphlet which he 
published in 1860, and republished in 1880, 
entitled 'The Screw Propeller: who in- 
ventedit? ' Between 1842 and 1880 he took 
out twenty-four patents for valves, pistons, 
propellers, and hydraulic and other ma- 
chinery. His first patent for an hydraulic , 
packing-press was taken out in conjunction 
with Nasmyth in 1856, and he subsequently 
made many improvements in this successful 

He was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh in 1873, and was a 
member of the Royal Scottish Society of 
Arts. He died at Matlock, Derbyshire, on 
28 July 1882, and was buried at St. Cathe- 
rine's, Barton-on-Irwell, not far from his 
residence, Ellesmere House, Patricroft. He 
was twice married, and left four sons and 
four daughters. 

He is to be distinguished from another 
Robert Wilson, inspector for the Manchester 
Steam Users' Association, and author of a 
'Treatise on Steam Boilers/ 1873, and 
'Boiler and Factory Chimneys/ 1877. 

[Manchester Guardian, 1 Aug. 18S2 ; Engineer, 
4 Aug. 1882 ; Axon's Lancashire Gleanings, 1883, 
p. 297 ; Rowlandaon's History of the Steam Ham- 
mer, Eccles, 1864; Chambers's Encyclopedia, 
1892, ix, 706 ; Specifications of Patents; Man- 
chester City News, 15 Jan. 1898.] C. W. S. 




1875), Irish humourist and poet, was born at 
Falcaragh, co. Donegal, "where his father, 
Arthur Wilson, was a coastguardsman, about 
1820. His mother, whose maiden name was 
Catherine Hunter, a native of Islandma^ee, 
co. Antrim, contrived to give him a fairly 
good education at home before sending him 
to Raymunterdoney school. He became a 
teacher at Ballycastle, Antrim, after leaving 
school, but only for a short period. About 
1840 he emigrated to America, where he re-* 
mained some years, working as a journalist. 
On his return to Ireland he joined the staff 
of a paper in Enniskillen, whence he pro- 
ceeded to Dublin to take up the position of 
sub-editor of the 'Nation, under Charles 
Gavan D ujffy . His knowledge of the tenant- 
right question was found particularly useful 
in his new employment. But his restlessness 
prevented him from remaining long in Dub- 
tin, and he went back to Enniskillen, editing 
there successively ' The ImpartialReporter ' 
and <The Fermanagh Mail/ In 1865 he 
went to Belfast, where he became the lead- 
ing writer on the 'Morning News.' In a 
short time he was recognised ^ as the most 
popular of Ulster writers. His * Letters to 
my Cousin in Amerikv/ which appeared in 
the paper under the signature 01 * Barney 
Maglone/ made the fortune of the ))aper, and 
were read with delight, not only in Ulster, 
but over the rest of Ireland, The circulation 
of the * Morning News' was enormously in- 
creased, and for some years Wilson's clever 
prose satires on local celebrities and humorous 
lyrics proved the most popular literature in 
the north. To the ' Ulster Weekly News' 
and other journals, under the signatures of 
'Young Ireland,' * Erin Oge,' and 'Jonathan 
Allman/ he contributed racy poems in 
northern dialect, many of which are still 
familiar to Ulster men. His eccentricities 
and irregularities, however, prevented him 
from doing any enduring work, and his ten- 
dency to drink became more and more pro- 
nounced as he grew older ? and finally led to 
his death. While on a visit to Dublin during 
the O'Connell centenary celebrations in 1875, 
he drank more than usual, and on 10 Aug. 
was found dead in his room. His body was 
removed to Belfast, and buried, in the 
presence of a vast number of people, in 
the Borough cemetery, where a monument 
has been erected to his memory by public 
subscription. Some of his poems are admi- 
rable all are racy of Ulster. A small se- 
lection from them was published in Dublin 
and Belfast, 1894, under the title of ' Reliques 
of Barney Maglone.' The volume, which 
was edited by F. J. Bigger and J. S, Crone, 

contains a portrait and a biographical intro- 
duction by the present writer. The only work 
issued by Wilson himself was a humorous 
' Almeynack for all Ireland, an' whoever else 
wants it,' London, 1871. 

[O'ponoglwe's Poets of Ireland; Belfast 
Morning News, 11-15 Aug. 1875; information 
from Mr. John Wilkinson, JFalcarugh, co, Done- 
gal.] D. J. O'D. 

(1777-1849), general and governor of Gi- 
braltar, fourth child and third son of the por- 
trait painter Benjamin Wilson fq.v.j, was 
born in Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, 
London, on 17 Aug. 1777. He was educated 
at Westminster school, and also under Dr. 
Joseph Warton at Winchester. After the 
death of his father and mother, his elder 
sister, Frances, married early in 1793 Colonel 
Bosville of the Coldstreani guards, who was 
killed on 15 Aug. 1793 at the battle of Lin- 
celles; with her assistance Wilson joined 
the Duke of York in the following year at 
Courtray, furnished with a letter of recom- 
mendation from the king. He was at once 
enrolled as a cornet of the 15th light dragoons. 

He took part in tho storm and capture of 
PrSmont on 17 April 1794 and tho action 
of the 18th. On the 24th he was one of eight 
officers with the two squadrons of the Itfth 
light dragoons who, with two squadrons of 
Leopold's hussars, mustering altogether 
under three hundred sabres, attacked and 
routed a very superior French force at Vil- 
Iiers-en-0ouch6. This action prevented the 
capture of the emperor Francis II, whom tho 
French were endeavouring to intercept on 
his journey from Valenciennes to Oatillon, 
and had already cut off by tMr patrols. Tho 
results of this magnificent charge, undertaken 
with the full knowledge of the danger incurred 
and of the object to be attained, were twelve 
hundred of the enemy killed and wounded, 
three pieces of cannon captured, and the with- 
drawal of all French posts from the Solla, 
with the consequent safety of the emperor* 
Wilson's horse was wounded under him. 
Four years later tlie emperor caused nine 
commemorative gold medals to be struck- 
the only impressions one to be deposited in 
the imperial cabinet, and the others to be 
bestowed upon the eight British officers of 
the 15th light dragoons, George III gave 
permission for them to be worn 'as an 
honorary badge of their bravery in the field ' 
(London Gazette, 9 June 1798), In 1 800 the 
emperor conferred upon the same officers the 
cross of the order of Maria Theresa, which 
George HI on 2 June 1801 permitted them 
to accept, with the rank of baron of the holy 
Roman empire and of knighthood attached* 



Two days after the affair of Villiers-en- 
Couche", Wilson was engaged with his regi- 
ment in the action at Gateau (26 April). He 
also took part in the battle of Tournay, or 
the Marque, on 10 May; in the capture of 
Lannoy, teoubaix, andMouveaux on the 17th ; 
in the disastrous retreat on the 18th to 
Templeuve, when he commanded the rear- 
guard, and when the light cavalry, accord- 
ing to an eye-witness, * performed wonders 
of valour ' (BBOWff, Journal) ; at the battle 
of Pont a Chin on 22 May ; and at the action 
of Duffel on 16 July. He greatly distin- 
guished himself in September at Boxtel-on- 
the-Dommel, when, with Captain Calcraft 
and the patrol, he penetrated to the French 
headquarters, captured an aide-de-camp of 
General Vandamme and two gendarmes, 
mounted them on the general's horses, and, 
notwithstanding that a regiment of red 
hussars and a regiment of dragoons pursued 
for six miles by separate roads to cut him 
off, made good his retreat with the captives ; 
and on the same evening falling in with a 
party of French infantry cut it to pieces. 
The British army having retreated into Ger- 
many, Wilson returned to England at the 
end of 1795, and joined the dep6t at Croydon 
in February 179'6. 

He was promoted to be lieutenant, by 
purchase, on 31 Oct. 1794, and on 21 Sept. 
1796 he purchased his troop. He married 
in 1797, and in May 1798 accompanied 
Major-general St. John to Ireland, and 
served as brigade-major on his staff, and 
afterwards as aide-de-camp during the re- 
bellion of 1798. He rejoined his regiment 
in 1799, and accompanied it to the Helder ; 
in this campaign the 15th light dragoons 
were greatly distinguished at Egmont-op-Zee 
on 2 Oct. Wilson also took part in the 
actions of 6 and 10 Oct., and returned with 
the regiment to England in November. 

On 28 June 1800 he purchased a majority 
in Hompesch's mounted riflemen, then serv- 
ing under Sir Ralph Abercromby in the 
Mediterranean, and in the autumn travelled 
across the continent to Vienna on a mission 
to Lord Minto, by whom he was sent to the 
Austrian army in Italy. Having communi- 
cated with General Bellegarde and Lord 
William Bentinck, he proceeded to join 
Abercromby. He landed at Aboukir Bay 
on 7 March 1801, and took part in the action 
of the 13th and in the battle of Alexandria 
on the 21st, when Abercromby fell and was 
succeeded by Major-general (afterwards Lord) 
Hutchinson ; the latter employed Wilson on 
several missions. In July he entered Cairo 
with Hutchinson, was at the siege of Alex- 
andria in August, and its capitulation on the 

25th. Wilson left Egypt on 11 Sept. and" 
returned to England by Malta and Toulon, 
arriving at the end of December. He was 
made a knight of the order of the Orescent 
of Turkey for his services in Egypt, 

In 1802 Wilson published < The History 
of the British Expedition to Egypt ' (l.p. 4to), 
which went through several editions, was 
translated into French in 1803 from an oc- 
tavo edition in two volumes published that 
year, and also appeared in an abridged form. 
The fourth edition in 1803 contained 'A 
Sketch of the Present State of the Country 
and its Means of Defence/ with a portrait of 
Sir Ralph Abercromby. Lord Nelson wrote 
a characteristic letter to Wilson, on receipt 
of a presentation copy, which is printed in 
Randolph's ' Life of Nelson/ The work de- 
rived especial popularity from the charges 
of cruelty which it brought against Buona- 
parte, both towards his prisoners at Jaffa 
and his own soldiers at Cairo. Of these 
charges the emperor complained to the 
British government, but, receiving no satis- 
faction, caused a counter report to be issued 
by Colonel Sebastiani. Wilson was ap- 
pointed inspecting field-officer in Somerset 
and Devonshire under General Simcoe. 

In 1804 Wilson published an 'Inquiry 
into the Present State of the Military Force 
of the British Empire with a View to its 
Reorganization/ 8vo, in which he made his 
first public protest against corporal punish- 
ment in the army, and was complimented 
by Sir Francis Burdett in a letter dated 
13 Aug. 1804 for the service thus rendered 
to humanity. 

Wilson purchased a lieutenant-colonelcy 
in the 19th light dragoons in this month, 
and on 7 March 1805 exchanged into the 
20th light dragoons. He sailed with 230 
of them in the expedition under Sir David 
Baird and Sir Home Popham on 27 Aug. 
from Cork harbour for trie Cape of Good 
Hope, and after a voyage to Brazil, where 
he purchased horses for the cavalry, and a 
narrow escape from shipwreck, disembarked 
with General Beresford on 7 Jan. 1806 in 
Saldanha Bay, Cape of Good Hope, as an ad- 
vanced guard. After the battle of Blaauw- 
berg, which took place just before his ar- 
rival, Wilson was employed in command of 
the cavalry on outpost duty until the terms of 
the capitulation were settled, and in receiv- 
ing arms, colours, guns, and horses at Simon's 
Bay until General Janssen and the Dutch 
troops were deported in February. In June 
he obtained leave of absence and returned 
to England in the Adamant, but was nearly 
lost at sea in passing from one ship to An- 
other of the fleet. 




On 3 Nov. 1800 Wilson having been at- 
tached to the staff of Lord Hutchinson, then 
going on a special mission to the Prussian 
court, embarked with him at Yarmouth in 
the frigate Astrsea, and was nearly wrecked 
in the Gattegat on the Anhalt shore, the 
guns having to be thrown overboard. He 
accompanied Lord Hutchinson and the king 
of Prussia to Memel in January 1807, and in 
Pebmary joined General Bemngsen at the 
Russian headquarters of the army at Jarnova, 
He was present at the battle of Eylau on the 
7th and 8th, and accompanied the headquar- 
ters to Heilsberg in March, and in April to 
Bartenstein, where on the 26th the emperor 
of Russia bestowed upon him the cross of 
SI G-eor^e for his services at Eylau, Wil- 
son took part in the campaign of June, was 
present at the action of the Passarge on the 
5th, at the battle of Heilsberg on the 10th, 
and the battle of Friedlandon the 14th, after 
whidtahe retreated with the army to Tilsit. 

On the conclusion of the peace of Tilsit 
he went to St. Petersburg, and thence to 
England with despatches, arriving on 19 Sept. 
On 2 Oct. he left England with a confiden- 
tial communication from Canning to the 
emperor, of Russia, arriving at St. Peters- 
burg on the 20th. He left again on 8 Nov. 
with despatches from Lord Granville to 
Canning, containing intelligence which Wil- 
son had himself been the first to procure, 
that the emperor of Russia was about to 
invade Swedish-Finland and declare war 
against England. Notwithstanding the fact 
that a Russian courier had preceded him by 
thirty-six hours (Wilson's passport having 
been expressly withheld to give the courier 
the advantage), Wilson pushed from Abo 
across the Gulf of Bothnia, in very bad 
weather, reached Stockholm before the 
courier, arranged that the courier should be 
delayed, sailed for England, landed in the 
Tees on the evening of the 29th, posted to 
London, and saw Canning in bed at four 
o'clock in the morning of 2 Dec. He was 
directed to keep quiet until Canning's orders 
to the naval authorities at Portsmouth had 
been executed ; and on his return to break- 
fast with Canning the following morning he 
was complimented upon his activity, which 
had resulted in the seizure of the Russian 
frigate Sperknoi, with money to pay the 
Russian fleet, while a fast vessel had been 
(Mpatched to Sir Sidney Smith to intercept 
' tffe Russian fleet. 

In 1808 Wilson was given the command 
of the loyal Ltisitanian legion, a body raised 
out of Portuguese refugees in England under 
British officers, and in August went to Por- 
tugal as a brigadier-general in the Portu- 

guese army. He was engaged in various 
encounters with the enemy in Castille and 
Estramadura during the retreatof the British 
to Coruna in 1808-9 ; and after the battle of 
Coruna on 16 Jan. 1809, acting in conjunc- 
tion with the Spaniards beyond the Agueda, 
by a series of spirited and judicious move- 
ments, he kept open the communications 
with Ciudad Rodrigo and Almeida, and held 
the enemy in check. He had a good deal 
of Desultory fighting took part in the pur- 
suit of Soult, and with the tusitanian legion 
and three thousand Spaniards advanced to 
within nine miles of Madrid. After the 
battle of Talavera on 27 and 28 July Wilson 
found himself at Escalona, cut off by the 
enemy from Arzobispo; crossing the Tietar, 
he scrambled over the mountains, and with 
difficulty gained the pass of Banos on 8 Aug., 
as Ney's corps was approaching on its march 
from Placentia to the north, Wilson en- 
deavoured to stay jts advance, and defended 
the pass with spirit for some hours, but was 
eventually dislodged, and retreated to Cas- 
tello Branco, 

When the British army went into winter 
quarters, Wilson returned home, and, as the 
Lusitanian legion was absorbed in the new- 
organisation of the Portuguese army, offered 
himself to Lord Wellesley for special ser- 
vice on 6 May 1810. For his services in the 
Peninsula he was promoted on 25 July to 
be colonel in the army, and appointed aide- 
de-camp to the king, and in 1811 received 
the Portuguese medal, and was made a 
knight-commander of the Portuguese order 
of the Tower and Sword. In this year 
Wilson published, in quarto form, * Brief Re- 
marks on the Character and Composition of 
the Russian Army ; and a Sketch of the 
Campaign in Poland in 1800 and 1807.' In 
the autumn of 1811 his of&r of service was 
accepted, and on 26 March 1812 he was given 
the local rank of brigadier-general in the, 
British army, and accompanied Sir Robert 
Liston fa. vj, the newly appointed ambassador 
to the rorte, to Constantinople, with instruc- 
tions to assist in the conduct of negotiations 
for peace between Turkey and Russia (see 
Wilson's diary of the journey in Addfa M$, 
SOKJO). He arrived at Constantinople on 
1 July, and on 27 July went on a mission 
from Liston to the grand vizier at Shumla, 
to the Russian admiral Tchichagoif, com- 
manding the Danube army corps at Bu- 
charest, and finally to the emperor of Russia 
at St. Petersburg. He reached the head- 
quarters of the Russian arnrj' under Barclay 
de Tolly in time to take part in the battle of 
Smolensk on 16 Aug., arrived hi St. Peters- 
burg on the 27th, and had an audience with 




the emperor on 4 Sept. Having satisfactorily 
completed all the affairs entrusted to him, and 
received the thanks of Listen and of Lord 
XJathcart, British ambassador at St. Peters- 
burg, he proceeded on the 15th, accompanied 
by his aide-de-camp, Baron Brinken, and by 
Lord Tyrconnel, to join the Russian army at 
Krasnoi Pakra, near Moscow, as British com- 
missioner, with instructions to keep both 
Lord Cathcart and Liston informed of the 
progress of events. 

Wilson took part in the successful attack 
on Murat at Winkowo on 18 Oct., in the 
battles of Malo- Jaroslawitz on the 24th, of 
Wiasma on 3 Nov., of Krasnoi on 17 Nov., 
and in all the affairs to the cessation of the 
pursuit of the French. He exchanged into 
the 22nd light dragoons on 10 Dec. 1812. 
Early in 1813 he marched across Poland to 
Kalish, and thence to Berlin, where he ar- 
rived on 31 March. On 8 April he proceeded 
by Dessau and Leipzig to Dresden. On 
2 May he took a prominent part in the battle 
of Liitzen, where, aided by Colonel Camp- 
"bell, he rallied the Prussians, carried the vil- 
lage of Gros Gorschen, which he held until 
night, and subsequently drove the enemy 
"back on Liitzen. He further distinguished 
himself at the battle of Bautzen on 20 and 
21 May, and at the action of Reichenbach 
on the 22nd. During a review of the troops 
neair Jauer on the 27th the emperor of 
Russia decorated Wilson in front of the im- 
perial guard with the cross of -the third class 
or knight commander of the order of St, 
George, taking it from his own neck and 
making a most complimentary speech, in 
which he stated his desire to mark his esteem 
fer Wilson's courage, zeal, talent, and fidelity 
throughout the war. 

Wilson was promoted to be major-general 
on 4 June 1813. During the armistice he 
travelled about the country inspecting the 
fortresses. When Austria joined the alliance 
against Buonaparte and hostilities were re- 
sumed, Wilson was conspicuous in the 
attack upon Dresden on 26 Aug., when he 
took part in storming the grand redoubt, and 
was' die first' to mount the parapet, followed 
by Captain Charles. On this occasion he 
lost his cross of the order of Maria Theresa 
in the m61ee, and the emperor of Austria pre- 
sented him with another, which was sent to 
hint with a complimentary letter from Count 
Metternich (dated Toplitz, 24 Sept. 1813). In 
the battle of 27 Aug. Wilson was with the 
emperor of Russia and General Moreau when 
the latter was mortally wounded. He was also 
present at the battles of Kulm and Kraupen 
on the 29th and 30th, and charged repeatedly 
with the Austrian cavalry on the 30th. 


On 7 Sept. Wilson joined the Austrian 
army at Leitmeritz as British commissioner, 
having been transferred from the Russian 
army. On the 27th he received from the 
king of Prussia the grand cross of the order 
of the Red Eagle, of which order he had re- , " 
ceived the fourth class in the last war. He 
was with the staff of Marshal Prince 
Schwartzenberg, commanding the allied 
armies, at the battles of Leipzig on 16 and > , 
18 Oct., and at the capture of the city on the * V 
19th. Schwartzenberg wrote to Lord Aber- 
deen, the British ambassador, attributing 
the success at Leipzig on the 16th chiefly to t . 
Wilson's intelligence and able dispositions. 

Shortly after the battles of Leipzig Lord 
Castlereagh appointed Lord Burghersh to b$ 
British commissioner with Schwartzenberg, 
and transferred Wilson to the Austrian 
army in Italy. Both the emperors and also 
the king of Prussia desired to retain Wilson 
with them. Metternich wrote to Aberdeen, 
that he was commanded by the emperor to 
express his sense of Wilson's great services, 
and his wish that he should remain with the 
army, and Schwartzenberg told him that 
conspicuous as were Wilson's services in the 
field, they fell short of those he had rendered 
out of the field. Aberdeen wrote to Gastle- 
reagh (Despatch, 11 Nov. 1813) : 'From his 
intimate knowledge of the Russian and 
Prussian armies, and the great respect in- 
variably shown him by the emperor of Russia 
and the king of Prussia, he is able to do a 
thousand things which no one else could do. 
He was the means of making up a difference 
between the king and Schwartzenberg which 
was of the utmost importance.' Castlereagh 
was, however, firm; he deemed the appli- 
cations of the foreign sovereigns an unwar- 
rantable interference, and observed that if 
Wilson had the confidence of all other govern- 
ments he lacked that of his own. Party 
politics alone account for the fact that, 
although loaded with distinctions by allied 
foreign sovereigns, he received none from, 
his own. In November the emperor of 
Russia bestowed upon him the Moscow 
medal for the campaign of 1812. 

On 22 Dec. 1813 Wilson went to Basle 
by Aberdeen's direction to join the allied 
commission, but on the 25th his instructions 
arrived from Castlereagh to join the Aus- 
trian army in Italy, and to report direct to 
him, keeping the British ambassador jfe 
Austria informed. Before leaving, the em- 
peror of Russia presented him with the first 
class or grand cross of the order of St. Anne 
at Freiburg on 24 Dec., and the emperor of 
Austria promoted him to be knight com- 
mander of the order of Maria Theresa on 




4 Jan. 1814. He joined Marshal Bellegarde 
at Vincenza on 12 Jan,, accompanied him in 
the occupation of Verona early in February, 
and was present on the 8th at the battle of 
Valeggio, where he greatly distinguished 
himself and was nearly captured by the 
French. On the 10th he was present at the 
action on the right bank of the Mincio. On 
28 March he went to Bologna, where he met 
Lord William Bentiuck and Murat, with 
whom he commenced negotiations. The 
abdication of Buonaparte put an end to his 
mission, and in June he left Italy for Paris. 
On 10 Jan, 1816 Wilson was instru- 
mental, in cog unction with Michael Bruce 
and Captain John Hely-TIutchinson (after- 
wards third Earl of Donoughmore), in the 
escape from Paris of Count Lavalette, who, 
having been condemned to death, had escaped 
from prison by changing dress with his wife. 
Wilson passed the barriers in a cabriolet 
with Lavalette disguised as a British officer, 
and conveyed him safely to Mons. He sent 
a narrative of the adventure to Earl Grey 
(reprinted in Gent. Mag. 1816), which was 
intercepted. He was arrested in Paris on 
IS Jan. The three Englishmen were tried 
in Paris on 2 April and sentenced on the 
24th to three months 7 imprisonment (see 
Annual Register, 1816). On 10 May a 
general order was issued "by the Duke of 
York, commander-in-chief, expressing the 
prince regent's high displeasure at the con- 
duct of Wilson and Hutchinson. 

In 1817 Wilson published 'A Sketch of 
the Military and Political Power of Russia,' 
which went through several editions, and 
was severely attacked by the * Quarterly Re- 
view ' (vol. xix., September 1818). In 1818 
Wilson was returnee! as member or parliament 
for Southwark, defeating Charles Barclay, the 
brewer, and on this occasion he replied to 
the attack of the 'Quarterly Review' in 
'A Letter to his Constituents in Refutation 
of a Charge for despatching a False Report 
of a "Victory to the Commander-in-chief 
the British Army in the Peninsula in 1809. 
In 1820 he was again returned for South- 
wark, defeating Sir Thomas Turton. 

Queen Caroline (1768-1821) [q. v.], who 
had been friendly to Wilson and to whom 
hia eldest son was equerry, died on 7 Aug 
1821. Wilson attended the funeral on the 
14th, when an encounter took place between 
the household cavalry and the mob at Cum- 
berland Gate, Hyde rark. Shots were fired 

He was peremptorily dismissed from th< 
army on }5 Sept. without any reason be 
ing assigned, or any opportunity of expla- 
nation afforded. Having purchased all bu 

lis first commission, he lost a large sum of 
money, and a subscription was raised to com- 
pensate him for the loss. On 13 Feb. 1822 
n his place in parliament Wilson moved for 
apers, and in a long and able speech (see 
Hansard) vindicated his action, and called 
n question the prerogative of the crown to 
ismiss any officer without cause. The go- 
vernment, confining themselves to the ques- 
ions of prerogative, easily defeated the 
motion. In 1823 Wilson went to Spain to 
ake part in the war iirst in Galicia and then 
at Cadiz. He was again returned to parlia- 
nent for Southwark in 1826, when the poll 
asted six days, and he defeated Edward 
Mhill. He made a speech in the House of 
Dommons on 12 Dec. on the policy of aiding 
Portugal when invaded by Spain, which was 
published separately. He was an active 
jolitician, and took a prominent j>art in the 
formation of the Canning ministry (see 
WILSON, Canning's Administration: Nar* 
rathe of formation, with Correspondence. 

., 188V, ed. Herbert Randolph, 1872, 8vo). 

e was again returned to parliament for 
Southwark in 1830. On the accession of 
William IV Wilson was reinstated in the 
army with the rank of lieutenant-general, to 
date from 27 May 1825. The Reform Bill 
was introduced in the House of Commons 
on 1 March 1831. Wilson voted for the 
second reading, but spoke without voting in 
favour of Gascoigne's amendment opposing 
the reduction of the number of members 
for England and Wales which was carried 
against the government, He did not seek re- 
election after the consequent dissolution of 
April 1831. He finally regarded the measure 
as ' the initiatory measure of a republican 
form of government.' By his attitude he 
lost for a time the colonelcy of a regiment. 

On 29 Dec. 1885 Wilson was appointed 
colonel of his old regiment, the 15th hussars, 
On 28 Nov. 1841 he was promoted to be 
general, and in 1842 he was appointed 

Crnor and commander-inchief at Gi- 
;ar. He had only recently returned home 
when he died suddenly on 9 May 1849 at 
Marshall Thompson's hotel, Oxford Street, 
London. He was buried on 15 May beside 
his wife in the north aisle near the western 
entrance of Westminster Abbey, and a fine 
memorial brass, next to the grave of John 
Hunter, marks the vault (for will cf. CHBS- 
TBK, Westminster Abbey Register^ 618). 

Wilson married Jemima (1777-1828% 
daughter of Colonel William Belford of 
Harbledown, Kent, eldest son of General 
William Belford [a, y.] of the royal artil- 
lery* She was coheiress with her sister, 
Mrs. Christopher Carleton, of -their uncle, 


Sir Adam Williamson [q.v.] Both Wilson 
and Miss Belford were wards of chancery 
and under age, and the marriage ceremony, 
with the consent of both families, took pi ace 
on 8 July 1797 at Gretna Green and again 
on 10 March 1798 at St. George's, Hanover 
Square, London. They had a family of seven 
sons and six daughters. Of the latter, Jemi ma 
married, as his second wife, Admiral Sir 
Provo William Parry Wallis [q. v.] 

There are several engraved portraits of 
Wilson; one by Ward, from a painting by 
Pickersgill, represents him in uniform with 
all his orders ; another is by Cooper after 
WivelL A miniature was painted by Cos- 
way and engraved by William Holl, and is 
reproduced for the frontispiece of Randolph's 
* Life.' He also figures in the well-known 
painting of the death of Abercromby. 

The following are works by Wilson not 
mentioned above : 1. ' An Account of the 
Campaign in 1801 between the French Army 
of the East and the English and Turkish 
Forces in Egypt, 7 translated by Wilson from 
the French of General Regnier, with observa- 
tions, London, 1802, 8vo. 2. ' Narrative of 
Events during the Invasion of Russia byNapo- 
leon Bonaparte and the Retreat of the French 
Army/ 1812, edited by Wilson's nephew and 
son-in-law the Rev. BLerbert Randolph, Lon- 
don, 1860, 8vo. The introduction gives a brief 
memoir of Wilson up to 1814 j 2nd edit, the 
same year. 3. ' Private Diary of Travels, 
Personal Services, and Public Events during 
Missions and Employment with the European 
Armies in the Campaigns of 1812, 1813, and 
1814, from the Invasion of Russia to the Cap- 
ture of Paris/ edited by the same, London, 
1861, 2 vols. 8vo. 4. 'Life from Auto- 
biographical Memoirs, Journals, Narratives, 
Correspondence,' &c., edited by the same, 
London, 1863, 2 vols. 8vo. This work was 
never completed, and stops at the end of 1807, 

[Besides the materials for a biography sup- 
plied by Wilson himself in his works, and in 
election and other pamphlets, see especially A 
Letter in jeply to Wilson's Enquiry, 1804; 
Forgues's Gruerre de Bussie en 1812, 1861; 
Duping proces des trois Anglais, 1816 ; Night- 
ingale's Trial of Sir B. Wilson, &c,, 1816 ; see 
also War Office Becords ; Despatches ; Alison's 
History of Europe (frequent allusions) ; Alison's 
Lives of Lord Casflereagh and Sir Charles 
Stewart ' (frequent allusions) ; Quarterly Re- 
view, vols. v. xiii. xvi. xvii. and xix.; Gent. 
Hag. 1816, 1822, and 1849; Ann. Beg. 1816, 
1822, 1830, 1849 ; Blackwood's Mag. vols. viii. 
3iv. xvi. rsi. xxii. and xxviii.; Hall's Atlantic 
Monthly, April 1865 ; Mayne's Narrative of the 
Campaigns of the Loyal Lusitanian Legion under 
SirB. Wilson, &c. } 1812, 8vo ; Public Characters, 
1806-7, vol. ;; Btirke's Celebrated Naval and 

i Wilson 

Military Trials ; Royal Military Calendar, 1 8201 
Royal Military Chronicle, vols. iii. and v. ; 
Notes and Queries, 4th ser. vols. viii. and iac. 
5th ser. yols. i, ii. iii. and v. ; Tait's Edinburgh 
Mag. 1849 (obituary notice); Lavalette's Me- 
moires et Souvenirs; London Times, 10 May 
1849; Cathcart's Commentaries on the War in 
Eussia and Germany, 1812-13 ; Londonderry's 
Narrative of the War in Germany and France, 
1813-14; Odleben's Campaign in Saxony, 1813, 
translated by Kempe; Phillippart's Northern 
Campaign, 1812- 13 ; Porter's Campaign in 
Eussia in 1812; Walsh's Campaign in Egypt, 
1801 ; Anderson's Journal of the Expedition to 
Egypt, 1801 ; Gleig's Leipsic Campaign.] 


WILSON, ROWLAND (1613-1650), 
parliamentarian, born in 1613, and descended 
from a family established at Gresegarth in 
the parish of Kendal, Westmorland, was son 
of Rowland Wilson (d. 16 May 1654) of 
Gresegarth and London, by Mary, daugnter 
of John Tiffin of London ( Visitation of Lon- 
don, 1633-5 ; SMYTH, Obituary, p. 37). The 
elder Wilson was a wealthy merchant, 
elected sheriff in 1630, but excused on pay- 
ment of a fine of 5QQI. (Remembrancia, 
p. 18). The younger Wilson was lieutenant- 
colonel of the orange regiment of the Lon- 
don trained bands, and commanded it in 
October 1643, joining the army of the Earl 
of Essex after the first battle of Newbury, 
and taking part in the occupation of New- 
port Pagnell. ' This gentleman/ says White- 
locke, * was the only son of his wealthy father, 
heir to a large estate of 2,OOOJ. per annum 
in land, and partner with his father in a great 
personal estate employed in merchandise ; 
yet in conscience he held himself obliged to 
undertake this journey, as persuaded that 
the honour and service of God, and the 
flourishing of the gospel of Christ and the 
true protestant religion, might in some 
measure be promoted by this service, and 
that his example in the city might be a 
means the more to persuade others npt to 
decline it. Upon these grounds he cheer- 
fully marched forth' (WHITELOCKB, Me- 
morials, 1853, i. 223; J)ii*LQX,Li8t of Officers 
of the London Trained Bands). 

Wilson was colonel of the orange regiment 
in 1646, and in June of that year he was 
elected member for Calne. Being an inde- 
pendent, he was left out of the committee of 
the militia for the city of London wh.en that 
body was renewed in April 1647 (WHIXB- 
LOCKE, ii. 136). On 28 Nov. 1648 Wilson, 
who was a member of the Vintners' Com- 
pany, Was elected alderman of Bridge Within 
(Remembrancia, p. 18 n.) A month later ho 
was nominated one of the commissioners for 
the trial of Charles I, bat refused to act 




( WHITELOCKE, ii. 496). Nevertheless he con- 
sented to take part m the proclamation of 
the act for the abolition of monarchy in 
London, and was elected a member of the 
council of state in February 1649, and 
again in February 1650 (Common^ Journals, 
vi. 141, 301 j NOBLB, Lives of the Regicides, 
ii. 333). In July 1649 he was elected sheriff 
of London, and the House of Commons in 
giving him leave to serve declared that they 
would regard it as ' an acceptable service to 
the Commonwealth if he took the office' 
(Commons' Journals, vi. 2/59), 

Wilson died on 19 Feb. 1650, and was 
buried on 5 March (SMYTH, Obituary, p. 28). 
' He was a gentleman of excellent parts and 
great piety, of a solid sober temper and judg- 
ment, and very honest and just in all his 
actions. He was beloved both, in the house, 
city, and army' (WniTBLOOKE, iii. 158), 

Wilson married, in January 1634, Mary, 
daughter of Bigley Carleton of London, grocer 
(CHESTER, London Marriage Licences, col. 
1484), In the contemporary notes appended 
to the ' List of Officers of the London Trained 
Bands' he is erroneously described as son- 
in-law to Alderman Wright. His widow 
became the third wife of Bulstrode White- 
locke [q.v/| (R. WHITBLOOKB, Memoirs of 
Bulstrode Whitetocke, 1860, p. 284), 

[Noble's Lives of the Regicides, ii. 332; 
Whitelocke's Memorials, 1853 j other authori- 
ties mentioned in the article.] 0. H. F. 

WILSON, THOMAS (1525 P-1581), 
secretary of state and scholar, born about 
1525, was son of Thomas Wilson of Strubby, 
Lincolnshire, by his wife Anne, daughter 
and heiress of Roger Cumberworth of Cum- 
berworth in the same county (cf. JKarl. MS. 
6164, f. 42 $). He was educated at Eton, 
whence in 1541 he was elected scholar of 
King's College, Cambridge, graduating B.A. 
in 1645-6 and M, A. in 1549. Sir John Cheke 
[q.v.] was elected provost of King's on 1 April 
1648, and Wilson came under the influence 
of the revival of the study of Greek led by 
Cheke, Sir Thomas Smith (1513-1577) 
[q, v.], and others, through whom he be- 
came intimate with Koger Ascham. His 
Lincolnshire neighbours Katherine Wil- 
loughby, duchess of Suffolk, Sir Edward 
Dymocl, and Cecil also furthered his ad- 
vance, and the Duchess of Suffolk appointed 
Hm tutor to her two sons, Henry and 
Charles Brandon (successively dukes of 
Suffolk), who divided their time between 
Cambridge and Holbeaeh's episcopal palace 
at Bugden (Addit. MS. 5815, 41). On 
their death Wilson collaborated with Walter 
JEladdon [q, v.], another Etonian, in produc- 

ing ' Vita et Obitus Duorum Fratrum Suf- 
folciensium, Henrici et Caroli Brandoni 
duabus epistolis explicata/ London, 1551*, 
4to. Wilson wrote the dedication to Henry 
Grey, created Duke of Suffolk on 11 Oct. in 
that year, the first epistle, and several of 
the copies of verses at the end of the 
volume. It was published by Richard Graf- 
ton [q, v.], who had helped Wilson at Cam- 
bridge, and suggested to him his treatise 
'The Rule of Reason, conteinynge the Arte 
of Logique set forth in Englishe ... * which 
was also published by Grafton in the same 
year (London, 8vo) and dedicated to Ed- 
ward VI. The first edition is very rare, and 
the copy in the British Museum has manu- 
script notes by Sir Thomas Smith; a 
second edition appeared in 1552, a third in 
1558, and others in 1567 and 1580 j the third 
edition contains a passage from Nicholas 
Udall's ' Ralph Roister Doister/ which is 
reprinted in Wood's * Athene ' (ed. Blisa, i. 
213-14). Wilson also wrote in 1552 a dedi- 
cation to Warwick, the Duke of Northum- 
berland's eldest son, of Haddon's 'Exhor- 
tatio ad Literas,' 

According to John Gough Nichols, Wil- 
son's ' Arte of Rhetorique ' was published at 
the same time as, and uniform with, the 
' Rule of Reason/ but the earliest edition of 
which any copy is known to be extant is 
dated * mense Januarii 1558.' It is entitled 
' The Arte of Rhetorique, for the use of all 
suche as are studious of eloquence, sette 
forthe in Englishe by Thomas Wilson/ 
London, 4to; it bears no printer's name. 
Wilson describes it as being written when 
he was * having in my country this laai; 
summer a quiet time of vacation with Sir 
Edward Dyinock/ 4 The copy of the first 
edition in the British Museum was given to 
George Steevens [q.v.] b^ Dr. Johnson. A 
second edition appeared in 1502 (London, 
4to ; prologue dated 7 Dec, 1560), and sub- 
sequent editions in 15G7, 1580, 1584, and!685 f 
all in quarto. Warton describes it as ' the 
first system of criticism in our language/ 
though in the common use of the word it is 
not criticism at all, but a system of rhetoric 
without much claim to originality, the rules 
being mainly drawn from Aristotle, Cicero, 
andQuintilian. Wilson, however, did good 
service by his denunciation of pedantry, 
* strange inkhorn terms/ and the use of 
French and ' Italianated ' idiom, which ' coun- 
terfeited the kinges Englishe ' (HAXXAH, Lit, 
of Europe, ii. 193, 209 ; BRTDGBS, Censura 
Lit. i. 839, ii. 2). In this way Wilson may 
have stimulated the development of English 
prose, and it has been maintained that Shake- 
speare himself owes something, including 




hints for Dogberry's character, to a study of 
"Wilson's book (DBAEE, Shakespeare and Ms 
Time, I 440-1, 472-4). 

The ' Arte of Rhetorique ' was dedicated 
to Northumberland's eldest son, John Dudley, 
earl of Warwick, and from this time Wilson 
became a staunch adherent of the Dudley 
family, his especial patron in later years 
being the Earl of Leicester. On Northum- 
berland's fall he sought safety on the con- 
tinent ; in 1555 he was with Chekeat Padua, 
where on 21 Sept. 1556 he delivered, in 
St. Anthony's Church, an oration on the 
death of Edward Courtenay, earl of Devon, 
which is printed in Strype's 'Memorials' 
(vol. iii. App. p. Ivii). Thence he seems to 
have proceeded to Borne before December 
1557, when he was implicated in some in- 
trigue at the papal court against Cardinal 
Pole (Cal. State Papers, For. 1553-8, pp. 
345, 374, 380). On 17 March 1557-8 Philip 
and Mary wrote commanding him to return 
home and appear before the privy council 
before 15 June following (ib. Dom. 1547-80> 
p. 100). The English ambassador, Sir Ed- 
ward Game, delivered him this letter in 
April, but Wilson paid no. attention-; and 
it was possibly at Mary's- instigation that 
he was arrested and charged before the in- 
quisition with having written the books, on 
logic and rhetoric, and with being a here- 
tic. He is said to have been put to torture,. 
and he owed his escape to a riot which 
"broke out on the news of Paul IVs death 
on 18 Aug. 3559, when the mob, enraged at 
the severities of the inquisition, broke open 
the prisons and released suspected heretics 
(#. For. 1558-9, No, 1287 ; Wnsosr, The 
Arte of Ehetorique, ed. 1562, pref,} He 
now took refuge at Ferrara, where ne re- 
ceived his diploma a& LL.D, on 29 Nov. 
1559 (Eist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. App. p. 
305) ; he was incorporated in this degree at 
Oxford on 6l Sept. 1566, and at Cambridge 
on 30 Aug. 1571 (Lansd. MS. 982, f. I; 
Univ. Qxm. i. 264; Addit. MS. 5815, 


In 1560 Wilson returned to London, 
whence on 7 Dec. he dated the preface to 
the second edition of his 'Arte of Rheto- 
rique;' he was admitted advocate in the 
court of arches by a commission from Arch- 
bishop Parker dated 28 Feb. 1560-1 (Lansd. 
MS. 982, f. 3)j and Parker also seems to 
. have appointed him dean of the college he 
founded at Stoke Clare, Suffolk (Addit. MS. 
5815, f. 42). In January 1560-1 he spoke 
of being ' summoned to serve abroad' (Cal. 
State Papers, For. 1560-1, No. 930), but no 
trace of the nature of this mission has been 
found. In the same year he became master 

of St. Catherine's Hospital in the Tower, 
and also master of requests (LBADAM, Court 
of Requests, 1897, pp. xlv, cvii, cix, cxx). 
In the former capacity he incurred some 
odium by taking down the choir of St. 
Catherine's, said by Stow to have been as 
large as that of St. Paul's, and apparently 
it was only Cecil's intervention that pre- 
vented his selling the franchises of the hos- 
pital. He was returned for Michael Borough 
in Cornwall to the parliament summoned 
to meet on 11 Jan. 1562-3 and dissolved 
on 2 Jan, 1566-7. In April 1564 he was 
commissioned with Dr. Valentine Dale [q.v.] 
to examine John Hales (d. 1571) fq. v.j about 
his book advocating the claims of Lady Cathe- 
rine Grey to the succession (Hatfteld MSS. 
vol. i. passim). On new year's day 1566-7 he 
presented to the queen an ' Oratio de de- 
mentia,' now extant in the British Museum 
(Royal MS. \Z A. 1). 

In 1563 Sir Thomas Chaloner had urged 
"Wilson's appointment as ambassador to the 
court of Spain, but Wilson's first diplomatic 
employment of any note was his mission to> 
Portugal in 1567 j it dealt mainly with 
commercial matters, and Wilson's energies 
were largely devoted to furthering in Portu- 
gal the mercantile interests of his brother-in- 
law, Sii William Winter [q. v.] His com- 
mission was apparently dated 6 May 1567 
(Cal. Clarendon Papers, i. 494), but it was 
October before he had his first interview at 
Lisbon (Cotton. Jtf&Nero B. i. 142). While 
there he entered into relations with Osorio da 
Fonseca, the well-known bishop of Silves, and 
on his return in 1568 Wilson brought with 
him the bishop's xeply to Haddon (cf. 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. App. p. 363, and 
art. HADDON, WALTBE). In July he addressed 
some Latin verses to Cecil on his recovery 
from illness. On 13 May 1569 he vainly 
requested to be again sent as agent to Por- 
tugal (Lansd. M'S. xil, art. 3), and he gene- 
rafly acted as intermediary between Portu-* 
guese envoys in London and the English 
government. As a thoroughgoing adherent 
of Leicester he also participated in the earl's 
secret negotiations with the Spanish am- 
bassador (Cal. Simancas Papers^ 1569-78, pp. 

In the intervals of these occupations and 
his duties as master of requests Wilson 
busied himself with his translation of t The 
Three Orations of Demosthenes, chiefe orator 
among the Grecians in favour of the Olyn- 
thians . . . with those his four Orations * . 
against Eong Philip of Macedonie; most 
nedefulto be redde in these daungerous dayes 
of all them that loue their countries libertie 
and desire to take warning for their better 




auayle . . . After these Orations ended, 
Demosthenes lyfe is setfoorth ; ' it also con- 
tains a description of Athens and various 
panegyrics on Demosthenes. The transla- 
tion had been begun, at Padua in 1656 with 
Ckeke, and "Wilson seems to have resumed 
it in November 1669 (Lansd. MS. xiii.* art. 
15 ; Letters of Eminent Lit. Men^ pp. 28-9), 
but the preface was not dated till 10 June 

1570, in which year the book was published 
with a dedication to Cecil (London, 4to). 
The preface contains 'a remarkable compari- 
son of England with Athens in the time of 
Demosthenes/ the part of Philip of Macedon 
being- filled by Philip of Spain (SHELBT, 
British Policy, 1894, i. 156) ; it is similar to 
the ' Latin treatise on the Dangerous State of 
England/ on which Wilson speaks of being 
engaged on IS Aug. 1569 (Lansd, MS. xiii. 
art. 9), and which is now extant in the Record 
Office (State Papers, Dom, Eli*, cxxiii. 17), 
being dated 2 April 1678, and entitled 'A 
Discourse touching the Kingdom's Perils with 
their Remedies,' To this is to be attributed tie 
curious story contributed probably by Dr. 
Johnson to the 'Literary Magazine '(1768, p. 
161), to the effect that Wilson was employed 
by the government to translate Demosthenes 
with a view to rousing a national resistance 
to Spanish invasion (Addit, MS. 5815, 42), 
Apart from its political significance, Wilson's 
translation is notable as the earliest Eng- 
lish version of Demosthenes, and attains a 
high level of scholarship ; no second edition, 
however, appears to have been called for, 
though a Latin version by Nicholas Carr 
[q. v7|, who died in 1568, was published in 

1571. At the same time Wilson was en- 
gaged upon his * Discourse uppon usurye by 
wave of Dialogue and Oracions,' which he 
dedicated to Leicester. The preface is dated 
20 July 1569, liut the book was not pub- 
lished until 1672 (London, 8vo ; 2nd edit, 
1684). It was one of the numerous six- 
teenth-century attacks upon interest based 
mainly on biblical texts which proved abso- 
lutely unavailing against the economic ten- 
dencies of the time, but it is of some value 
as illustrating various phases of contempo- 
rary opinion on the subject (AsniOT, $con. 
HiBt. li, 467-9) ; Jewel bestowed upon it his 
warm commendation, and on Jewel's death 
"Wilson contributed a copy of verses to the 
collection published in his memory (London, 
1573, 4to). 

Less congenial work occupied Wilson 
daring the autumn of 1571 ; on 7 Sept. he 
conveyed the Duke of Norfolk to the Tower, 
and for the next few weeks he did * nothing 
else but examine prisoners' (Cal Siman- 
cas MSS. 1568-79, p. 339), On the 15th he 

received a warrant to put two of Norfolk's 
servants to the rack (JfcSLLis, Oriff. Letters, i. 
ii. 261), and so engrossing was this occupa- 
tion that he took up his residence, and wrote 
letters 'from prison in the Bloody Tower ' 
(Cotton. MS, Calig. 0. iii. f. 260; Rat- 
field MSS. i, 571 sqq,) lie also conducted 
many of the examinations in connection with 
the Kidolfi plot, and in June 1572 was sent 
with Sir Ralph Sadior [q, v.] to Mary Queen 
of Scots * to expostulate witli her by way of 
accusation '(# ii. 19 j instructions in -EW. 
ton MS. 2124, f. 4\ Ho was returned for 
Lincoln city to the parliament that was 
summoned to meet on 8 May 1572 and was 
not dissolved till after his death, and ou 
8 July he was commissioned to provide for 
the better regulation of commerce (Lamd. 
MS. xiv. art, 21). In the summer of 1573 
he had many conferences with the Portu- 
guese ambassadors ( XlarL M& 6991, arts, 24. 
26, and 27), ' 

In the autumn ^ of 11574 Wilson was sent 
on the first of his important embasRios to the 
Netherlands? he left London on 7 Nov. 
(WA&SIKGHAM'S Dwy up.Camden Soc. jtffro, 
iv. 22 ; his instructions, abstracted in CaL 
State Papers, For. 1572-4, No. 1587, are 
printed in full in Rdationt Politiqw* des 
Pays-flas et tfAngkttrra, vii. 849-52 ; there 
are others in Cotton* MS. Galba 0, v. ft'. 51- 
216, and HarL MS. 6991). While at Brus- 
sels he is said to have instigated a plot for 
seizing Don John and handing him over to 
the insurgents (Cat, Simancas MSS, 1568- 
1579, pp, 543-4). He remained in the Low 
Countries until 27 March 1575, when ho 
sailed from Dunkirk (Act P, 0, 1571-5, p.- 
861). His second embassy to the Nether- 
lands followed in the autumn of 1576 ; ho 
left London on 25 Oct, (Camdon Soo, Mm, 
iv. 28), and spent nearly nine months in 
Flanders, mainly at Brussels, Bruges, Ant- 
werp, or Ghent. His despatches are printed 
in ' delations Politiques"" (ix* 1-414; see also 
Cal State Papers, Tor, 1575-77 } XZatfiM 
M8S. vol. ii. passim; Cotton. MS. Galba 0. 
v, If. 272-358; Karl M&& 36 art. 34, and 
6992 arts. 36, 37 ; and lansd. MS& civ, art. 
67). The ostensible purpose of his mission 
was to negotiate some modus w'vendi between 
Don John, with whom he had various inter- 
views (e.g. on 1 May 1577, Cotton, MS. Galba 
C. v. f. 806), and the Dutch insurgents; but 
he soon came to the conclusion that such 
schemes were impracticable, and urged a 
complete understanding between England 
and William of Orange (ftatfidd MSS. ii. 
150-4; cf, PXTTIUM, William the Silent, ii. 
172-212). He also took part in the negotia- 
tions for a marriage between Elizabeth and 




Anjou. He returned to England on 13 July 

During his absence Wilson was on 
23 April 1577 nominated a commissioner for 
a special "visitation of Oxford University, but 
he was destined for more important -work. 
In September the Spanish ambassador wrote 
that Leicester, with a view to furthering his 
project of marrying the queen, was bringing 
into the council all his adherents, of whom 
Wilson was one (Cal Simancas MSS.15GS- 
1579, p. 546). Wilson does not, however, 
occur as a privy councillor until 12 Nov., 
when he was sworn secretary of state in 
succession to Sir Thomas Smith (Acts P. C. 
ed. Dasent, 1577-8, p. 85). From that date 
he was constant in attendance on the coun- 
cil, but he was somewhat overshadowed by 
the superior ability of his colleague in the 
secretariate, Sir Francis Walsingnam [q. v. j, 
and the nature of his political influence is 
not easy to distinguish, more particularly as 
he tempered his adherence to Leicester with 
a firm desire to stand well with Burghley. 
He was, however, the principal authority on 
Portuguese affairs, and was the main sup- 
porter of Don Antonio's ambassadors in Lon- 
don (Cal. Simancas MSS. 1580-6, p. 183). 
In 1580 he became one of Elizabeth's lay 
deans, being installed dean of Duorham on 
5 Feb. 1579-80, a preferment for which he 
was a candidate in 1563, when William 
Whittingham [q.v.] was appointed (Ls 
NBVB, Fasti, iii. 299). Ralph Lever [q.v.] 
protested against Wilson's election (CaL 
State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 644), and 
the nomination of a layman to the deanery 
was a rude assertion of fehe royal supremacy 
against those who had cavilled at Wilson's 
predecessor on the ground of his invalid or- 
dination (cf. Add. MS. 23235, f. 5). 

Wilson's last attendance at the- council 
board was on 3 May 1581. He died at St. 
Catherine's Hospital OBJ 16 June following, 
and was buried there on the 17th. He 
ordered in his will that he should be buried 
' without charge o* pomp,' and no trace of 
his monument, if there was one, remains. 
A portrait of Wilson, dated 1575 but re- 
paired in 1777V representing him in a black 
cap and dark furred dress, belonged in 1866 
to Sir Thomas Maryon Wilson, bart. (Cat 
First Loan Mxhib. No. 214, where Wilson is 
erroneously styled ' Sir Thomas'). Another, 
an old copy of an anonymous painting, was 
in 1879 transferred from the British Museum 
to the National Portrait Gallery, London. 
A copy of his will,' dated 19 May 1581, is 
^reserved at Hatfield (CaL Hatjfteld MSS. 
ii. 391), He left his house at Edmonton to 
the overseers of his will, Sir Francis Wal- 

singham, Sir William Winter, and Matthew 
Smith, to be sold to pay his debts ; five hun- 
dred ^ marks to his daughter Mary on he* 
marriage or coming of age, and a like sum to 
his daughter Lucrece ; his son Nicholas was 
to be sole executor. No successor was ap- 
pointed to Wilson, Walsingham acting as 
sole secretary until Davison's selection on 
30 Sept. 1586. His death was the occasion 
of various poetical laments (cf. Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 2nd Rep. App. p. 97, 4th Rep. App. 
pp. 252-4). 

Wilson was twice married : first, to Jane, 
daughter of Sir Richard Empson [q. v.l and 
widow of John Pinchon of Writtle, Essex 
(BAJECEB, Northamptonshire, ii. 141). By her 
Wilson appears to have had no issue; and he 
married, secondly, Agnes, daughter of John 
Winter of Lydney, Gloucestershire, sister 
of Sir William Winter, the admiral, and 
widow of William Brooke ( Visit. Gloucester- 
shire, 1623, p. 274) ; of her three children, 
the only son, Nicholas, settled at Sheepwash, 
Lincolnshire (see pedigree in Coll. of Arms 
MS. C. 23) ; Mary married, first, Robert Bur- 
dett (d. 1603) of Bramcote, by whom she 
was mother of Sir Thomas Burdett, first 
baronet, ancestor of Sir Francis Burdett [q.v.] 
and of the Baroness Burdett-Ooutts ; and, 
secondly, Sir Christopher Lowther of Low- 
ther, Westmorland. She was buried in the 
choir of Penrith parish church (Lansd. MS. 

982, f. 2). Wilson's second daughter, Lu- 
crece, married Sir George Belgrave of Bel- 
grave, Leicestershire. 

Wilson has generally been confused with 
one or more contemporaries of the same 
name ; a confusion of him with Sir Thomas 
Wilson (1560 P-1629) [q.v.] has led to his 
fceing frequently styled a knight. Other 
contemporaries were Thomas Wilson (d, 
1586), a fellow of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, who took refuge at Frankfurt during 
Mary's reign, was elected dean of Worcester 
in 1571, and died on 20 July 1586 (COOPER, 
Athena Cantabr. ii. 5-6) ; Thomas Wilson 
(d. 1615), canon of Windsor (see Lansd. MS. 

983, f. 147) ; and Thomas Wilson (1563- 
1622) [q.v.] 

[A mass of Wilson's correspondence remains 
in the Eecord Office, principally among the 
foreign state papers, and in the British Museum; 
the portions that have been printed or calen- 
dared are indicated in the text. See also Cat. 
Cotton., Harleian, Lansdowne, and Add. MSS. ; 
CaL State Papers, Dom., Foreign, and Spanish 
series; Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent; 
Haynes and Murdin's Burghley State Papers ; 
Cal. Hatfield MSS. vols. I and ii. ; Collins'* 
Letters and Memorials of State ; Digges's Coin- 
pleat Ambassador, 1655; Kervyn do Letten- 




hovo's JRel. Pol. des Pays-Bas et d'Angleterre, 
1882-1891, vols. vi-x. ; Wright's Queen Eliza- 
beth and her Times; Nares's Life of Burghley, 
S vols.; Hume's Great Lord Burghley, 1898;. 
Froude's Hist, of England; Cole's Athense 
(Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 5815, ff. 40-5); Fuller's 
Hist, of Cambridge, p. 75, and Worthies, ed. 
1836; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. ; Ritson's Bibl. 
Anglo-Poetica ; Strype's Works (General Index, 
1827); Gough's General Index to Parker Soc. 
Publ. ; Ducarel and Nichols's Hist, of St. Cathe- 
rine's Hospital; Gent. Mag, 1835, i. 468-75; 
Kllis's Original Letters ; Lodge's Illustrations, 
ii. 194-5; Lit. Remains of Edward VI (Kox- 
burghe Ctob) ; Ascham's Epistoise, pp. 425, 426; 
Gabriel Harvey's Works, ed. Grosart, i. 182, ii. 
84 ; D'Ewes's Joxirnals ; Burgon's Life and Times 
of Gresham ; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 434-7, 
668 ; Foster's Alumni Oacoti. 1500-1714 ; Official 
Ket. Members of Par!,; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser, vi. 245 ; Wilson's Works in Brit. Mus, 
Libr.] A.}?. P. 

WILSON.TEOMAS (1563-1622), divine, 
born iu the county of Durham in 1563, ma- 
triculated from Queen's College, Oxford, 
on 17 Nov. 1581, aged 18, graduated B,A. 
on 7 Feb. 1588-4, and. was licensed MA. 
on 7 July 1586 (CLARK, Indexes^ ii. 102, iii. 
119). He was elected chaplain of the col- 

lege, apparently before he was ordained, on 
24 kpril 1585. In July 1586 he was 
appointed rector of St. George the Martyr at 
Canterbury through the influence of Henry 
Kobinson (1553P-1616) [q. v.], provost of 
Queen's College and afterwards bishop of 
Carlisle, to whom Wilson also owed bis col- 
lege education (cf. the epistle dedicatory to 
the Christian Dktionarie). He remained at 
Canterbury for the rest of his life, preaching 
throe or four sermons every week, and win- 

appeared in 1(U7 ; the sixth (1055, fol.) was 
still further augmented by Andrew Symson. 
Over his * Commentarie ' on Romans, a work 
written in the form of a dialogue between 
Timotheus and Silas, Wilson spent seven 
years. It was reprinted in 1627 (fol.), and 
reached a third edition in 1658 (4to). In 
1611 he published in octavo a volume con- 
taining (a) 'Jacob's Ladder; or, a short 
Treatise laying forth the severall Degrees 
of Gods Eternall Purpose,' (&) ' A Dialogue 
about Jvstification by Faith/ (c) 'A Receit 
against Heresie,' and two sermons. Besides 
some further sermons and other works ap- 
parently lost, ho wrote * Saints by Calling \ 
or, Called to be Saints,' London, 1620, 4to. 

[Brook's Lives of the Puritans, ii. 282 ; Gran- 
ger's Bioftr. Hist. i. 360 ; Hasted's Kent, iii. 
471 ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet, ; Registers of St. 
George the Martyr, Canterbury, ed, Cowper, 
891, pp. iii, vii, 19, 20, 21, 23, 182; informa- 
ion from the Provost of Queen's College, Ox- 
oid.] 0. F. S, 

leeperof the records and author, born pro- 
bably about 1560, is described in the admis- 
sion register of St. John's College, Cara- 
)ridge, as ' Norfolciensis,' and is said to have 
been ' nephew ' of Dr, Thomas Wilson (1525 P- 
1581) [q. v.] Elizabeth's secretary of state 
(CaL State Papers, Ireland, 1603-6, p, xx) 
No confirmation of tins relationship has been 
braced, and the younger Wilson is not men- 
tioned in the elder's will, Possibly he was 
the * Thomas Wilson of Willey, Hertford- 
shire, son and heir of Wilson of the same, 
sent.,' who was admitted student of Gray s 

Q ' - - w .. n. A >* i-r , _ ^ .1 j. ~ .1 

ning the affections of the puritan section oi 
his people, although more than once com- 
plained of by others to Archbishop Abbot for 
nonconformity. He was acting as chaplain 
to Thomas, second lord Wotton, in 1611. 

Wilson died at Canterbury in January 
1621-2, and was buried in his own church- 
yard, outside the chancel, on the 26th. A 
iuneral sermon was preached (London, 1622 
4to) by William Swift of St, Andrew's, Can 
terbury, great-grandfather of Dean Swift 
Jiis portrait, engraved by Cross, prefixed to 
the * Commentarie/ shows him to be a lean 
eharp-visaged man ; he was married and left 
a large family. 

Wilson's chief work was his 'Christian 
Dictionarie' (London, 1612, 4to), one of the 
earliest attempts made at a concordance of 
the Bible ia English. Its usefulness was 
aoon recognised, -and it ran through man 

Inn on 11 Feb. 1594-5* He was educated 
apparently at Stamford grammar school, 
and matriculated from St. John's College, 
Cambridge, on 26 Nov. 1575. In 1583 he 
was elected on Burghley's nomination to a 
scholarship on the foundress's foundation at 
St. John's (Burghley in Lamd. MS. 77, f. 20 ; 
St. John's Coll. Register, per Mr, B. F. Scott). 
He graduated B,A* in 1583 from St, John's 
College, but migrated to Trinity Hall, whence 
he graduated M.A, in 1587. For fifteen 
years, according to his own account, he 
studied civil law at Cambridge. In 1594 
he procured a letter from Burghley recom- 
mending his election as fellow of Trinity 
HalL The recommendation was ineffectual, 
and Wilson betook himself to foreign travel. 
In 1596, while sojourning in Italy and Ger- 
many, Wilson translated from the Spanish 
Gorge de Montemayor's * Diana/ a romance, 
from which the story of ' Two Gentlemen of 

msea, *ana u> raw. uixuugu XJLVUJ. WU.AWM. VM.V ww*j w* * "^ ^i"""'"' 
editions. The fourth was much enlarged Verona' was partly drawn (LBB, 
by John Bagwell (n,d,, London); the fifth | speare,p. 53); it was dedicated to Shake- 




speare's friend, the Earl of Southampton, 
' then upon the Spanish voiage with my Lord 
of Essex.' The original translation does not 
appear to be extant, but about 1617 Wilson 
made a copy, extant in British Museum Ad- 
ditional MS. 18638, which he dedicated to 
Fulke Greville, chancellor of the exchequer, 
and afterwards Lord Brooke [q. y.J ; he re- 
marks that Brooke's friend Sir Philip Sidney 
[q. v.] ' did much affect and imitate ' 'Diana/ 
and possibly Wilson took part in publish- 
ing some of Sidney's works, for on 12 April 
1607 he asked Sir Thomas Lake to further 
his petition for the privilege of printing 
'certain books [by Sidney] wherein myself 
and my late dear friend Mr. Golding have 
taken pains ' (Cal. State Papers, Dom., Ad- 
denda, 1580-1625, p. 495; cf. art. GOLDIJSTG, 
ABTHtnt). He is possibly also the Thomas 
Wilson whose name appears at the foot of 
the first page of the manuscript ' Booke on 
the State of Ireland/ addressed to Essex by 
H. 0.' (? Henry Cuffe [q. v.j) in 1599 (Cal. 
State Papers, Ireland, 1598-9, p. 505); 
owing to its being a dialogue ' between Pere- 
gryn and Silvyn/ the names of Edmund 
Spenser's two sons, it has been considered 
the work of the poet himself [cf, art. SPENT- 

In spite of these indications of a connec- 
tion with Southampton and Essex, Wilson, 
fortunately for himself, remained faithful to 
the Cecils, and during the later years of 
Elizabeth's reign he was constantly em- 
ployed as foreign intelligencer. On 27 Feb. 
1600-1 Sir Robert Cecil wrote to him : 'I 
like so well many of your letters and dis- 
courses to the lord treasurer [Buckhurst] 
that I wish you not only to continue the 
same course of writing to him, but also to 
me ' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1598-1601, p. 
600). Among these discourses was one 
begun on 1 March following * on the state of 
England A..D. 1600/ giving the claims of 
twelve competitors for the crown, ' with a 
description of this country and of Ireland, 
the conduct of the people, state of the re- 
venue and expenses, and the military and 
naval forces ; * it is extant in the Record 
Office (State Papers, Bom., Elizabeth, vol. 
cclxxx.) In December he was at Florence, 
and he speaks of being employed on various 
negotiations with the Duke of Ferrara, the 
Venetians, and other Italian states (&>> 
James I, cxxxv. 14; for details of his move- 
ments, see his diary in ib, xL 45), He was 
obviously a thorough Italian scholar (cf. 
Addit, MS. 11576, 2aqq.), and the main 
object of his residence in Italy during 1601- 
1602 was to ascertain the nature and extent 
of the Spanish and papal designs against 

England (Cal. State Papers, Pom. 1601-3, 
pp. 127, 234). He returned to England 
during the winter, and was at Greenwich on 
12 June 1603 (Cotton. MS. Calig. E. x. 359; 
ELLIS, Orig. Letters, H. iii. 201-2), but 
early in 1604 he was sent to reside as consul 
in Spain (Cal. State Papers, Dom. James I, 
cxxxv. 14 j WDTWOOD, Mem. ii. 45 ; NICHOLS, 
Proffr. James I, i. 475). He was at Bayonne 
in February 1603-4 (Cotton. MS. Calig. E. 
xi. 78-9), and remained in Spain until the 
arrival of the Earl of Nottingham and Sir 
Charles Cornwallis [q. v.l as ambassadors in 

On his return to England Wilson defi- 
nitely entered the service of Sir Robert 
Cecil, who leased to him a house adjoining 
his own, called * Britain's Burse/ in Durham 
Place, Strand (see sketch in State Papers, 
Dom., Charles I, xxi, 64 J. He took a con^ 
siderable part in supervising the building of 
Salisbury's house in Durham Place and also 
at Hatfield, in the neighbourhood of which 
he received from Lord Salisbury the manor 
of Hoddesdon. In 1605 he is said to have 
been returned to parliament for Newton 
(PNewtown, Isle of Wight); the official 
return does not mention this by-election, 
but that Wilson sat in this parliament is 
probable from the frequent notes of its pro- 
ceedings with regard to such matters as 
scutages and the ' post-nati ' with which he 
supplied the government. He also kept the 
minutes of the proceedings of the committee 
for the union of England and Scotland, and 
made a collection of the objections likely to 
be urged against the union in parliament. 
About 1606, on the surrender of Sir Thomas 
Lake [q. v.], Salisbury procured for Wilson 
the post of keeper of the records at White- 
hall, with a salary of SO/. ; he also obtained 
the clerkship of imports, worth 402. a year, 
but lost it when Suffolk became treasurer in 

Wilson was a zealous and energetic keeper 
of the records, and made many suggestions 
with regard to them, which, if they had 
been adopted, would have saved subsequent 
students an infinity of trouble. One of these 
was the creation of an office in which char- 
tularies of dissolved abbeys and monasteries 
should be transcribed and kept for the use 
of ' searchers/ and to prevent needless liti- 
gation for want of access to title-deeds 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1611-18, p. 508). 
Another, inspired more by self-interest, was 
the creation of an office of * register of 
honour/ to be filled by himself, so as to 
obviate frequent disputes for precedence 
among knights and their ladies. He also sug- 
gested the publication of a gazette of news 




1 as is already done in Germany, France, 
Italy, and Spain/ and the grant of a patent 
to himself for printing it. His main, diffi- 
culty was with secretaries of state and other 
officials, who refused to deliver to Mm public 
documents to which he considered the state 
entitled, and with highly placed borrowers 
who neglected to return the documents they 
borrowed. Among the latter was Sir Kobert 
Bruce Cotton [q.v,], and in 1615 Wilson pro- 
tested against Cotton's appointment as keeper 
of the exchequer records, complaining that 
Cotton already injured the keepers of t the 
state papers enough by ' having such things 
as he nath coningly scraped together/ and 
fearing that many exchequer records would 
find their way into Cotton's private collec- 
tion. Similarly, when Balph Starkey [cj.v.] 
acquired the papers of Secretary Dayison, 
Wilson procured a warrant for their seizure, 
and on 14 Aug. 1619 secured a sackful, con- 
taining forty-five bundles of manuscripts 
(Harl MS. 286, f. 286). He rendered valu- 
able service in arranging- and preserving 
such documents as he did succeed in ac- 
quiring (cf* Oat. State Papers, Ireland, 160&- 
1606, pref. pp. xx, xxii, xxxv, xli ; EDWIBDS, 
Founders of the British Museum, p. 149), 

Wilson's interests were not, however, con- 
fined to the state paper office. He was an 
original subscriber to the Virginia Company 
(^BKOWBT, Genesis, ii. 1054), and kept a Keen 
watch on discoveries in the East Indies, 
maintaining a correspondence with persons 
in most quarters of the globe (see PUBOHAS, 
Pilgrimes, i. 408-18 ; Gal. State Papers, East 
Indies, vols. i. and ii, passim). He petitioned 
for a grant of two thousand acres in Ulster 
in 1618, and drew up a scheme for the mili- 
tary government of Ireland (CaL StatePapers, 
Ireland, 1015-25, p. 202 ; Hist.MSS, Comm. 
4th Bep, App. p, 284). He thought he 
i could do better service than in being alwaj< 
buried amongst the state papers ; * his especial 
ambition was to be made master of requests 
an office for which he repeatedly and vainly 
petitioned the king. He also procured roya 
letters to the fellows of Trinity Hall and of 
Gouville and Caius Colleges in favour of his 
election as master of their respective societies 
at the next vacancy; but the letters seem 
never to have been sent, and Wilson re- 
mained keeper of the records till his death, 
He was,iiowever, knighted at Whitehall 
on 20 July 1618 (NlOHOfcs, Proar. of James I 
iii. 487), and in September following wa 
selected for the dishonourable task of worm 
ing out of Ralegh sufficient admissions to con 
demn Mm. He took up his residence wit! 
Kalegh in the Tower on 14 Sept., and wa 
relieved of, his charge on 15 Oct. He ap 

ears to have entered on his duties with 
ome zest, styling his prisoner the * arch- 
yjpocrite' and 'arch-impostor/ and ad- 
mitting in his reports that he had held out 
be hope of mercy as a bait ; there is, how- 
ver, no ground for the suggestion thrown 
ut by one of lialegh's biographers that the 
eal object of Wilson's employment was 
ilalegh's assassination (Wilson's reports are 
among the Domestic State Papers, see Cal. 
.611-18, pp. 669-92; some are printed in 
SpBDi3sro*s Bacon^ xiii. 425-7). On Ralegh's 
death Wilson urged the transference of his 
manuscripts to the state paper oih'ce, and 
actually seized his * mathematical and sea- 
nstruments 1 for the navy board, and drew up 
i catalogue of his books, which he presented 
;o the king. 

Wilson was buried at St* Martin's-in-the- 
?ields on 17 July 1(529, and on the 31st 
etters of administration were granted to his 
widow Margaret, possibly sister of the Peter 
Vlewtys or Mewys whom Wilson succeeded 
n 16(fo as member for Newtown. His only 
child, a daughter, married, about 1614, Am- 
>rose Randolph, younger son of Thomas 
Randolph (1528-1 590) (j^v.l who wasjoint- 
ceeper of the records with Wilson from 1614. 
Besides the works already mentioned, 
Wilson compiled a * Collection of Divers 
Matters concerning the Marriages of Princes' 
Children, 7 which he presented on 4 Oct. 1617 
;o James I ; the original is now in British 
Museum Additional MS. 11676. On 10 Aug. 
1616 he sent to Ellesmero a * collection of 
treaties regulating commercial intercourse 
with the Netherlands ' (JSgerton Papers, Cam- 
den Soc. p. 476),* he drew up a digest of the 
arrangement of documents in his office 
(titoweMS. 648, & 2 s<jq.), and left unfinished 
a history of the revenues of the chief powers 
in Europe (CaL State Papery Doxn, 1623-5, 
p. 557). Much of his correspondence is pre- 
served among the foreign state papers in the 
Eecord OiHce, and among the y$t uncalen- 
dared documents at liatMd, 

petitions id State Papors, Dom., James I, xciii. 
131, and cxxxv. 14, and of his movements in 
1601-4, ib, xi. 45. See also CaL State Papers, 
Bom. 1600-28, passim, Ireland, 1603-25; 
Cotton. MS. Calig. J. ad. 81 ; Lansd. MS. 77, 
f. 20 ; Harl. MS. 7000, f. 34 ; Hist. MSB. Comm. 
2nd Rep. App. pp. 55, 283, 284, 9th Bap. App. 
ii. 373 ; Winwood's Memorials, ii. 45 ; Nichols^ 
Progr. of James I, i. 188, 246, 475, iii. 487; 
Brewer's Court and Times of .Tames I ; Sped" 
ding's Bacon ; St. John, Edwards, Oayley, Steb- 
Mug, and Hume's Lives of Balegh ; Gardiner'0 
Hist, of England, ii. 143 j authorities cited ia 
text.] A. F. P, 




WILSON, THOMAS (1663-1755), bishop 
of Sodor and Man, sixth of seven children 
and fifth son of Nathaniel (d. 29 May 1702) 
and Alice (d. 16 Aug. 1708) Wilson, was 
born at Burton, Cheshire, on 20 Dec. 1663. 
His mother, was a sister of Richard Sherlock 
[q. v.] From the King's school, Chester, 
under Francis Harpur (CRUTTWELL ; but a 
local tradition identifies his master with 
Edward Harpur of the grammar school, 
Frodsham) he entered Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, as a sizar on 29 May 1682, his tutor 
being John Barton, afterwards dean of Ar- 
dagh. Swift entered in the previous month ; 
other contemporaries were Peter Browne 
[q.v.] and Edward Chandler [a. v.] He was 
elected scholar on 4 June 1683. In February 
1686 he graduated B.A. The influence of 
Michael Hewetson (d. 1709) turned his 
thoughts from medicine to the church. He 
was ordained deacon before attaining the 
canonical age by William Moreton [q. v.], 
bishop of Kildare, on St. Peter's day (29 June) 
1686. He left Ireland to become curate 
(10 Feb. 1687) to his uncle Sherlock, in the 
chapelry of Newchurch Kenyon, now a sepa- 
rate parish, then in the parish of Winwick, 
Lancashire. He was ordained priest by 
Nicholas Stratford [q. v.] on 20 Oct. 1689, 
and remained in charge of Newchurch till 
the end of Augiist 1692, He was then ap- 
pointed domestic chaplain to William George 
Richard Stanley, ninth earl of Derby (d. 
1702), and tutor to his only son, James, lord 
Strange (1680-1699), with a salary of 30J. 
Early in 1693 he was appointed master of 
the almshouse at Lathom, yielding 20J. more. 
At Easter he made a vow to set apart a fifth 
of his slender income for pious uses, especially 
for the poor. In June he was offered by 
Lord Derby the valuable rectory of Bads- 
worth, West Hiding of Yorkshire, but re- 
fused it, having made a resolution against 
non-residence. He graduated M,A. in 1696 
(Cat. of Graduates Univ. of Dublin, 1869: 
Stubbs says 1693). 

On 27 Nov. 1697 Lord Derby offered him 
the bishopric of Sodor and Man, vacant since 
the death of Baptist Levinz [q. v.], and in- 
sisted on his taking it. On 10 Jan. 1698 he 
was created LL.D. by Archbishop Tenison 
(his own statement ; Foster says the entry 
is of 'John' Wilson). On 16 Jan. 1698 he 
was consecrated at the Savoy (Lu NEVE, 
Fasti, ed. Hardy, 1854, iii. 328; STTJBBS, 
Regi&trum Sacrum Anglieanwn, 1897, p. 131). 
On^28 Jan. the rectory of JBadsworth was 
again offered to him in commendam, and 
again refused, though the see of Man was 
worth no more than 300J. a year. His first 
business was to recover the arrears of royal 

bounty (an annuity of 100J, granted 1675). 
On 6 April he landed at Derby Haven in 
the Isle of Man, and was stalled on 11 April 
in the ruins of St. German's Cathedral, Peel, 
and at once took up his residence at Bishop's 
Court, Kirk Michael. He found it also in a 
ruinous condition, and set about rebuilding 
the greater part of it, at a cost of 1,400/., of 
which all but 200/. came from his own pocket. 
He soon became ' a very energetic planter' 
of fruit and forest trees, turning ' the bare 
slopes ' into ' a richly wooded glen/ He was 
an equally zealous farmer and miller, doing 
much by his example to develop the re- 
sources of the island. For some time he was 
e the only physician in the island ; ' he set up 
a drug-shop, giving advice and medicine 
gratis to the poor (CBTTTTWELL, p. xci). He 
had not been two months in the island when 
he had before him the petition of Christopher 
Hampton of Kirk Braddon, whose wife had 
been condemned to seven years' penal servi- 
tude for lamb stealing, and who asked the 
bishop's license for a second marriage in 
consideration of his * motherless children.' 
Wilson gave him (26 May 1698) ' liberty to 
make such a choice as may be most for yo r 
support and comfort.' Yet his views of 
marriage were usually strict ; marriage with 
a deceased wife's sister he regarded as incest. 
The building of new churches (beginning 
with the Castletown chapel, 1698) was one 
of his earliest cares, and in 1699 he took up 
the scheme of Thomas Bray (1656-1730) 
[q. v.], and began the establishment of paro- 
chial libraries in his diocese. This led to 
provision in the Manx language for the needs 
of his people. The printing of 'prayers for 
the poor families' is projected in a memo- 
randum of Whit-Sunday 1699, but was not 
carried out till 30 May 1707, the date of 
issue of Ms * Principles and Duties of Chris- 
tianity ... in English and Manks , . . with 
short and plain directions and prayers/ 1707, 
2 parts, 8vo. This was the first book pub- 
lished in Manx, and is often styled the * Manx 
Catechism/ It was followed by 'A Further 
Instruction;' 'A Short and Plain Instruc- 
tion. , .for the Lord's Supper/ 1733; and 
' The Gospel of St. Matthew/ 1748 (trans- 
lated, with the help of his vicars-general, in 
1722). The remaining Gospels and the A cts 
were also translated into Manx under his 
supervision, but not published (MooBB, p. 
21B). He freely issued occasional orders for 
special services, with new prayers, the Uni- 
formity Act not specifying the Isle of Man. 
A public library was established by him at 
Castletown in 1706, and from that year, by 
help of the trustees of the * academic fund/ 
and by benefactions from Lady Elizabeth. 




0> ne d*d niuch to increase the 
efficiency ot the grammar schools and parish 
schools m the island. He was created JD.D. 
at Oxford on 3 April 1707, and incorporated 
at Cambridge on 11 June. la 1724 he 
founded, and in 1732 endowed, a school at 
Burton, his birthplace. 

The restoration of ecclesiastical discipline 
was, from the first, an object which Wilson 
had at heart. Scandalous cases, frequently 
involving the morals of the clergy, gave him 
much trouble. The ' spiritual statutes' of 
the island (valid, where not superseded by 
the Anglican canons of 1603) were of native 
growth, and often uncouth in their pro- 
visions. Without attempting to disturb these 
(with the single exception of abolishing com- 
mutation of penance by fine), Wilson drew 
up his famous t Ecclesiastical Constitutions/ 
ten in number, which were subscribed by 
the clergy in a convocation at Bishops Court 
on 3 Feb. 1704, ratified by the governor and 
council on 4 Feb., confirmed by James Stanley, 
tenth earl of Derby (d. 1736), and publicly 
proclaimed on the Tinwald Hill on 6 June, 
Of theye constitutions it was said by Sir 
Peter King, first lord King [q. vj, that * if 
the ancient discipline of the church were 
lost, it might be found in all its purity in 
the Isle of Man.' 

The discipline worked smoothly till 1718, 
* when it came into collision with the official 
class 7 (MooKB, p. 192), owing to- an appre- 
hended reduction of revenue through wil- 
spn's practice of mitigating fines in the spi- 
ritual court. Kobert Mawdesley (d. 1732), 
governor from 1703, had been m harmony 
with Wilson ; his successor in 1713, Alex- 
ander Horne, became Wilson's determined 
opponent. The first direct conflict began in 
1716. Mary Henricks, a married woman, 
was excommunicated (22 Get,) for adultery, 
and condemned to penance and prison. She 
appealed (20 Dec,) to the lord of the isle, and 
Home allowed the appeal; Wilson, rightly 
maintaining that there was no appeal except 
to the archbishop of York, did not appear 
at the hearing (23 Dec, 1717, in London), 
and was fined (19 Feb. 1719) in 101. ; the 
fine was remitted (20 AugO The episcopal 
registrar, John Woods of Kirk Malew, was 
twice imprisoned (1720 and 1721) for re- 
fusing to act without the bishop's direction. 
The governor's wife (Jane Home) was or- 
dered (19 Dec, 1721) to ask forgiveness (in 
mitigation of penance) for slanderous state- 
ments. For admitting her to communion 
and for false doctrine Archdeacon Robert 
Horrobin, the governor's chaplain, was sus- 
pended (17 May 1722). Refusing to recall 
the sentence, Wilson was fined (25 Juno) 

60/., and his vicars-general 20 apiece, 
and in default were imprisoned in Castle 
liushen (29 June). Wilson appealed to the 
crown (19 July); they were released on 
31 Aug., but the fines were paid through 
Thomas Corlett. The dampness of the prison 
had so affected Wilson's right hand that he 
was henceforth unable to move his fingers 
in writing. In 1724 the bishopric of Exeter 
was offered to Wilson as a means of reim- 
bursement. On his declining, George I pro- 
mised to meet his expenses Irom the privy 
purse, a pledge which the king's death left 

Part of Horrobin's false doctrine was his 
approval of a book which Wilson had cen- 
sured. On 19 Jan. 1722 John Stevenson, a 
layman of Balladoole, forwarded to Wilson 
a copy of the ' Independent Whig/ 1721, 
8vo [see GOI^DON, THOMAS, d. 1750, and 
TBBITOHAED, JOHN, 1602-1728], which had 
been circulated in the island and sent to 
Stevenson by Richard Wprthington for the 
public library. Wilson issued (27 Jatx,) a 
pastoral letter to his clergy, bidding them 
excommunicate the * agents and abettors' of 
'such-like blasphemous books.' For sup- 
pressing the book Stevenson was imprisoned 
m Castle Rushen by Home, who required 
Wilson to deliver up tho volume as a con- 
dition of Stevenson^ release. This he did 
(21 Feb.) under protest When the book 
reached William Koss, the librarian, he said 
* he would as soon take poison as receive that 
book into the library upon any other terms 
or conditions than immediately to burn it.' 
Horrobin, on the other hand, affirmed (De- 
cember 1722) that the work ' had rules and 
directions in it sufficient to bringus to heaven, 
if we could observe them* (cf* Letter to the 
publisher, by Wfalterl Afwbervl prefixed to 
Independent Whig ', 6th edit. 1782). 

Horne was superseded in 1728. Floyd, 
his successor, was generally unpopular. With 
the appointment of Thomas Hortou in 1725, 
began a new conflict between civil and eccle- 
siastical authority. Lord Derby now claimed 
(5 Oct. 1725) that the act of Henry YHI, 
placing Man in the province of'Yori, abro- 
gated all insular laws in matters spiritual. 
The immediate result was that Horton re- 
fused to carry out a recent decision of the 
House of Keys, granting soldiers to execute 
orders of the ecclesiastical court. A revision 
of the * spiritual statutes' was proposed by 
the House of Keys, with Wilson's concur- 
rence* Horton took the step of suspending 
the whole code till ' amended and revised/ 
He further deprived the sumneivgeneral and 
appointed another, Unavailing petitions for 
redress were sent to Lord Derby j the House of 




Keys appealed (6 Nov. 1728) to the king in 
council, but notning came 01 it. 

On the death (1 Feb. 1736) of the tenth 
lord Derby, the lordship of Man passed to 
James Murray, second duke of Atholl (d. 
1764). The revision of statutes proposed 
in 1725 was at once carried through, with 
the result of ' a marked absence of disputes 
between the civil and ecclesiastical courts' 
(MooBB, p. 207). The intricate suit about 
impropriations (to all of which Atholl had a 
legal claim) jeopardised for a time the tem- 
poralities of the church, and was not finally 
settled till (7 July 1757) after Wilson's 
death ; but with the aid of Sir Joseph Jekyll 
[q. v.] Wilson and his son were able to 
recover (1737) certain deeds securing to the 
clergy an equivalent for their tithe. Between 
Wilson and Atholl (and the governors of his 
appointment) there seems never to have been 
any personal friction. Under the revised 
ecclesiastical law presentments for moral 
offences were less frequent, procedure being 
less summary. But, while health lasted, 
Wilson was sedulous in administering the 
discipline through the spiritual courts, and 
there was an increase of clerical cases (MooBB, 
p. 207), The extreme difficulty of obtaining 
suitable candidates for the miserably poor 
benefices led Wilson to get leave from the 
archbishop of York to ordain before the 

Wilson was not by nature an intolerant 
man, nor were his sympathies limited to 
the Anglican fold. It is said that Cardinal 
Fleury (d. 29 Jan. 1743) wrote to him, ' as 
they were the two oldest bishops, and, he 
believed, the poorest in Europe/ invited him 
to France, and was so pleased with his reply 
that he got an order prohibiting French 
privateers from ravaging the Isle of Man. 
Roman catholics *not unfrequently at- 
tended ' his services. He allowed dissenters 
'to sit or stand* at the communion; not 
being compelled to kneel, they did so. The 
quakers i loved and respected him* (ORTrrr- 

WELL,P. xcii). In 1735 he met JamesEdward 
Oglethprpe [q.v.] in London, and this was the 
beginning of his practical interest in foreign 
missions, though he was an early advo- 
cate of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel, and still earlier of the So- 
ciety for promoting Christian Knowledge. 
His ' Essay towards an Instruction for the 
Indians ... in ... Dialogues/ 1740, 8vo, 
was begun at Oglethorpe's instance, and dedi- 
cated to the Georgia trustees. Wilson's son 
was entrusted with its revision for the press, 
and he submitted the manuscript to Isaac 
Watts. It must be remembered that most 
of the Georgia trustees were dissenters. Since 

1738 Wilson had "been interested in Zinzen- 
dorf, through friends who had met him at 
Oxford and London in 1737. He corre- 
sponded (1739) with Henry Cossart, author of 
a i Short Account of the Moravian Churches/ 
and received from Zinzendorf and his coad- 
jutors a copy of the Moravian catechism, 
with a letter (28 July 1740). Zinzendorf 
was again in London in 1749, holding there 
a synod (11 to 30 Sept.) News came of the 
death (23 Sept,) of Cochius of Berlin, 'ar- 
tistes J of the ' reformed tropus' (one of three) 
in the Moravian church. The vacant and 
somewhat shadowy office was tendered to 
Wilson (with liberty to employ his son as 
substitute), Zinzendorf sending him a seal- 
ring. On 19 Dec. Wilson wrote his ac- 

From 1760, his eighty-sixth year, Wilson 
was burdened with gout. He died at Bishop's 
Court on 7 March 1755, the fiftieth anni- 
versary of his wife's death. His coffin was 
made from an elm tree planted by himself, 
and made into planks for that purpose some 
years before his death (ib. p. xci). He had a 
strong objection, mentioned in his will, to 
interments within churches, and was buried 
(11 March) at the east end of Kirk Michael 
churchyard, where a square marble monument 
marks his grave. Philip Moore preached 
the funeral sermon. His will (21 Dec, 1746 ; 
codicil, 1 June 1748) is printed byKeble. 
His portrait (painted in 1732 ?) was engraved 
(1735) by Vertue (reproduced, 1819, by 
Sieyier), It shows ms black skull-cap and 
' hair flowing and silvery.' For his shoes he 
used * leathern thongs instead of buckles' 
(HoNB, p. 240). On 27 Oct. 1698 he was 
married at Winwick to Mary (, 16 July 
1674; d. 7 March 1706), daughter of Thomas 
Patten, By her he had four children, of 
whom Thomas (see below) survived him. 

Wilson's rare unselfishness gives lustre to 
a life of fearless devotion to duty and wise 
and thrifty beneficence.^ The fame of his 
ecclesiastical discipline is rather due to the 
singularity of its exercise by an Anglican 
diocesan than to anything special either in 
its character or its fruits. The details fur- 
nished by Keble, with nauseous particu- 
larity from year to year, may be paralleled 
from the contemporary records or many a 
presbyterian court or anabaptist meeting. 
That Wilson acted with the single aim of 
the moral and religious improvement of his 
people was recognised by them, and his strict- 
ness, joined with his transparent purity, his 
uniform sweetness of temper, and his self- 
denying charities, drew to him the affectionate 
veneration of those to whom he dedicated 
his life. 




Wilson's * Works* wore collected (undar 
las son's direction) by Clement Cruttwoll 
[q.v.], 1781, 2 vols. 4to, including a 'Life' 
(reprinted 1785, 3 vols. 8vo), and by John 
JECeble [q. v.], with additions, in the * Library 
of Anglo-Ofttholic Theology,' IB-tf-fla, 7 vola, 
8vo, preceded by a 'Li'fe,' 1863, 2 vols. 
8vo (or parts), to which Keble had do- 
voted sixteen years' labour. Besides works 
noted above, many sermons and devotional 
pieces, he published: 1. 'Life,' profiled to 
the 'Practical Christian, 7 1713, 8vo, by 
Richard Sherlock. 2, < History of the Isle 
of Man' in Gibson's (2nd) edit, of Oamden's 
' Britannia/ 17^2, foi. vol. il 8, * Observa- 
tions' included in 'Abstract of the Historical 
Part of the Old Testament/ 17*35, 8vo (his 
'Notes' are in an edition of the Bible, 1785, 
4to). Posthumous were: 4. ' Sacra Privata/ 
first published in Cruttwell, 1781, vol. i. 
(the Oxford edition, 1888, has a preface by 
Cardinal Newman ; the original manuscript 
of the 'Sacra Privata' was exhibited, by 
the president and fellows of Bion College, 
in the loan collection at the London church 
congress, 1899). 6. 'Maxims of Piety and 
Christianity' (ditto). Many devotional 
manuals have been framed, by extraction 
,and adaptation, from Wilson's woris, Of 
,hifl writing Cardinal Newman says (1888) : 
' There is nothing in him but what is plain, 
direct, homely, for the most part prosaic; 
all is sober, unstrained, rational, severely 
chastened in style and language.' 

Hie son, THOMAS Wmoar (1703-1784), 
divine, was born at Bishop's Court on 
24 Aug. 1708. He was the second son of 
the name, a previous Thomas having died an 
infant in 1701. His father taught him till 
he was sixteen, when he was placed with 
Clerk at the grammar school of Kirk Leatham, 
North Riding of Yorkshire. He matricu- 
lated at Christ Church, Oxford, on 20 April 
1721, was elected student on 8 July 1724, 
and graduated B.A. on 17 Doc. 1724 (KHBJUL 
p. 660); M.A. 16 Dec, 1727, B,D. and D.I)! 
10 May 1789. He was ordained deacon 
(1729), and priest (1781) by John Potter 
(1674 P-1747) [q. v.], then bishop of Oxford. 
From Christmas 1729 to September 1781 he 
assisted his father in the Isle of Man, and is 
said to have suggested the ' clergy, widow, 
and orphans' fund ' (CitxrTTWBix). One rea- 
son assigned for his leaving the island is 
that he did not know Manx (KiTCB, p. 789). 
He declined (November 1782) an invitation 
to the Georgia mission. In June 1737 he 
was made one of the king's chaplains. On 
5 Dec. 1787 he was presented to the rectory 
of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, and held this 
preferment till death. He was made pre- 

bendary of Westminster on 11 April 1743 
and held the rectory of St. 1/argaret's! 
Westminster, from 1763. During the Manx 
famine and pestilence (1739-42) he petitioned 
the kingfor a grant of broadcorn for the island. 

? n i 17 * and ^i h $ viaifced his fatl *er in the 
Isle of Man. With John Leland (1691-1766) 
[q. v.J he corresponded from 1742, invitinc- his 
criticisms on his father's manuals of religion 
He suggoflted to Leland that he should 
answer Dodwell (as he did in 1744), and 
Bolmpbroke(1763) ; and Inland's chief work 
A View of the principal Deis tical Writers 5 

, was written as letters to Wilson, 
1 , d ftt llis expense. He rebuilt 
(1/76) the chancel of Kirk Michael church. 
lill her second marriage (1778) he was a 
great admirer of Catharine Macaulay fq v 1 
having placed (1774) his residence, Alfred 
House, Bath, at hor disposal, and having- 
erected (8 Sept. 1777) a marble statue of 
her, by J, F. Moore, within the altar-rails of 
St. Stephen's, Walbrook, which he afterwards 
boarded up. J To was a man of much benevo- 
lence, a considerable book collector, in poli- 
tics a follower of Wilkes, and in religion 
anxious for the union of ' all protostanta.' 
He died at Alfred House, Bath, on 16 April 
1784; his body waft brought to London 'in 
grand funeral procession, with 'near two 
hundred flambeaux, ' and buried (27 April) 
in St Stephen's, Walbrook. He married 
(4 Feb. 1784) his cousin Mary, daughter of 
William Patten, and widow of William Hay- 
ward, of Stoke Newington, and had one son, 
who died in infancy, He left his property 
to his relative/Ihomas Patten, father of John 
Wilson-Patten, baron Wmmarleigh [q. v,j 
He wrote * A Review of the Project for ... 
a new Square at Westminster . . * By a Suf- 
ferer/ 1757, Bvo ; and an introduction to ' The 
Ornaments of Churches , , . with a , , . view 
to the late decoration of Rt, Margaret, West- 
minster/ 1761, 4to (by William Hole), 

[Life by Crnttwall, 1781; Life by Stowell, 
1819 ; Life by Hone, in Lives of Eminent Chris- 
tians, 1833, p, 161; Lifo by Keble, 1863, very full 
and exact, and embodying a large quantity of 
unpublished material; Gent. MH#. 1784,i.3J7, 
379; Butler's Memoirs of Hildesley, 1799; 
Stubbs's Univ. of Dublin, 1889, pp. 143, 347; 
Notes and Queries, 9th ser. v. 472 j Moore's 
Sodor and Man, 1893, pp. 186 gq.] A. <2K 

WILS(OT ? THOMAS (1747-1813), 
master of Chtheroe grammar school, son or 
William and Isabella Wilson, was born at 
Priest Button, in the parish of Warton, near 
Lancaster, on 8 Dec. 1747, and educated at 
the grammar schools of Warton and Sed- 
foer^h. At the latter school he was an 
assistant under Dr* Wynne Bateman from 




1768 to 1771. He was ordained deacon at J 
Westminster on 13 Jan. 1771, and priest at 
Chester on 2 Aug. 1772* In the following 
June he was licensed as headmaster of 
Slaidburn grammar school, and in June 1775 
became master of the Clitheroe grammar 
school, Lancashire, and incumbent of the 
parochial chapel of the town. In 1779 he 
entered himself of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and took the degree of B.D. there in 
1794, under a statute now abolished. In 
1807 he was appointed rector of Claughton, 
near Lancaster. Towards the end of the 
eighteenth century he formed an intimate 
acquaintance with Thomas Dunham Whita- 
ker [q. T.], and joined a literary club formed 
by him. He was a successful schoolmaster, 
a ready versifier, and a social favourite on 
account of his amiability, genial wit, and 
copious fund of anecdote. His besetting 
weakness was punning. 

He died on 8 March 1813, and was buried 
in the chancel of Bolton-by-Bowland church, 
where a tablet was afterwards erected with 
a Latin inscription by Whitaker, copied 
from a monument erected by Wilson's pupils 
in Clitheroe church. He married, on 29 April 
1775, Susannah Tetlow of Skirden, widow 
of Henry Nowell, rector of Bolton-by-Bow- 
land. She was forty-four, and he only 
twenty-eight. A portrait of Wilson, painted 
by J. Allen, is engraved in the Chetham 
Society's volume. Another portrait by the 
same artist was engraved by "W. Ward in 
Wilson's lifetime ; and a third portrait came 
out as a lithograph. 

His only literary publication, in addition 
to two assize sermons (1789 and 1804), was 
an ' Archesoloffical Dictionary, or Classical 
Antiquities of Jews, Greeks, and Romans/ 
1783, 8vo, dedicated to Dr. Samuel Johnson ; 
but his ' Lancashire Bouquet ' and other oc- 
casional verses were circulated in manu- 
script, and were collected and printed, along 
with his correspondence, by Canon F. R. 
Raines for the Chetham Society in 1857. 

[Raines's Hsmoir, prefixed to Wilson's Mis- 
cellanies; Gent. Mag. 1819, i. 291.] 0. W. S. 

WILSON, THOMAS (1764-1843), non- 
conformist benefactor, seventh child of 
Thomas Wilson (b. 3 Jan. 1731 : d. 31 March 
1794) by Mary (1729-1816), daughter of 
John Remington of Coventry, was born in 
"Wood Street, Cheapside, London, on 11 Nov. 
1764, and baptised on 2 Dec. by Thomas 
Gibbons [q. v.J His mother was a dissenter; 
Ids father became one on his marriage, and 
subsequently built a chapel at Derby (1784), 
besides assisting in opening several closed 
chapels in the Midlands. He was at schoo) 

with Samuel Rogers fq.v.], the poet, at New- 
ington Green under Cockburn, but had not a 
classical education, and never acquired any 
literary tastes. In 1778 he was apprenticed 
to his father, a manufacturer of ribbons and 
gauzes, and in 1785 was taken into partner- 
ship. He left business at Michaelmas 1798, 
having attained a moderate fortune, to which 
he received a considerable accession on the 
death (26 March 1813) of his mother's only 
brother, John Remington. In 1794 he suc- 
ceeded his father as treasurer of Hoxton 
Academy, and held this post till his death; 
when the academy was removed to High- 
bury he laid the first stone (28 June 1825) 
of the college building. His first experiment 
in chapel building was in 1799, when he 
erected a new chapel at Hoxton (opened 
24 April 1800). From this time he devoted 
himself for some years to the repairing or re- 
building of dilapidated and closed chapels, 
e.g. at Brentwood, Harwich, Rebate, Lynn, 
Guildford, Dartmouth, Liskeard, and else- 
where. Most of these buildings had for- 
merly ranked as presbyterian ; Wilson's 
efforts introduced into their management 
the congregational system. From 1804 he 
occasionally acted as a lay preacher. To 
meet the needs of a growing population he 
set himself to procure the erection of new 
chapels in the outskirts of London, among 
others at Kentish Town (1807), Tonbridge 
Place, Eustori Road (1810), Maryleboue 
Road,Paddington (1813),Claremont Chapel, 
Pentonville (1819), Craven Chapel, Regent 
Street (1822"), the last three built at his sole 
cost. Besides giving largely towards the 
purchase or building of chapels in all parts 
of the country, he erected at his own ex- 
pense chapels at Ipswich (1829), Northamp- 
ton (1829), Richmond, Surrey (1830), and 
Dover (1838). In January 1837 he was 
chairman of a meeting which formed the 
'Metropolis Chapel Fund Association ' for 
the provision of further buildings. His 
munificence went also in other directions ; 
there were few, if any, societies connected 
with his own body, or with the cause of 
evangelical religion generally, which did not 
benefit by his aid. He was one of the first 
directors (23 Sept. 1795) of the London 
Missionary Society. He was also one of the 
originators of the London University (now 
University College), and was elected (19 Dec. 
1825) a member ot its first council. In the 
Hewley case [see HEWITT, SABAH] he was 
one of the relators in the action (begun 
18 June 1830) against the Unitarian trustees. 
He died at Highbury Place on 17 June 1843, 
and was buried in Abney Park cemetery, 
where is a monument to his memory. tie 




married (#1 March 1791) Elizabeth, younger 
daughter of Arthur Clegg, timber merchant, 
of Manchester, who survived him with 
several children, Daniel Wilson (1 778-1858) 
Co. v/ 1 , bishop of Calcutta, was his first cousin. 

His eon, JOSHUA Wraoir (1795-1874), 
barrister of the Inner Temple, was born in 
London on 27 Oct. 1795, and died at 4 Nevill 
Park, Tunbridge Wolls, on 14 Aug. 1874. 
He married (1837) Mary Wood, only daugh- 
ter of Thomas Bulloy of Teignmouth, and 
left sons, Thomas and John Remington. In 
connection with the litigation of which the 
Hewley case was a sample, he devoted much 
time to the investigation of early diswcnting 
history. His fine collection of puritan divi- 
nity and biography is at the Memorial Hall, 
Farringdon Street, London* Be published, 
besides some religious tractates (one of them 
signed i Biblicus '): L 'An Historical In- 
quiry concerning . , , English Presbyter ians/ 
1835, 8vo ; 2nd ed. 1836, 8vo. 2. < EngliBh 
Presbyterian Chapels . * . Orthodox Founda- 
tions/ 1844, 8vo & ' Calumnies confuted 
. . in Answer to the Quarterly Review 
on the Bicentenary Celebration/ 1868, 8vo. 
4. * A Memoir of , . . Thomas Wilson,' 1846, 

[Lei&hild's Funeral Sermon for Thomas Wil- 
eon, 1843 ; Wilsons Memoir of Thomas "Wilson, 
1846 (portrait) ; MeOrae's Thomas Wilson the 
Milkman, 1879 j Cornwall's Funeral Sermon for 
Joshua Wilson, 1874; Timefl,2<tAug, 1874,90ct 
1874; Halleyin Oongregationalist, 1875, p. 95 ; 
information from T. Wilson, esg,, Harpendctu] 

A. a. 

WILSOK, THOMAS (1773-1868), 
Tyneside poet, was born at Gatoehead Low 
Fell on 14 Nov. 1778, the eldest son of 
George and Mary Wilson. The father was 
a miner, and both parents were devout Wes- 
ley ans. He received very little education, 
and was early sent to work^ in the mines* 
After devoting his scanty leisure to study, 
and making two efforts to establish himself 
as a schoolmaster, he was from 1799 to 1803 
employed in the office of John Head, a New- 
castle merchant and underwriter. In 1803 
he entered the counting-house of Losh, Luh- 
bin, & Co, (afterwards Losh, Wilson, & Bell) 
of Newcastle, Within two years he became 
a partner, and remained in the business till 
near the end of his life. In 1886 he was 
elected one of the rst town councillors of 
Gateshead, to which he returned after a resi- 
dence of some years in Newcastle, Through- 
out his life Wilson devoted as much time as 
he could spare to intellectual pursuits, and 
collected an excellent library, which was 
especially rich in chaphooks, He contri- 
buted to the local ' Diaries ' for sixty years, 

and made himself acquainted with every 
aspect of mining life and character, * The 
Pitman's Pay/ his chief literary work, ap- 
peared originally in Mitchell's < Newcastle 
Magazine f in the years 1 826, 1828. and 1830 
It was reprinted by <jk Watson of Gateshead,* 
but this incorrect edition was soon out of 
print. Other poems wew contributed to 
the 'Tyne Mercury,' and some of them, 
were reissued with notes by John Sykes 
compiler of i Local Records.' A collective 
edition of Wilson's works, entitled 'The 
Pitman's Pay, and other Poems/ was issued 
in 1843, and reprinted in 1872. The second 
edition contains some additional poems and 
notes by the author, with a portrait and me- 
moir^ ^The Pitman's Pay* is a metrical 
description, much of it in mining patois, of 
the incidents and conversations of the colliers 
on their fortnightly Friday pay nights. The 
poem enjoys a wide popularity in the north 
of England. Some of Wilson's compositions 
show him to have made a close study of 
Burns, and the poem entitled ' On seeing a 
mouse run across the road in January" is 
a highly creditable imitation. In the 
* Tippling Dominie ' Wilson is perhaps seen 
at his bast* 

Wilson died at his home. Fell-house, 
Gateshead, on 9 May 1858. He was buried 
in the family vault at St. John's, Gateshead 
Fell, the mayor and town council attending 
his funeral* He married, in 1810, Mrs. 
Mary Fell, who died in 1839. 

A bust by Dunbar is in the large room 
of the Gateshead Fell public rooms. 

[Genfc, Mag. 1858, i. 667-9 ; Ann. Reg. App. 
to Chron, p. 410 ; Memoir prefixed to the 
Pitman's Pay, 1872,] GK la& GK N, 

WILSON, WALTER (1781-1847), non- 
conformist biographer, was born about 1781. 
Originally intended for the law, he became 
a bookseller, with Maxwell of Bell Yard, 
Temple Bar, London. In 1800 he took the 
bookshop at the Mewsgate, Charing Cross, 
vacated oy Thomas Payne the younger [q. v.l 
The perusal of the < Memoirs' of Daniel Neal 
[q v/L prefixed by Joshua Toulmin [q.v.] to 
his edition (1798-7) of Neal's * History of 
the Puritans,' had led Wilson to collect 
notices of dissenting divines, and examine 
manuscript sources of information. He pro- 
jected a biographical account of the dissent-* 
mg congregations of London and the vicinity. 
Soon after beginning the work he became 
possessed of a considerable income, and en- 
tered at the Inner Temple, but does not 
appear to have practised at the bar. For 
his projected work he obtained scarcely three 
hundred subscribers. He published an in- 




stalment of * The History and Antiquities of 
Dissenting Churches and Meeting Houses in 
London, "Westminster, and Southwark: in- 
cluding the Lives of their Ministers,' 1808, 
2 vols. 8vo. He was then living at Camden 
Town, from -which he removed to Dorset, and 
again to Burnet, near Bath, -where he did 
some farming. Here he had a congenial 
neighbour in Joseph Hunter [q.v.] ; they ex- 
changed copies of collections relative to dis- 
senting antiquities. A third volume of his 
* Dissenting Churches' appeared in 1810 ; a 
fourth in 1814, with a preface (1 May 1814) 
showing his personal interest in the older 
types 01 nonconformity. The later volumes 
of his work exhibit a more softened attitude 
towards the free-thinkers of dissent than is 
apparent in the earlier ones ; his facts are 
always given with scrupulous fairness. By 
1818 he was ready to publish a fifth and com- 
pleting volume if five hundred subscribers 
could have been obtained ; but it never ap- 

In 1822 he announced a life of Daniel 
Defoe [q. v.], of whose publications he had 
made a much larger collection than had pre- 
viously been brought together. His 'Me- 
moirs of the Life and Times of Daniel Defoe/ 
1830, 3 vols. 8vo, is heavy, but allowed by 
Macaulay to be 'excellent 1 (JE&irib. Rev. 
October 1845). He had projected a supple- 
mentary work dealing with Defoe's literary 
antagonists. About 1834 he moved from 
Burnet to Pulteney Street, Bath. During 
the progress of the Hewley suit [see Hirw- 
LBT, SAEAH], Wilson's judgment went en- 
tirely with the defendants, and his religious 
views, probably under Hunter's influence, 
underwent a considerable change in the uni- 
tarian direction. 

Wilson died on 21 Feb. 1847. At the 
time of his death he was one of the eight 
registered proprietors of the * Times.' He 
was twice married, and left a son, Henry 
Walter Wilson of the Inner Temple, and 
a daughter, married to Norman Garstin, 
colonial chaplain at Ceylon. His library 
was sold (5-17 July) by Leigh, Sotheby, 
& Wilkinson; the 3,438 lots realising 
1,998*. Ss. 6d., the Defoe collection going to 
America for 50/. His coins and prints (sold 
26 July) produced 270J. 15*. and 19J. 14*. Gd. 
respectively. He bequeathed his manuscript 
collections for the history of dissent to Dr. 
WiHiams's Library (now in Gordon Square, 
London). A complete list of these, by the 
then librarian, Richard Cogan, is printed in 
the 'Christian Reformer' (1847, p. 758). 
The most important articles are the notes in 
an interleaved copy of his * Dissenting 
Churches,' and (separately) a complete topo- 


graphical index to the same ; five folios re- 
lating to dissenting churches; a folio of 
dissenting records; two folios and six quartos 
of biographical collections. Several of his 
manuscripts are transcripts from originals 
also preserved in Dr. Williams's Library. 

[Gent. Mag. 1847, ii. 438; Christian Re- 
former, 1847, pp. 371, 506, 758.] A. GK 

WILSOK, WILLIAM (1690-1741), 
Scots divine, born at Glasgow on 19 Nov. 
1690, was the son of Gilbert Wilson (d. 
1 June 1711), proprietor of a small estate 
near East Eilbride, who underwent religious 
persecution and the loss of his lands during 
the reign of Charles II. His mother, Isa- 
bella (d. 1705), daughter of Rarasay of 
Shielhill in Eorfarshire, was disowned by 
her father for becoming a presbyterian. 
William, who was named after William III, 
was educated at Glasgow University. He 
was laureated on 27 June 1707, and was 
licensed to preach by the presbytery of 
Dunfermline on 23 Sept. 1713. On 21 Aug. 

1716 he was unanimously called to the new 
or west church at Perth, and on 1 Nov. he 
was ordained. He soon obtained great in- 
fluence in the town by the disinterestedness 
of his conduct, refusing to contest at law his 
claim to his grandfather's estate, and declin- 
ing to receive his stipend because the town 
council desired to pay it out of money placed 
in their hands for charitable purposes. On 
the commencement of the ' marrow contro- 
versy ' [see BOSTON, THOMAS, 1077-1732] in 

1717 he sympathised with the ultra-Cal- 
vinistic views of Boston and Ebenezer 
Erskine [q. v.], concurring with these mini- 
sters on 11 May 1721 in the 'representation' 
against the condemnation of ' The Marrow 
of Modern Divinitie * by the general assem- 
bly. In 1732 a further cause of difference 
arose. The general assembly passed an act 
ordaining that when the right of presentation, 
was not exercised by the patron, the ministers 
should be elected by the heritors and elders, 
andnotbythe congregation. This displeased 
Erskine, Wilson, and others, who regarded 
the congregational right as sacred, and 
Erskine preached a vehement sermon on the 
subject, for which he was censured by the 
synod of Perth and Stirling. The censure 
was confirmed by the general assembly, and 
on 14 May 1733 Wilson joined with Alexan- 
der MoncriefF and James Fisher [q. v.] in a 
protest. The assembly, indignant at the 
terms of the protest, required a retractation, 
and failing to obtain it, the standing com- 
mission suspended Wilson and his three 
associates on 9 Aug. 1733, refused to hear a 
representation offered by Wilson and Moa- 





criefT justifying their conduct, and on 
12 Nov. declared them no longer rnmiwters 
of the Scottish church. On 16 Nov. the lour 
ministers put their names to a formal act of 
secession, and on G Dec. they constituted 
themselves an 'associate presbytery.' On 
14 May 1734, however, the assembly, re- 
penting their action, empowered the synods 
to reinstate the four ministers. Wilson was 
anxious for reconciliation, hut further dif- 
ferences had arisen, especially through the 
support afforded by the assembly to patrons 
against the congregational veto. On 5 Nov. 
17#6 the associate presbytery appointed 
Wilson their professor of divinity, and on 
16 May 1740 the seceders, now eight in 
number, were finally deposed. Wilson en- 
joyed the support of a large part of the people 
of Perth, who built a church for him and 
thronged^ to hear him. lie was, however, 
deeply affected by the controversy and broken 
in health by his labours. lie died at Perth, 
on 8 Nov. 1741, and was buried at Perth, 
in Grey friars' cemetery, where a monument 
was erected to his memory with an epitaph 
by .Ralph Erskine [q, v.] Wilson married, on - 
20 June 1721, Margaret (<L 1742), daughter 
of George Alexander (#. 1713), an advocate, 
of Pepper Mill, Edinburgh. By her he had 
a son John, and two daughters, Isabella and 
Mary, who reached maturity. 

Besides single sermons, Wilson pub- 
lished 'A Defence of the Information Prin- 
ciples of the Church of Scotland/ Edinburgh, 
1739, 8vo ; new ed. Glasgow, 1769, 8vo, and 
several collections of sermons ; 1. ' The Day 
of the Sinner's believing in Christ a most 
remarkable Day/ Edinburgh, 1742, 12mo, 
% 'The Father's Promise to the Son, a clear 
bow in the Church's darkest Cloud/ Edin- 
burgh, 1747, 8vo. 3. 'The Lamb's retinue 
attending him whithersoever he goeth/ 
Edinburgh, 1747, 8vo ; 2 and 3, with a few 
single sermons, were rebound in a larger 
collection, (4) t Sermons/ Edinburgh, 1748, 

[Wilson's "Works ; Scott's Easti Bccles. Scoti- 
cana-j, n. ii, 617-18 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd se* 
xti, 223; New Stat Ace, of Scotland,*. Ill; 
terrier's Memoirs of Wilson, 1830; Eadio's 
Life of Wilson m United Presbyterian Fathers, 
1849 ; Wilson's Presbytery of Perth, 1860, pp. 
SI 1-14; BroWs Hist. Account of the Rise and 
Progress of the Secession, 1793 ; The Repre- 
sentations of Ebene2ey Erekine and James 
Pisher^and of William Wilson and Alexander 
Moncriefif to the Commission of the late General 
Assembly, 1738; A Review of the Narrative 
and State of the Proceedings of the Judicatories 
against Brskine, Wilson, Monerieff, and Pisher, 
1734; Pilulse Splenetics; OP, a Laxigh from a 
true blue Presbyterian, 1736 ; X. Y.'s Observa- 

tions upon Church Affairs, 1734; Munhnenta 
Glasguen. (MaiUand Club), Hi. 43 ; Struthem'g 
Hifctt. of (Scotland from the Union to 1748 Gib's 
Present Truth: a Display of the Secession 
Testimony, 1774.] E I 

WILSON, WILLIAM (1801-1860) 
poet and publisher, born in Perthshire on 
25 Dec, 1801, was the son of Thomas Wilson 
by his wile, Agnus Ross. At an early age he 
was imbued with a passionate love of poetry 
derived from his mother, who sang with 
groat beauty the Jacobite songs and ballads 
of Scotland. While a schoolboy he lost his 
lather, so that Wilson's oarly life was accom- 
panied by many privations, including the 
completion of his education. At twenty- 
two he became the editor of the Dundee 
' Literary Olio,' a largo proportion of which, 
both in prose and verao, was from his pen. 
In 1826 he removed to Edinburgh, where he 
established himself in business. His con- 
tributions were welcomedin the ' Edinburgh 
Literary Journal/ thirty-two of his poems 
appearing in. its columns in the course of 
three years. At this period the young poet 
was well known to the leading literary men 
of the day, including his kinsman Professor 
John Wilson (* Christopher North '), and he 
was a constant visitor at the house of Mrs. 
Grant of Laggan, who possessed his portrait 
by Sir John Watson Gordon, now owned 
by his son, General Wilson, In 1832 he re- 
moved to the United States and settled at 
Poughkeepsie, on the Hudson, where he en- 
gaged in bookselling and publishing, which 
he continued till his death. Wilson was the 
lifelong friend and correspondent of Robert 
Chambers(1802-1871) [a. v,], and he was one 
of the few persons in the secret of the au- 
thorship of the ' Vestiges of Creation.' He 
died ou 25 Aug. 1860, lie was twice mar- 
ried : first, to Jane Mackenzie, and, secondly, 
in 1880, to the niece of James Sibbald (1745- 
1808) [q. v.l 

In ^the New World Wilson occasionally 
contributed in prose and verse to American 
periodicals, and sometimes sent a contribu- 
tion to 'Blackwood's/ 'Ghambers's Journal/ 
and ' Praser's Magazine/ Selections of his 
poems appeared in the 'Cabinet/ * Modern 
Scottish Minstrel/ Longfellow's 'Poems 
of Places/ and his son's * Poets and Poetry 
of Scotland j ' but he never issued them in a 
volume nor even collected them, and it was 
not until 1869 that a portion of his poetical 
writings was published, with a memoir bv 
Benson J, Lossing* A second edition with 
additional poems and a portrait appeared in 
1876, and a third in 18S1. Willis pro- 
nounced 'Jean Linn/ one of Wilson's poems, 
'the best modern imitation of the old ballad 




style that he had ever met with ; ' and Bryant 
said that l the song in which the writer per- 
sonates Richard the Lion-hearted during 
his imprisonment is more spirited than any 
of the ballads of Aytoun.' 

[Rogers's Modern Scottish Minstrel ; "Wilson's 
Poets and Poetry of Scotland, vol. ii. ; Memoirs 
of William and Robert Chambers; Appleton's 
Cyclopaedia of American Biography.] 

J. G-. W. 

WILSON, WILLIAM (1799-1871), 
botanist, second son of Thomas Wilson, 
a druggist, was born at Warrington on 
7 June 1799. He was educated at Prest- 
bury grammar school and under Dr. Rey- 
nolds at the Dissenters' Academy, Leaf 
Square, Manchester, and was then articled 
to a firm of solicitors in Manchester ; but 
intense application to the study of con- 
veyancing brought on headaches which were 
followed by serious illness. This led to his 
taking much outdoor exercise, in the course 
of which he acquired his love of botany, and 
ultimately, when he was about five-and- 
twenty, his mother gave him a small 
allowance so that he could devote himself 
entirely to this pursuit. As early as 1821 
he had discovered the Cotoneaster on Great 
Orme's Head. This brought him into cor- 
respondence with Sir James Edward Smith 
[q. v.], who encouraged him to devote him- 
self to botany. In 1827 Professor John 
Stevens Henslow [q . vj introduced him to 
Professor (afterwards Sir William Jackson) 
Hooker [q. v ; ], and at the invitation of 
the latter he joined a five days* excursion 
of the Glasgow botanical students in the 
Breadalbane Hills. He afterwards spent 
nearly two years in Ireland, where, no doubt 
under Hopier's influence, he attached him- 
self to the*study of mosses, which from 1830 
engrossed his whole attention. From 1829 
onward he is frequently quoted in Hooker's 
* British Flora ; J and, becoming well known 
as a bryologist, he entered into corre- 
spondence with such specialists as Lindberg 
ot Helsingfors and Scnimper of Strasburg, 
and was entrusted with the description of 
the mosses collected in the voyages of the 
Erebus and Terror and the Herald, before 

.. 'Muscologia Bri- 
tanniea' (first issued in 1818) of (Sir) W. J. 
Hooker and Thomas Taylor (d. 1848) [q. v.], 
' but substantially a new work of the highest 
merit ' (JACKSON, (hade to the Literature of 
JBotany, p. 241), was published in 1855 (Lon- 
don, 8vo), and was pronounced by Lindberg 
'one of the most exact works in botany/ 
Kevertheless over a hundred new species of 

British mosses were added to the list be- 
tween its publication and his death, and he 
is reported to have said that 'the only 
thing^ he wished to live for was to bring out 
a revised edition/ which, however, he was 
unable to do. 

Wilson died at Paddington, two miles 
from Warrington, on 3 April 1871, and was 
buried in the nonconformist burial-ground, 
Hill Cliff, Warrington, He married in 1836 
a widowed cousin, Mrs. Lane. 

Besides the Cotoneaster, Wilson added a 
new species of rose, a fern, and many mosses 
to the British list, the rose Rosa Wilsom 
being named after him by William Borrer, 
and the Killarney filmy fern named Hyvneno- 
phyttwn Wilsoni by Sir W. J. Hooker. Wil- 
son described many new species of exotic 
mosses in the ' Journal of Botany/ his papers 
being enumerated in the Royal Society's 
'Catalogue' (vi. 389, viii. 1249), and nis 
herbarium and botanical correspondence pre- 
served at the Natural History Museum. 

[Cash's Where there's a "Will there's a Way, 
1873, p. 145.] a. S. B. 

WILSON, WILLIAM (1783P-1873), 
canon of Winchester, born in 1782 or 1783, 
was the son of John Wilson of Kendai 
in Westmorland. He matriculated from 
Queen's College, Oxford, on 15 July 1801, 
and graduated B.A, on 30 May 1805, M.A. 
on 17 Dec. 1808, B.D. in 1820, and D.D. in 
1824. He was a fellow of the college from 
11 May 1815 to 1825, and filled the offices 
of dean and bursar in 1822. In 1829 he was 
senior proctor. He was ordained deacon in 
1805 and priest in 1806, and in 1808 was 
curate of Colne Engaine in Essex. He was 
appointed headmaster of St. Bees grammar 
school on 5 Jan. 1811, and during his tenure 
of this office discovered grave abuses in the 
affairs of the school, especially in regard 
to the lease of the coal royalty in 1742. 
His efforts to obtain redress rendered his 
position untenable, '"and he was driven by 
the persecution of the governors to resign 
his post on 20 May 1816 ; but he had a large 
share in calling Lord Brougham's attention 
to the mismanagement of educational chari- 
ties, and thus in bringing about their reform. 
In regard to the mining royalty, Sir William 
Lowther, second earloi Lonsdale, the repre- 
sentative of the original grantee, was ordered 
in 1827, by a decree of the lord chancellor, 
to pay into court 5,000/. for the benefit of 
the school. 

On 28 July 1824 Wilson was instituted, 
on the presentation of Queen's College, to 
the vicarage of Holy Rood, Southampton, a 
benefice which he retained till his death* 

L 2 




On 3 Fob- 18JW ho \VUH collated to tho 
second stall in Wincho.Mtor CathodrA.1. As 
canon ho pfftvo wry olloctual aH&istanoo to 
John Bird Summer [q, v/] in tho work of the 
diocese. In 18RO lio publwhod * Tho Jliblo 
Student's Guido to tho moro corrocit uudor- 
atarnlitiffof the ( >ld Testament by roforonco to 
the Original Hebrew ' ( London, Uo),a floecmd 
edition of winch, appeared in 18(50 umlor the 
title 'An .Kntfliflh, llobrmv, and Ohaldoo 
Loxicnn and Concordance to the more cornet 
Tindery tancl in # of tho Knglwh Trmwlation 
of the Old Tonlamout by reference to t.ho 
Original Hobrow* (London, 4 to). Wilson 
was a considerable Hebrew scholar, and his 
work has not yet boon wipwsndod* Ho 
died on 22 Aug. 187tt in Tho Oioso, Win- 
chester, And was buried on 37 Au#. at 
Preston Candover. In February 18#0, at 
Godalming, Surrey, ho married Maria (1794- 
18#4), daughter o*f Kobort; Sumnor, vicar of 
IConilworth, and sister of John .Bird 8umner, 
archbishop of Canterbury, and OliarloB Iti- 
diard Sumnor [q. v.], bishop of Winchester 
( Gm t. Mag. \ 8!}0, i. 28). By hor ho liad a 
son, Sumnor Wilson, now vicar of Trentou 

\ tho work mentioned ho published t 

1. 'D. J. Juvenalis Siitino, cum notin 
Anglicis, expurgate/ London, 1815, lmo* 

2. ' The Thirty-nine Articles of tho Church 
of England, illustrated by copious Extracts 
from the Liturgy, Homilies, Nowell'a Cate- 
chism, and Jewell's Apology, and confirmed 
by numerous Passages of Scripture/ Oxford, 
1821, 8vo; enlarged ed, Oxford, 1840, 8vo, 

3. ' Parochial Sermons/ Oxford, 18:20, 8vo. 

4. 'Tho Attributes of God/ selections from 
Charuock, Goodwin, Bates, and Wishart, 
London, 1835, 8vo; republifihed 1886 in 
'The Christian Family Library/ voL KV. 

5. 'Tho Boole of Psalms, with an Exposition 
Evangelical, Typical, and Prophetical of the 
Christian Dispensation/ London, 18GO,2vols, 
8ro. lie edited tho ( ChriNtianaa Piotatis 
Institutio* of Alexander Nowoll, London, 
1817, 12rno, 

[Information kindly ttivon by tho Provost of 
Queen's College, Oxford ; Jackson's Papers und 
Podigrees mainly rolating to Cumberland and 
^Westmorland, 1892, ii. 217-21 j Guardian, 
27 Aug. 1873; Hampshire Chronicle, 23 and 
30 Aug. 1873 ; Sumner's Lifaof Oharlow Bichard 
Sutnner, 1876, p. 1 ; Poster's Alumni Oxon. 1716- 
1886; Foster's Index Ecclos,; Allibono's Diet, 
of EngL Lit.] E. I. 0, 

WILSON, WILLIAM (1808-1888), 
Scots divine, was born in 1 808 at Blawearie, 
Bassendean, in Berwickshire. He was edu- 
cated at the parish school, and in 1825 en- 
tered the university of Edinburgh, whore he 

took tho arts and theological classes, study- 
ing mulor Chalmers, David Welsh [q.v.], and 
Alexander Brunton. Licensed by the pres- 
bytory of Dumfrios on 2 March 1830, Wilson 
waft early recognised as a powerful preacher. 
Till 3837 ho acted as a parochial missionary 
in Glasgow, and from 1835 to 1837 he was 
editor of tho t Scottish Guardian/ On 

8opt. 1 837 ho was ordained minister of 
Carmyllio, Forfarwhiro. In tho conflict which 
ended in the disruption, "Wilson tools an active 
part. J Fejoined tho free church and preached 
in a wooden building till 1H48, when he was 
called to the marinwa' church, 1 )undee, where 
he oiliciated till 1877. lie was elected mode- 
rator of tho froo-chureh assembly on 24 May 
1800, junior principal cleric of assembly in 
1808, and senior clerk in 1883, On 20 April 
1870 ho received the degree of D.D. from 
Edinburgh University. In 1877 he was ap- 
pointed secretary of the sustontation fund 
committee, lie' also held tho office of Chal- 
mers lecturer* llo died on 1 4 Jan, 1888, sur- 
vived by ono son and live daughters. His 
remains wore accorded a public funeral in 
Dundee* In 1840 Wilson married Eliza, 
daughter of Alexander White of l)rhnmieter- 
mont, near Forfar. She died in February 

Wilson wrote: 1. * Statement of the 
Scriptural Argument against Patronage/ - 
Edinburgh, 1842, 8vo, 'a. 'The Kingdom 
of our Lord Jesus Christ/ Edinburgh, 1859, 
8vo. 3, ' Christ sotting his Face towards 
Jerusalem,' Dundoo, 1878, 8vo. 4, < Me- 
morials of R, S. Gandlish, DJV Edinburgh, 
1880, 8vo, Wilaon also edited with a pre- 
face and notes Daniel I)ofoo T s 'Memoirs of 
the Church of Scotland/ 1B44, and contri- 
buted a profaco to Sir Jamas Stewart and 
Jamoa Stirling's 4 Survoy ofNaphtaly/ 1845. 
1 lo wroto tho hiwtory of tho pariwh of Oarmvllie 
for the 'Now Stat'wtieal Account of Scot- 
land/ and contributed to tho 'Free Church 

[Scott's Fasti, m, ii. 704; J, H, MeBain's 
Eminent Arbroatlmuifi, 1807 ; Scotsman, 16 Jan, 
1888; Smith'*) Soot, Clergy, voliii.j Bnt.Mus. 
Cat,] <* S~ H 

EltASMUS (1809-1884), wurgoon, generally 
known as Sir Erasmus Wilnon, was son ot 
William "Wilson, a native of Aberdeen, wlio 
had boon a naval surgeon, and afterwards 
settled as a parish at Dartfora ana 
Greonhithe m Kent, Erasmus was born on 
25 Nor, 1809 in High Street, Marylebone, at 
the houso of his maternal grandfather, Eras- 
mus Braneclorph, a Norwegian, He was edu- 
cated at Dartfbrd grammar school, and atter- 
wards at Swanscombe in Kent, bat he was 




soon called upon to help in the practice of 
his father. At the age of sixteen he became 
a resident pupil with George Langstaff, sur- 
geon to the Cripplegate dispensary, and he 
then began to attend the anatomical lectures 
given by John Abernethy [q. v.] at St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital. At his master's house 
he became acquainted with Jones Quain [q. v.] 
and Sir "William Lawrence [q. v.], while his 
skill as a draughtsman and the neatness of 
his dissection soon attracted general atten- 
tion. On the establishment of the Aldersgate 
Street school of medicine, under the leader- 
ship of William Lawrence, "Wilson became 
one of the first pupils, gaining the prizes for 
surgery and midwifery in the session 1829-30. 
He was admitted a licentiate of the Society of 
Apothecaries onhis twenty-first birthday, and 
inthefollowingyear (25 Nov. 1831) he became 
a member of the Boyal College of Surgeons of 
England. In the same year Wilson was asked 
by Jones Quain, then professor of anatomy 
and physiology at University College, to be- 
come his assistant. He accepted the post, 
and was soon afterwards appointed demon- 
strator of anatomy to Richard Quain [q. v.] 
This office he filled until Jones Quain re- 
tired from University College hi 1836, when 
Wilson established a school of anatomy, 
called Sydenham College, which eventually 
proved unsuccessful. In 1840 he lectured 
upon anatomy and physiology at the Middle- 
sex Hospital, and in the same year he began 
to act as sub-editor of the ' Lancet.' He was 
also consulting surgeon to the St. Pancras in- 
firmary, and on 20 Feb. 1845 he was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society. 

At the suggestion of Thomas Wakley 
[q. v.], the editor of the * Lancet,' Wilson be- 
gan to devote himself more particularly to 
the treatment of diseases of the skin, and from 
1840 almost to the end of his long life the 
cares of an extensive practice occupied most 
of his time. 

At the Royal College of Surgeons of Eng- 
land he was elected a fellow in 1843, and in 
1869 he founded, at his own expense, a pro- 
fessorship of dermatology, endowing it with 
a sum of 5,0002. This chair he held from 
1869 to 1877, and when he resigned it the 
conditions of the trust were so modified as 
to include the whole domain of pathology. 
In 1869 and again in 1883 Wilson made 
large and valuable presents to the museum 
of the College of Surgeons. He was elected 
a member of the council in 1870, and held 
office until 1884. He was vice-president in 
1879-80, and president in 1881. In 1884 he 
was awarded the honorary gold medal of the 

Wilson was particularly fond of foreign 

travel, and so early as 1828, and again in 
1830, he went to Paris to attend the lectures 
of Cuvier and of G-eofiroy Saint-Hilaire. In 
middle life he travelled much in the east. 
He became particularly interested in the 
study of Egyptian antiquities, and in 1877-8 
he defrayed the expenses (about 10,0002.) 
connected with the transport of * Cleopatra's 
needle' to London. In 1881 he received 
the honour of knighthood. He also filled 
the office of master of the Clothworkers' 
Company, and he was president of the Bibli- 
cal Archaeological Society. 

He died on 7 Aug. 1884, after two years' 
ill-health, at Westgate-on-Sea, Kent. He 
married Miss Doherty in 1841, who sur- 
vived him, but he left no children. 

Wilson ranks as one of the first and best rt f 
the specialists in skin diseases. He found the 
field of dermatology almost unworked,and he 
toiled with such assiduity, and obtained such 
rewards, as soon induced a host of fellow 
labourers to follow in his footsteps. To W il- 
son's teaching we owe in great measure the 
use of the bath, which is so conspicuous a 
feature in our national life, and to his advo- 
cacy is to be attributed the spread of the 
Turkish bath in England. Skilful invest- 
ments in the shares of gas and railway com- 
panies made him a wealthy man, and he de- 
voted his riches to various charitable objects, 
for he was a distinguished freemason. JIji 
restored Swanscombe church, and he founded 
a scholarship at the Royal College of Music. 
He was a large subscriber to the Eoyal Medical 
Benevolent College at Epsom, where he built 
at his own cost a house for the head-master. 
At. an expense of nearly 30,000/. he built a 
new wing and chapel at the sea-bathing in- 
firmary, Margate, where diseases of the skin 
are extensively treated, and in 1881 he esta- 
blished a chair of pathology in the university 
of Aberdeen, where the degree of LL.D. had 
been conferred upon him. 

After the death of Lady Wilson the bulk 
of his property, amounting to upwards of 
200,000/., reverted to the Eoyal College oi 
Surgeons of England. 

A bust of Wilson, executed by Thomas 
Brock, R.A., stands in the new library of the 
Royal College of Surgeons in Lincoln's Lin 
Fields. A three-quarter length in oils in 
the robes of a lecturer at the Royal College 
of Surgeons of England, painted by Stephen 
Pearce, hangs in the hall of the Medical 
Society's Rooms in Chandos Street, W. 

Wiison's more important works were: 
1, * Practical and Surgical Anatomy/ Lon- 
don, 1838, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1853 ; issued in 
America, 1844 and 1856. 2. 'The Anatomist's 
Vade Mecum/ London, 1840, 12mo; 2nd edit. 

Wilson 15 

1842 ; llth edit. 1892. 3. * A Practical and 
Theoretical Treatise ... on Diseases of the 
Skin/ London, 1842, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1847 ; 
translated into German, Leipzig, 1850. 4. ' The 
Eastern or Turkish Bath : its History,' &c., 
London, 1861, 16mo. 5. * The Vessels of the 
Human Body, in a Series of Plates ' (with 
Jones Quain), London, 18B7, fol. Wilson 
edited the ' Journal of Cutaneous Medicine 
and Diseases of the Skin,' London, 1867-70. 

[Brit. Mod. Journal, 1884, ii. 347 ; Trans. 
Medieo-Cirir. Soc, 1885, Ixviii. 20-2.1 

D'A. P. 

1849), author of ' Travels,' was a member of 
a Haddington family named Bao, and was 
born in Paisley on 7 June 1772. He learned 
law under his uncle, John Wilson, town 
clerk of Glasgow, and for a time practised 
as a solicitor before the supreme courts of 
Scotland. His uncle, who died in. 1806, left 
him his fortune, and he then, by letters 
patent, added Wilson to his name, and re- 
solved to gratify a taste for travel, specially 
stimulated at the moment by his wile's pre- 
mature death. He travelled in Egypt and 
Palestine, and through most of Europe, pre- 
paring as he went t minute and interesting 
records of his experience. As he was in some 
respects a pioneer, his publications^ had an 
immediate popularity, and they retain a cer- 
tain historical interest. He became a fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries, and in 1844 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
the university of Glasgow, In recognition 
of this academical distinction he bequeathed 
to the university 300 to^ provide an annual 
prize for an essay on Christ and the benefits 
of Christianity. An upright man, a writer 
and a distributor of tracts, he was not of a 
specially tolerant spirit. One hapless stric- 
ture provoked HoooVs discursive and pungent 
' Ode to Rae Wilson, Esquire/ published in 
1837 with characteristic prefatory note ad- 
dressed to the editor of the 'Athenteum' 
(Hoop, Poms, edit. 1867, i. 61). Bae Wil- 
son died in London, in South Crescent, Bed- 
ford Square, on 2 June 1849, and was buried 
in Glasgow necropolis, where his grave is 
marked by a conspicuous monument of ori- 
ental design, 

In 1811 Rae Wilson married Frances 
Phillips, daughter of a Glasgow merchant. 
Her death, eighteen months later, prompted 
a privately circulated memorial tribute, 
afterwards published in Gisborne's ' Christian 
Female Biography,' He married, a second 
time, Miss Cates, who accompanied him in 
his travels and survived him. 

Rae Wilson's publications include: 
1, 'Travels in Egypt and the Holy Land,' 


1823. 2. 'A Journey through Turkey. 
Greece, the Ionian Isles, Sicily, Spain/ 1824. 

* Travels in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, 
Hanover, Germany, Netherlands,' 1826. 
4. * Travels in Bussia,' 1828, 2 vols. 5. < Re- 
cords of a Boute through France and Italy 
with Sketches of Catholicism,' 1835. The 
work on Egypt and the Holy Land was very 
popular, and ran through several editions. 

[Cbambers's Biogr. Diet, of Eminent Scots- 
men ; Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Irving's Diet, 
of Eminent Scotsmen ; Glasgow "University 
Calendar ; Addison's Boll of Glasgow Graduates. 
1898.1 T. B. 

1842), lieutenant-general, colonel-comman- 
dant royal artillery, born in 1762, was se- 
cond son of Major Wiltshire Wilson of Wol- 
lock Grange, Northumberland, formerly of 
the 1st dragoons, by a daughter of Ralph 
Phillips of Colchester. After passing through 
the Boyal Military Academy at Woolwich 
he received a commission as second lieutenant 
in the royal artillery on 9 July 1779. The 
dates of his further commissions were : lieu- 
tenant, 28 Feb. 1782; captain-lieutenant, 
1 Nov. 1793 ; captain, 1 July 1796 ; brevet 
major, 29 Aug. 1802; regimental major, 
20 July 1804 ; lieutenant-colonel, 10 March 
1805 ; brevet colonel, 4 July 1813 j regi- 
mental colonel, 20 Dec. 1814 ; major-general, 
12 Aug, 1819 j colonel-commandant of royal 
artillery, 21 Jan. 1828 j lieutenant-general, 
10 Jan. 1837. 

Wilson went to the West Indies in 1780, 
whence in 1786 he took a detachment of 
artillery to Canada, and in 1790 returned to 
England. He served with the Duke of 
York's army in Flanders in 1793, and was 
for some time attached with two 6-pounder 
guns to the 53rd foot. He was employed 
in May, June, and July at the siege of 
Valenciennes, which place capitulated on 
28 July. He was dangerously wounded at 
the attack on Dunkirk on 24 Aug. In 
October he was thrown into Nieuport with 
Ms two guns in company with the 63rd foot 
and two Hessian battalions, where they 
were attacked by the whole French army 
under General Yandamm e. Vandamm e met 
with an obstinate resistance, the sluices 
were opened, and his siege batteries inun- 
dated, and when, abandoning the regular 
attack, he attempted a ni^hc assault on 
25 Oct., his front was so limited between 
the river and the inundation that Wilson, 
with his two guns placed to command ^he 
enemy's approach, was able, by firing rapidly 
into the advancing foe over one hundred 
rounds of grape and round shot, to create 
such fearful havoc that the French with- 



drew just at the critical time when enlarged 
gun-vents and distorted muzzles were ren- 
dering Wilson's guns useless. The arrival 
of British forces on the 29th caused Van- 
damme to raise the siege on the following 
day, leaving his "battering guns behind. The 
successful defence was ascribed by all con- 
cerned to the artillery and the 53rd regi- 
ment. "Wilson's services were rewarded by 
promotion to the rank of captain-lieutenant. 
In consequence of the gallantry displayed 
by the fishermen of Nieuport the Duke of 
York incorporated them into a company of 
artillery, and gave the command of it to 
Wilson in June 1794. 

Wilson took part in the battle of Tournay 
on 23 May 1794. He commanded the 
artillery at the defence of Nieuport this 
year, when General Diepenbrook with 1,500 
men held the French army of 40,000 men 
under General Moreau at bay for nineteen 
days. On the capitulation Wilson became 
a prisoner of war, and was not exchanged 
for nine months. He commanded the royal 
artillery in the expedition under Major- 
general Welbore Ellis Doyle to Quiberon 
Bay in 1795 ; shortly after the capture of 
Isle Dieu he returned to England. In 1796 
he went to the Cape of Good Hope with a 
company of artillery, but returned home 
the following year. In May 1798 he went 
to Ostend in the expedition under Major- 
general Sir Eyre Coote, where he was again 
taken prisoner and sent to Lille. He was 
exchanged in 1799. In 1800 he was sent 
to the West Indies, where he remained for 
five years, in the last three of which he 
commanded the artillery. He commanded 
his arm at the capture of St. Lucia on 
22 June 1803, of Tobago on 30 June 1803, 
and of Surinam on 5 May 1804. 

On his return to England in 1806 Wilson 
commanded the royal artillery in the northern 
district until 1810, when he went to Ceylon 
to command his regiment there. He re- 
turned home in 1815, and two years after- 
wards went to Canada, where he commanded 
the royal artillery until 1820. His services 
were rewarded in 1836 by the distinction 
of a knight comxnandership of the Royal 
Hanoverian Guelphic order. He died on 
8 May 1842 at Cheltenham. Wilson was 
twice married : first, in 1789, to a daughter 
of John Lees ; and, secondly, in 1825, to a 
daughter of Jacob Glen of Chambly, near 
Montreal. There was no issue of either 
marriage. There is a black-and-white por- 
trait of Wilson in the Royal Artillery Insti- 
tution at Woolwich. 

[War Office Records j Royal Artillery Records ; 
i-*^-. - Memoirs in the Royal Military 

Calendar, 1820, (rent. Mag. 1842, United Service 
Mag. 1843 ; Military Annual, 1844 ; Times, 
11 May 1842; Chist's Wars of Eighteenth Cent.; 
Carmichael Smyth's Wars in the Low Countries ; 
Journ. and Corresp. of Sir Harry Calvert ; Can- 
non's Hist. Records of the 53rdFoot.] R.H. V. 

WINMABLBIGH (1802-1892), born on 26 April 
1802, was eldest son of Thomas Wilson-Pat- 
ten of Bank Hall, Warrington, Lancashire. 
His father had in 1800 assumed the addi- 
tional name of "Wilson at the request of Tho- 
mas Wilson (1663-1755) [q. y.], bishop of 
Sodor and Man, to whose estates Patten 
succeeded by the testamentary disposition of 
the bishop's son, Thomas Wilson, John's 
mother, Elizabeth, was eldest daughter of 
Nathan Hyde of Urdwick. His schooldays 
were passed at Eton, and he went thence 
to Magdalen College, Oxford. Here he be- 
came intimate with many men who after- 
wards rose to great eminence, among others 
Edward G. G. S, Stanley, Lord Stanley, 
afterwards fourteenth earl of Derby. After 
leaving Oxford he travelled for some years 
on the continent, but returned in 1830, and 
in August entered parliament as representa- 
tive, with his friend's father Lord Stanley, 
afterwards thirteenth earl of Derby, of his 
native county of Lancaster. He voted for the 
second reading of the Reform Bill, and did not 
seek re-election in 1831, giving place to (Sir) 
Benjamin Heywood fa. v.], but at the first 
election under that bill in 1832 he re-entered 
parliament as colleague of his friend Edward 
{Stanley (afterwards Lord Stanley) for 
the newly created division of North Lan- 
cashire. This constituency he continued to 
2 resent till, on the return of Disraeli to 
ce in 1874, he was created Baron Win- 
marleigh. His long career in the House 
of Commons was remarkable for the fact 
that, though a strong conservative, he was 
an advocate of reforms that would affect 
the operatives, and could always be relied 
upon to vote for measures for the benefit of 
the industrial population, whichever party 
brought them forward. He supported an 
early bill for dealing with the evils of the 
truck system, and took a most important 
part in obtaining the removal of the tax 
on printed calicoes, which led to great deve- 
lopments in the manufacturing trade of 
South Lancashire. In 1833 he opposed Lord 
Ashley's bill to limit the hours of the em- 
ployment of women and children in fac- 
tories, carrying by a majority of one his 
motion for a royal commission to inquire 
fully into the question [see COOPER, ANTON* 
He held for a few months in 1852 the ap- 




5 Fob. 1624-5, IIo was "buried in the 
clotHta of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, and 
a monument was erected to bis memory at 
Evorton hi BedfordHhire, where his family 
resided for several generations. By his wire 
Cicely, daughter ot Richard Onslow (1528- 
1571] [q. v.], ho left a sou Onslow and a 
daughter Dorothy, married to George Scott 
of Hawkhurst in Kent. His male line ter- 
minated about 17CKJ on the death of Sit 
Humphrey Winch, created a baronet in 

Two legal compilations by Winch, were 
published after his death. The iirat, which 
appeared in 1657, wus * The Itoporta of Sir 
Humphry Winch, sometimes one of the 
Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, con- 
taining many choice cases - in the foure 
last years of King James, faithfully trans- 
lated out of an exact french Oopie/ Lon- 
don, 4to. The original manuscript is in 
the Cambridge University Library (Cat 
Qw&r. M8S, iii. 491). The second and 
more voluminous treatise appeared in 1680, 
entitled <Le Beau-Pledour. A Book of 
Entries, containing Declarations, Informa- 
tions, and other Select and Approved Plead- 
ings/ London, 4to. 

[Foss's Judges of England, 1857, vi. 201-2 ; 
Harl. Soc, Publ. x. 109 ; Smyth's Law Offices 
of Ireland, 1839, pp. 88, 140; Bedfordshire 
Notes and Queries, i. 95, 216, 24$, 265, iii. 
266-7; Bacon's Works, ed, Spedding, Ellis, and 
Heath, xiii, 85, xiv. 187 ; Blaydes's G-enotil. 
Bedford, 1890, pp. 306, 356, 360, 420, 439 ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. (Kep on Bucftleuch MSB. i. 
250); O'Byrne's Representative History, 1848, 
p, 74 ; Had. MS. 0121, , 65,] E. I. 0, 

1888), botanist, was born about 1769. 
Ho was throughout his life devoted to 
the study of plants, especially those of 
!Northumberlana 7 Cumberland, and Durham, 
and was one of the earliest writers to take 
philosophical views of geographical distribu- 
tion. JBfo studied cryptogams, especially 
mosses, as well as flowering plants, and 
accumulated an herbarium of some twelve 
thousand species. He was elected a fellow 
of the Linnean Society in 1803 and an asso- 
ciate in 1821. For more than twenty years 
he acted as secretary to the Newcastle In- 
firmary. He died at his residence, Kadley 
Place,Newcastle-upon-Tyne, on 5 May 1888, 
aged 69. His manuscripts, library, and 
herbarium were bequeathed to the Linnean 
Society, but the greater part of them was 
subsequently handed over to the Natural 
History Society of Northumberland and 
Durham. His name was commemorated by 
De Oaadolle in the genus Winchia* Winch s 

principal publications were: 1. 'The Bota- 
nist's Guide through . . . Northumberland 
and Durham/ 1805-7, 2 vols. 8vo, written 
n conjunction with John Thornhill and 
lichard Waugh, arranged according to the 
jinnean system and including cryptogams. 
2. * Observations on the Geology of North- 
umberland and Durham/ 1814, 4to. 3. < Es- 
say on the Geographical Distribution of 
Wants through . . . ^Northumberland, Cum- 
berland, and Durham/ 1819, 8vo; 2nd ed. 
L825. 4. ' Uomarkfl on the Flora of Cumber- 
.and/ 1825, 8vo, contributed to the ' New- 
castle Magazine ' during tho preceding year, 
and reprinted as ' Contributions to the Flora 
of Cumberland/ 1833, 4to. 6. Flora of 
Northumberland and Durham, 7 1831, 4to; 
reprinted from the * Transactions * of the 
Natural History Society of Northumber- 
land, Durham, and Newcastle, to which 
addenda wore issued in 1836. 

[Britten and Boulgor's Biographical Index of 
Botanists, and authorities there cited.] 

G, S. B. 

JOHN (dL 1520), clothier, popularly known 
as JACK OJT NDBW.BUBY, describes himself in 
his will as 'John Smalewoode the elder, 
alias John Wynchcombe, of the parishe of 
Seynt Nicholas in Newberry*' He is said by 
Herbert to have been descended from a 
Simon de Winchcombe, a rich draper of 
Candlewyk Street, London, who was sheriff 
of London in 1379 (Zt&ary Companies, i. 
394, 401 5 Men* Franciscana) ii, 167). He 
was, however, associated with Newbury from 
his earliest years, was there apprenticed to a 
clothier, and subsequently acquired great 
wealth through hie successful pursuit of that 
trade. The chapbook stories of his having 
led 100 or 250 men, equipped at his own 
expense, to the battle of Flodden Field j of 
his haying entertained Henry VIII and 
Catherine of Aragon and refused a knight- 
hood j of the doings of William Sommers [q.v.] 
and other courtiers at Winchcombe's^house, 
are unsupported by contemporary evidence, 
and are probably as apocryphal as the 
legends which gathered round Kichard Whit- 
tington [q. v.] There is, however, no doubt 
that Winchcombe was a pioneer of the 
cloth nff manufacture, and possibly he was, 
as Fuller states, the 'most considerable 
clothier England ever beheld/ He is said 
to have kept five hundred men at work, and 
< Winchcombe's kerseys' were long con- 
sidered the finest of their kind (BtfBN&EY, 
jffist of Wool and W0oZ-comdinff t p. 69), 
He is said in an epitaph in Newbury parish 
church, for the * edification' of which he left 
a large bequest, to have died on 15 Feb, 



1519-[20]. He was buried in the chancel of 
the church with his first wife, Alice, and a 
brass effigy with inscription is fixed to the 
east wall of the north aisle. He was sur- 
vived by his second wife, Joan, and apparently 
an only son. His will, dated 4 Jan., was 
proved on 24 March 1519-[20] (Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS. 6033, f. 46 ; Mistory of Newbury, 
1839, p. 78). 

His son, JOHN WLBTCHCOMBB (1489?- 
1565?), carried on his father's trade, but 
took more part in politics. In October 1 536 
he was one of those to whom letters were 
addressed for aid in view of the northern 
rebellions. In February 1538-9 Miles Oo- 
verdale [q. v.], when at Newbury, employed 
him as a means of communication with 
Cromwell, who in the same month gave 
Winchcombe an order for a thousand kerseys 
(CovEBDALE, Remains, Parker Soc. pp. 500, 
502; Letters and Papers of JKenry VIII, 
xiv. i. 396). In December following he was 
one of the ' squires ' appointed to receive 
Anne of Cleves, and on 12 Feb. 1539-40 he 
was granted BucHebury and Thatcham, be- 
sides some lands in Reading, all previously 
the property of St. Mary's Abbey there ; 
on 4 JFeb. 1540-1 he was placed on the com- 
mission of the peace for Berkshire. In March 
1541 he was leader of a movement among 
clothiers to protest against the provisions of 
the statute of 1535 dealing with the manu- 
facture of cloth (27 Henry VIH, c, 12). The 
council stayed the execution of the statute, 
and directed Sir Thomas Gresham and others 
who had procured it to prepare for its de- 
fence (NICOLAS, Acts P. C. vii. 156 ; Letters 
and Papers, xvi. 625), On 20 Jan. 1544-5 
'John Winchcombe, gent., of Newbury ,' was 
returned -to parliament for "West Bedwin, 
Wiltshire. In 1549 he was granted a coat 
of arms, and on 8 Feb. 1552-3 was returned 
to parliament for Heading. Three portraits 
of the younger John Winchcombe, all dated 
1550, were exhibited at the Tudor Exhibition 
in 1887. An original portrait, erroneously 
ascribed to Holbein, belongs to Mrs. Webley 
Parry, a copy to Mrs. Dent of Sudeley. and 
another original portrait to Mr. Walter 
Money (Cat. Tudor Exhib, Nos. 448, 201, 


[q. v.], was directed in the latter year to 
maintain order at Reading fair (Acts P. C. 
1554^6, p. 163), and in Elizabeth's reign 
was suggested by Parker as a commissioner 
in Berkshire to prevent the scarcity of com 
(STBYPE, Parker, iii. 121). His descendant, 
Six Henry Winchcombe, was created a baro- 

net in 1661, and died in 1667, leaving a son 
Henry, on whose death in 1703 the baro- 
netcy became extinct. The estates passed 
to his eldest daughter, Frances, who was 
married in 1700 to Henry St. John, the 
great viscount Bolingbroke [q. v.l 

The cult of the legendary ' Jack of New- 
bury' began before that of Whittington. 
Wood mentions (Addit. MS. 6033, f. 46 b) 
having bought from a pedlar in Warwick- 
shire the * Life and Ghests of Jack of New- 
bury ' printed in black letter, of which no 
copy now appears to be extant. Late in the 
sixteenth century Thomas Deloney [q. v.] 
published his ' Pleasant History of John 
Winchcomb, in his younger yeares called 
Jacke of Newberie, the famous and worthy 
clothier of England.' The earliest edition 
extant appears to be the eighth, published 
in 1630; a copy in the Douce collection 
in the Bodleian Library contains a note by 
Douce to the effect that the first edition 
was published about 1597, and on his flyleaf 
is'-'a sketch of Jack of Newbuvy's house 
from recollection, made by Flaxman for F. 
Douce/ A ninth edition appeared in 1633 
(London, 4to), a fourteenth albout 1680, and 
a fifteenth about 1700 (both London, 4to). 
A shortened version of the story, ornamented 
with rough woodcuts and entitled 'The 
History of Jack of Newbury/ was published 
about 1750 (London, lJ2mo; another edit. 
London, 1775 ? 12mo), and another version, 
entitled 'The History of Mr. J. W., J ap- 
peared at Newbury (1780 ? 8vo). 

[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. Gaird- 
ner ; Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas and 
Dasent; Brit Mus. Addit. MS. 3890; Official 
Returns of Members of Parliament j Deloney's 
and other Histories in Brit, Mus. Libr. ; Fuller's 
Worthies, ed. 1811, i. 95; Berry's Berkshire 
Genealogies, p. 149 ; Ashmole's Antiquities of 
Berkshire, ii. 289, iii. 300 ; Lysons's Magua 
Britannia, 1806, i. 329 ; Hist, and Antiq. of 
Newbury, 1839, pp. 77-80; Burke's Extinct 
Baronetcies; Kirby*s Winchester Scholars, p. 
136; Ashley's Economic History, i. 229, 236, 
265 ; Cunningham's Growth of English Industry 
and Commerce, 1896, i. 515, 523; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. viii. 304 ; authorities cited.] 

A. F. P. 

1313), archbishop of Canterbury, derived 
his name from Old Winchelsea in Kent, 
where he was probably born. He studied 
arts at Paris, where he took his master's 
decree, becoming rector of the university 
before 7 July 1267 (DBNIFLB and CHATE- 
XAIN, Cartularium Vnwersitatis Parisiensis, 
i. 468). He afterwards studied theology at 
Oxford, where he proceeded D.D., and was 



chancellor in 1288 (Wool), Fasti Oxon. 
p. 15, ed. Gutch). A confusion of him 
with a namesake, John Winchelsea, has led 
to the improbable assertion that he was a 
fellow of Morton College (BftODRiCK, Me- 
morial* of Marion Coll. pp. 197-8, Oxford 
Hist, Soc.) He enjoyed a great reputation 
as scholar and administrator both at Paris 
and Oxford (BtitoniiraTOK in Angtia Sacra, 
i. 12), He was appointed prebendary of 
Lcighton Manor in Lincoln Cathedral, but 
his rights there were contested by the 
litigious Almoric of Montfort [q. v.] (Peck- 
ham's Letters, i. 90), Wincliolsoa gained 
the suit, and held the prebend until lie be- 
came archbishop (Lra NEVE, JFasti JSccl, 
An<jL ii. 170, ed. Hardy). About 1283 Win- 
chelsea was appointed archdeacon of Essex 
and prebendary of Oxgate in St. Paul's (#. 
ii. 333-4, 420; NBWCOTTKT, Jfapertoriwi 
flcclmasticum Londin. i. 71, 190), Ho 
resided constantly and diligently visited his 
archdeaconry. He preached frequently and 
resumed the delivery of theological lectures 
in St. Paul's (BiBOHifforoisr, p, 12). 

Peckham died on 8 J)ec. 1292, The papacy 
was vacant, and for once there was a chance 
of a canonical election to Canterbury. On 
22 Dec, J tenry (& 1331 ) [a ,v,] of Easily, prior 
of Christ Church, sought license to elect, and 
two of his monks visited Edward at New- 
castle, whence they were sent back on 6 Jan. 
1293 with the necessary permission. The 
election took place on 13 Feb., and was ' per 
viam compromissi/ a committee of seven 
being entrusted with making the appoint- 
ment on behalf of the whole chapter ( WIL- 
XINS, Concilia, ii. 189-90), Through Eastry's 
influence, and probably with Edward rs 
goodwill, Winchelsea was unanimously 
elected. The king gave his consent after 
three days (BmciUNGTOK, p. 12), whereupon 
Wmcholsea at once prepared to start off 
for Jtome (cf. Cal fat. Hoik, 1292-1301, 
p. 7). He reached liome on Whit-Sunday, 
17 May. The papacy being still vacant, he 
was delayed at the curia moro thau a year 
before ho could obtain confirmation and con- 
secration. He made so good an impression 
on the cardinals that it was believed in Eng- 
land that he was thought of as a possible 
pope (BntOHiNGTpJsr, p. 12). At fast the 
election of Celestine V terminated the long 
vacancy on 6 July 1294, The new pope 
thought so well of Winchelsea that he offered 
him a cardinalate, which Winchelsea refused. 
Despite the opposition of the Franciscans 
( Worcester Ann. p. 518), Oeleatine confirmed 
Winchelsea's election. On 12 Sept. he was 
consecrated bishop at Aquila, whore the papal 
court then was (WiLrafs, Concilia, ii. 198). 

He left Ilprao on 5 Oct., and travelled home 
by way of Germany, Brabant, and Holland, 
to avoid the territories of Philip the Fair 
with whom Edward I was then at war' 
lie reached Yarmouth on 1 Jan. 1295 
( Worcester Ann. p 518). Besides the sum 
of 142J. 19*, expended in England, his out- 
lay at Koine had amounted to the huge 
sum of 2,500 marks (SoMNEtt, Antiy. of Cant. 
Appendix to Supplement, pp. 18-19). The 
proctors of the chapter had spent more than 
half as much besides. 

g Edward I was in North Wales suppress- 
ing the revolt of Madog ab Llywelyn [see 
MADoaj. Winchelsea at once repaired to the 
royal camp at Oonway, where on 4 Feb. the 
order for the restoration of his temporalities 
was issued (Cal Pat. Rolls, 1292-1301, p 
1 29). On 6 Feb. Wincholsea excommunicated 
Madog (Cumuli. 203), and on 18 March he 
made his solemn entry into Canterbury, where 
he received the pallium. He was enthroned 
on Sunday, 2 Oct., in the presence of the king, 
Edward's brother and sou, and a parent gather- 
ing of clerks and magnates. The details of the 
ceremony; wore carefully recorded (' Forma in- 
turonizatiouis arcluopiacopi VI Non. Oct. ab 
llenrico prior/ c., in SOMNHII, i. 57-8). 

A secular prieat, canonically elected by an 
English chapter. Wincholsea was anxious 
from the beginning not to fall short of his 
two mendicant predecessors (Kilwardby and 
Peckham), whom the papacy had forced upon 
the English kin$ and church, In personal 
holiness he was in no wise inferior to them, 
and he was probably their superior in ability, 
He continued to be assiduous in preaching. 
He attended the canonical hours as regularly 
as a monk, lie frequently shut himself up for 
prayer and meditation, and, as his intimates 
suspected, for severe corporal discipline. His 
charity and almsgiving were magnificent* 
Many poor scholars partook of his bounty, 
and ne was careful to reserve many of his 
best bpnelices for needy masters and bachelors 
of divinity. He was bountiful to the mendi- 
cant friars, though he sought to restrain them 
from exercising pastoral functions without 
the consent of the local clergy ( Worcester 
Ann. p. 546 ; cf. however Concilia, ii. 257-64). 
He constantly distributed his rich garments 
to the poor, and never kept more than two 
robes for himself, lie partook sparingly; or 
not at all of the costly moats set before him, 
and habitually gave them away to the poor 
and sick, much to the disgust of his servants, 
who thought that coarser food would have 
sufficed for pauper needs, Yet he seldom 
gave way to the excesses of asceticism. He 
was cheerful in temperament, corpulent in 
body, a hard worker, and a good man of 




business. He was tenacious of his precedence j 
and personal dignity on public occasions, but 
associated on terms of friendly equality with 
his clergy. He was affable, kind, and jocular. 
He hated flatterers, traitors, and prodigals. 
He rarely spoke to women save in confes- 
sion (BiRCHiNGTON, pp. 12-14 collects, per- 
haps with too much desire for edification, his 
personal characteristics ; cf. also Flores Hist, 
iu. 155, Chron. de Melsa, ii. 328 ; Monk of 
Malmesbury in Chron. JEdw, I and Edw. JJ, 
ii. 192-3). 

Winchelsea was an uncompromising 
churchman and a zealous upholder of the 
papal authority. Yet his love of power and 
influence was so great that it brought him 
into conflict with his clergy, his suffragans, 
many of the nobles, the king, and sometimes 
even with the pope. With longer English 
experience than JPeckham, and the wider 
outlook of a secular priest, Winchelsea did 
not limit his interests so strictly to the 
ecclesiastical side of things as his predecessor. 
He thought it his business to protect nation 
and church alike. The growing difficulties 
in which Edward I's too ambitious policy 
had involved him enabled Winchelsea to 
combine with the purely ecclesiastical an- 
tagonism inherited by him from JPeckham a 
strong political opposition to the king's 

Even before his enthronement Winchelsea 
had taken up his line. He summoned a council 
of his suffragans to meet on 15 July 1295 at 
the New Temple (COTTON, pp. 293-4 ; Concilia, 
ii. 215), and the proceedings of this body 
seemed to be a menace to the king. At the 
autumn parliament in London Edward on 
28 Nov. personally pleaded with the clergy 
for a large war subsidy. Winchelsea offered 
him a tenth, which Edward rejected as inade- 
quate. Strong pressure was brought to bear, 
but the archbishop made a merit of offering 
the tenth for a second year if the war still 
continued ( Worcester Ann. p. 524). Next 
year Edward's embarrassments grew worse, 
while Winchelsea's position was strengthened 
by Boniface VIII issuing the bull clericis 
lazcos, on 24 Feb. 1296, by which the clergy 
were forbidden to pay taxes to the secular 
authority. In November parliament met at 
Bury St. Edmund's, and the laity granted a 
liberal subsidy. Next day Winchelsea 
harangued the clerical estate in the chapter- 
house of the abbey. Admitting the reality 
of the danger from France, he urged the papal 
prohibition and the impoverishment o the 
clergy through former exactions, and denied 
that the clergy had promised any fresh tax 
(COTTON, pp. 314-15). At last he persuaded 
Edward to wait until January 1:297 for the 

final answer. Meanwhile parliament broke 
up, and Winchelsea summoned a provincial 
convocation for 13 Jan, at St. Paul's, which 
took up the business that the clerical estate 
had evaded. Before this met on 5 Jan, Win- 
chelsea by pa^al order published the bull 
clericis laicos in every deanery in England 
(Concilia) ii. 222 ; COTTON, p. 316). 

Winchelsea opened convocation by a ser- 
mon. * We have two lords over us,' he said, 
* the king and the pope, and, though we owe 
obedience to both, we owe greater obedience 
to the spiritual than to the temporal lord * 
(HEMINGBTJRGH, ii. 116). The clergy there- 
tore must find, if possible, a way inter- 
mediate between the subversion of the realm 
and disobedience to the pope. The clergy, 
though much divided, rerased a general sub- 
sidy, and Edward threatened them with 
outlawry. ^ Though individual clerks made 
personal gifts to the king, who announced his 
willingness to accept a fifth, Winchelsea 
remained firm, and kept the clergy as a body 
on his side. On 30 Jan. the sentence of out- 
lawry was formally promulgated against the 
clergy by John of Metiugham, the chief 
justice, in Westminster Hall. On 10 Feb. 
Winchelsea, who had gone to Canterbury for 
the consecration of John of Monmouth as 
bishop of Llandaff, preached to the people in 
the cathedral after the consecration, and then 
solemnly pronounced excommunicate all 
who in any wise trangressed the papal bull 
(COTTON, p. 320). On 12 Feb. Edward 
answered by ordering the sheriffs to take 
possession of the lay fees of all the clergy of 
the province of Canterbury. But within a 
fortnight the resistance of the baronage under 
Norfolk and Hereford at Salisbury further 
strengthened Winchelsea's position. 

The strain was too great to last. Winchel- 
sea, who had all through admitted the neces- 
sity of the war and the legitimacy of the king's 
demands for help, found it judicious not to 
press matters to extremity. On 7 March he 
persuaded Edward to suspend the execution 
of the edict confiscating their lay fees. He 
summoned another con vocation for 24 March, 
but on its assembling the king sent to it six 
commissioners, who warned it not to attempt 
anything against his authority. Two Domi- 
nicans upheld the king's rights to raise war 
taxes (Flores Hist. iii. 100), and Winchelsea 
himself abandoned his heroic attitude. He 
kept the council from coming to any formal 
decision, but before it separated said, ' I leave 
each and all of you to your own consciences. 
But my conscience does not allow me to 
offer money for the king's protection or on 
any other pretext ^ ( Worcester Ann. p. 351 ; 
cf. Flores Hist. iii. 101, ' Unue^uisque ani- 




mam suam sal yet '). It was substantially 
a recommendation to each clerk to make his 
own terms of submission. 

Winckelsea'sestates remained in the king's 
hands for more than five months (Anglia 
Sacra, i, 51^, during* which he depended 
on chanty ior subsistence. Royal agents 
seized his 'horses at Maidstone and compelled 
him to travel on foot (Floret Hist. iii. &93), 
On 27 Feb. the king seized Christ Church 
and sealed up its storehouses to prevent the 
monks giving him any help (BiKOHiTOTOBT, 
i. 14-15 ; J&J. M88. Cowm. 5th Kep. i, 
4S8). But even the clerical partisans who 
hailed Winchelsea as a second St. Thomas 
admitted that his worst sufferings resulted 
not from Edward's direct orders but from 
the officious zeal of the royal underlings, 
The king's self-restraint made a reconciliation 
the more easy, and Edward's -wrath was over 
when most individual clerks had made their 
voluntary offering, and the baronage had 
agreed to fight for^ him beyond sea. On 
14 July the reconciliation of church and 
state was publicly brought home to Lon- 
doners in the affecting scene of farewell 
enacted outside Westminster Hall, "Win- 
chelsea 1 burst into tears at the king's appeal 
to the emotions of his subjects, and pro- 
mised that he would be faithful to him in 
future (Flare* JSist iii. 295). Two days 
(14 July) afterwards Winchelsea summoned 
another convocation to deliberate as to the 
means of obtaining the pope's permission to 
pay the king a grant. On. 19 July his lauds 
and goods were restored, 

Winchelsea now exerted himself to per- 
suade the earls of Norfolk and Hereford to 
make terms with the king. On 27 July he 
had personal colloquy with the earls' agents 
at Waltham, and next day took thorn with 
him to see the king at St, Albans. It was 
no fault of his if tne two earls held aloof. 
On 31 July Edward received the clergy back 
to his protection, and before his embarkation 
wrote to the archbishop begging his prayers 
for the success of the army. 

On 10 Aug. Winchelsea opened convoca- 
tion at London by informing it that the king 
had promised to confirm the charters if the 
clergy would make an adequate grant for the 
Trench war, The assembly agreed, however, 
that no grant could be made without obtain- 
ing the pope's leave, but promised the king 
to apply to Boniface at once, Curiously 
enough the bull of 28 Feb. 1297, by -wluck 
the pope excepted from his prohibition all 
Voluntary gifts and sums raised for national 
defence^ was ^referred to by neither party 
in the discussion. But on 20 Aug. Edward, 
without -waiting for a grant, ordered the 

immediate collection of a third of the cleri- 
cal temporalities. On 23 Aug. he sailed for 
Flanders. The reconciliation, after all. was 
not very deep. 

Despite Edward's prohibition, Winchelsea 
excommunicated the infringers of the liber- 
ties of the church. Meanwhile the baronial 
)pposition was obtaining from the regency 
;fie long-promised confirmation of the char- 
ters, Wincholsea, who was present at the 
tumultuous parliament which preceded the 
baronial triumph, was in full sympathy with 
their action, though not taking a leading 
nart in it himself, ^ A devastating Scottish 
foray now made odious the unpatriotic atti- 
tude of the clergy. On 28 Nov. a new con- 
vocation granted a tenth, raised by each 
diocesan through clerical machinery. As 
Edward had not askod for a tax, and as the 
money was for occasions recognised by the 
bull of explanation, Winchelsea felt himself 
secure both from the king and the pope. 
On the same day tho charters, which Edward 
had confirmed in London, were recited pub- 
licly and handed over to the custody of Win- 
cholrtea. Thus peace was at last restored. 
t Winchelsea's vigorous and successful re^ 
sistance to Edward gavo him a great repu- 
tation among all lovers of high clerical 
authority. ^ Boniface VIII called him 
* solus ecclosieo Anglicans pugil invincibilis, 
inflexibiliscpe columna' (BniOHiNoraoN, i. 
10). Despite his preoccupation in politics, 
Winchelsea had found time for plenty of 
other work. lie had numerous quarrels on 
his hands* A dispute with Gilbert de Clare, 
ninth earl of Gloucester [q, v*], which broke 
out before tho archbishops enthronement, 
could not be settled by arbitration, and was 
ultimately referred to the bishop of Durham 
(Col. Pat. jfo/fe, 1297-1801, p, 162). He 
had a fierce controversy with the abbot and 
convent of St, Augustine's, Canterbury. In 
the course of it he was cited to Rome in 
1299, and in 1800 Boniface YIII issued a 
bull exempting the abbey from all episcopal 
jurisdiction ((JaL Papal letters, I 685-6), 
But Winchelsea's strenuous remonstrances 
led the pope to issue in 1808 a further bull 
that minimised the privileges that he had 
previously granted (XtY<?ra Cantuar. L Ixi- 
Ixiii ; Thorn in TwrsDmr, Deem. Scriptores, 
c. 2004-5, who is bitterly hostile to Winchel- 
sea), The pope played Winchelsea even a 
worse trick when in. 1297 he exempted the 
bishop of Winchester for life from all his 
archiepiscopal jurisdiction (C&L PagalZet* 
tern, i, 669). w mcheleaa strove to increase 
the number of monks and improve the dis- 
cipline even in the faithful convent of Christ 
Church (Wit, M88. Omm. 6th Bep. i, 446). 




He frequently objected to episcopal elections, 
but his objections were not always sustained 
. on appeal to Rome. He was a strenuous up- 
holder of the metropolitan's rights of visita- 
tion. He began in 1299 with a visitation 
of the diocese of Ohichester, and in 1300 
passed on to that of Worcester. In 1300 he 
had an unseemly dispute with St. Albans 
Abbey (Gesta Abbatum S. Albani, ii. 47-8, 
Rolls Ser.) In the same year he extracted a 
tax of 4d. in the mark from all his clergy to 
assist the execution of his numerous plans 
of reformation ( Worcester Ann. p. 647). On 
8 Sept. 1299 Winchelsea officiated in his 
own cathedral at the king's second marriage 
(ib. p. 542). He was in 1300 entrusted by 
Boniface VIII with the delivery of the 
apostolic mandate to withdraw from attack- 
ing the Scots, whom the pope had taken 
under his protection. A letter of Winchel- 
sea to Boniface (Ann. Londin. pp. 104-8) 
relates in detail his long journey to Carlisle, 
his difficulty in reaching the king, his perils 
from the sea and the Scots, and his final 
interview with Edward at Sweetheart 
Abbey on 27 Aug. The king refused the 
pope any final answer until he had consulted 
the magnates. But it seemed to be in obedience 
to the mandate that he now withdrew from 
Scotland. Winchelsea returned southward. 
He traversed slowly the province of York, 
ostentatiously bearing his cross erect before 
him even when close by the city of York. 
In September he was in Lincolnshire, La 
October he was back at Otford in his own 

At the parliament of Lincoln of January 
1301 the troubles between Winchelsea and 
Edward were renewed in a more violent 
form. On Winchelsea's advice the barons 
presented through Henry of Keighley, 
inight of the shire for Lancashire, a bill of 
twelve articles, demanding an immediate 
settlement of the forests question and certain 
other outstanding grievances. The in- 
fluence of the primate is almost certainly to 
be traced in the bishops' fresh declaration, 
with the assent of the barons, that they 
could not agree to any clerical tax con- 
trary to the pope's prohibition, and in the de- 
mand for the removal of Winchelsea's enemy, 
Walter Langton [q. v.], bishop of Lich- 
field, from the treasury. Edward yielded 
to the pressure, but never forgave Win- 
chelsea, whom he looked upon as the real 
instigator of the movement. Even in this 
parliament he managed to isolate the arch- 
bishop from his baronial allies. The barons' 
famous letter of protest addressed to Boni- 
face was a repudiation of Winchelsea as 
well as of the pope. Edward made the 

split more emphatic by rejecting Winchel- 
sea's addition to the articles of the barons 
limiting clerical taxation without papal con- 
sent. Another cause of quarrel soon arose 
between Winchelsea and Edward. During 
the vacancy at Canterbury the king had 
presented Theobald, brother of Ed ward's own 
son-in-law, the count of Bar, to the living 
of Pagham in Sussex, of which the arch- 
bishop was patron. In 1298 Winchelsea de- 
prived Theobald on the ground of an infor- 
mality, and conferred Pagham on Ralph of 
Mailing, Before this, in 1297, Edward had 
induced Boniface to reappoint Theobald by 
papal provision (Cal. Papal Letters, i. 672). 
Winchelsea paid no heed to the papal action, 
whereupon Boniface on 16 Jan. 1300 renewed 
the grant of Pagham (Cal Papal Letters, 
p. 691). The abbot of St. Michael's, in the 
diocese of Verdun, was sent to England to 
secure for Theobald the execution of the 
papal provision. As Winchelsea still resisted 
the appointment of a non-resident pluralist 
in subdeacon's orders, he was on 15 Oct. 
solemnly excommunicated by the abbot. 
Only after Winchelsea's submission was the 
sentence removed, in 1302. 

During ^ this time Winchelsea revenge- 
fully continued his attack on Langton. His 
agents at Kome supported the monstrous 
charges brought by John de Lovetot against 
the treasurer. However, in February 1302 
Boniface put Winchelsea in a difficult posi- 
tion by associating him with the provincials 
of the Franciscans and Dominicans on a 
commission appointed to investigate the accu- 
sations. Winchelsea was forced to report 
to Home that Langton was innocent, and in 
June 1303 Boniface formally acquitted the 
archbishop's great enemy ( Cal. Papal Letters, 
L 610J. The collapse of the papacy after the 
fall or Boniface Vni removed Winchelsea's 
best support against his sovereign, for Boni- 
face, if sometimes hostile, might be relied 
upon to uphold all who maintained the cleri- 
cal against the civil jjower. Meanwhile 
Winchelsea was busy visiting his province 
and constantly giving fresh causes of irrita*- 
tion. He offended Edward once more by 
exercising through an unworthy stratagem 
the right of visiting the king's free chapel 
within Hastings Castle, and by visiting 
almost by force the king's hospital of St. 
Giles-witnout-London (Cal. Patent Rolls* 
1301-7, pp. 189, 397). He had incurred 
widespread unpopularity through his con- 
stant claims of jurisdiction. In 1303 the 
Canterbury mob broke open his palace while v 
he was residing there, and brutally mal- 
treated the dean of Ospringe at Selling for 
no other offence than serving the archbishop's 




citations (it), p. 107). He was quarrelling ! 
with the archbishop of York on the ancient 
quest ion of the right of the northern primate 
to have his cross borne erect before him in 
the southern province, and it is significant 
, that Edward wrote to the curia upholding 
tho archbishop of York's claim. But Win- 
chelsea still controlled the clerical estate, 
and won his last triumph when he induced 
the clergy to reject tho law proposed by Ed- 
ward in the parliament of April 1305 for- 
bidding the export of specie from alien.priorios. 
In November 1305 the election of Ed- 
ward's vassal and dependent, Bertram! de 
Goth, as Clement V, gave the signal for 
Edward's long-deferred attack on Winchel- 
soa. Among the special ambassadors sent 
to the new pope's coronation on 14 Nov. 
1305 wore Bishop Langton and the Karl of 
Lincoln, who very oll'octivoly poisoned the 
pope's mind against Wincholsea. By ab- 
solving .Edward from his oath to the forest 
charters Clement destroyed the result of 
Wiucholsea's most hard- won victory, while 
by decreeing that Edward should not be 
excommunicated ot censured without ]japal 
permission he deprived Winohelsea oi his 
most ellective weapon. In January 130(> 
Winchelsea sent Walter Thorp, dean of 
arches, to Lyons to counteract Langton's 
machinations (Ann. Londin. p. 144). But on 
12 Feb. Clement suspended Winchdsoafrom 
his spiritual and temporal functions, and 
cited him to the curia within two months. 
On 24. Fob, the envoys came back to London. 
Next day Winchelsea also arrived, having 
terminated a visitation of the diocese of 
Winchester that he had eagerly undertaken 
ou the death of the exempt, bishop. 11 o wan 
now unable to resist Archbishop Greenfield 
bearing his cross erect through London streets 
(Ann. Londin. p, 144; vS/Lit, Cantuar. i. 

Winchelsoa received intelligence of hia 
deprivation on 25 March, and at once visited 
thS king to beg for his intercession* A 
stormy scone ensued. Winchelsea showed 

h some confusion and craved the king's beno- 
,;#lction, just, as if his sovereign were his 

, ecclesiastical superior. Edward overwhelmed 

him witi. reproaches, accusing him of pride, 

treason, and pitilessness, and declaring that 

either ^,,or the archbishop must leave the 

'fcalm. On 5 April Edward declared to the 

pope, that Winclielsea's presence threatened 

- the peace of the land. '^Vinchalsoa went 

.(Jown to Dover priory, where on. IB May the 

^ Citation to the curia was delivered to him 

(Ann. Londin, pp. 144-5), Early next day 

A he took ship for the continent. Itw remainoc 

' * in exile Ju the rest of Edward's life.- 

Winchelsoa found tho papal court esta- 
Wished at Bordeaux, so that even in his 
lanishxnent he did not quit Edward's domi-> 
lions. The worry and fatigues in which he 
lad been involved culminated in a stroke of 
paralysis, from which he never wholly re- 
sovered. lie scornfully rejected the pro- 
>osal to resign his archbishopric or to accept 
nranslation to another see. He felt that he 
was but treading more completely in the 
footsteps of St. Thomas (BTKOTHNGTON, i, 
16). I3JJS reputation for sanctity became 
greater, and it was believed that the death 
>f his enemy, Edward I, was revealed to 
lim at Bordeaux in a vision (Floras Hist. 
lii. 828). 

Winchelsea's suspension was so much a 
political measure that the accession of Ed- 
ward II and tho disgrace of his arch enemy 
Langton removed the only obstacles to his 
reinstatement. On 16 Dec, 1307 the new 
king urged Clement to restore Winchelsea, 
and on 22 Jan. 180H tho pope issued from 
Poitiers letters removing his suspension (Lit , 
Gont?u&)\ iii. 385-0 ; Cal. Papal Letters, ii. 
33). On the same day Clement, at Win- 
chelsea's request, revoked a former nomina* 
tion of a commission of KngViwh bishops to 
crown Edward, on the ground that the right 
of coronation belonged exclusively to Can- 
terbury. On 28 Jan. WinohelHoa appointed 
the bishop of Winchester to act on his bohalf, 
as he was unable through ill-health to be 
back in time to officiate in person. This 
punctiliousness necessitated the postpojoe* 
ment of the coronation from 18 Feb. to 
25 Feb, The archbishop returned to ling- 
land in March or April (CANON OF BRIDGING- '. 
TON, p. 38 ; Ann. Paul p. 203). On 14 April 
he made a long-dtvforred composition with;; 
the Count of Boulogne, who had been irri- 
tated by not obtaining hiw usual dues from 
a now archbishop, through Wiflchelsea not 
having passed through his territories on his 
earlier journeys to tho continent (Lit w 
t>ua>\ iii. 388). 

"Within a low weeks of Winchelsea 3 ^ re- 
turn Piers Gaveaton [q, v.] was banished. 
The archbishop luwdwl his suJOfragans in 
threatening excommunication to the fa- 
vourite if he disobeyed the baronial edict 
(Ann. Londin, p. 155). lie thus renewed 
from the first his relations with the opposi- 
tion, and was soon moro hostile to Ed- 
ward II than to his father. His goods were 
not restored until November, but duriwf his 
absence William Testa, tho papal admini- 
strator, had taken such care of his estates 
that he was now * a richer iftan than ever 
he had been before ' (MimxMttTH, p. 18 ; cf. 
Anglia tern, i, 61). At the parliament of 




April 1309 he refused to attend until the 
archbishop of York, disgusted at not being 
allowed to bear his cross, went back t0 the 
north. In his zeal for clerical privilege 
"VVinchelsea had even taken up the cause of 
his old enemy Langtori, who was still im- 
prisoned by royal authority alone. He re- 
fused to have any dealings with the king as 
long as Langfcon was unlawfully detained 
(McrsiMTJTH, p. 14). In March 1810 Win- 
Chelsea was one of the lords prdainers, 
though in April Edward was still urging 
him to persuade convocation to make fresh 
grants from its spiritualities. After the first 
draft of tbe ordinances was issued in August 
1310, Winchelsea on 1 Nov. published in St. 
Paul's a solemn excommunication of all who 
should impede their execution or publish to 
the world the secrets of the ordainers. When 
Edward broke the ordinances by recalling 
(raveston in January 1312, Winchelsea at 
once excommunicated Piers and his abettors. 
Langton was released and restored to the 
treasury in March, despite Winchelsea's 
strenuous opposition. But in April the or- 
dainers turned him out of his post, and Win- 
chelsea excommunicated him fbr taking office 
against the provisions of the ordinances. On 
Langton going to the papal court to remon- 
strate against the sentence, Winchelsea des- 
patched thither his clerk, Adam Murimuth, 
the chronicler, to represent his interests 
against the bishop (MTTEXMITTH, p. 18). 

Winchelsea's weak health makes his poli- 
tical activity the more remarkable. He did 
not, however, neglect " the more spiritual 
side pf his office during these years. He 
was raucK involved in the proceedings for 
the suppression of the templars (Cal. Papal 
Letter*, ii. 48, 49), though he took no per- 
sonal part in the council that he summoned 
for 25 Noy, 308 to St. Paul's. He was 
associated with the papal commissioners 
seat to investigate the charges against them, 
but ag&in he id not act. However, on 
29 Dec. 1309 he opened another synod at St. 
Paul's by preaching a sermon. Ill-health 
prevented him from attending its later pro- 
ceedings. He showed himself anxious to 
check the excessive zeal of the enemies of the 
order, and absolved by commission all the 
templars who professed penitence and ac- 
cepted the declaration maintaining their or- 
thodoxy (Floras Hist. iii. 146). He died at 
Otfojjjl on 11 May 1313, and was buried on 
16 May at Canterbury, in the south part oi 
the choir, near the altar of J8t. Gregory, 
against the south wall. Theitomb nas now 

In liis will Winchelsea left his books and 
many rich vestments to the monks of his 


cathedral and soine legacies to all his ser- 
vants (Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Sep. i. 460). 
There .was, however, much delay in carrying 
out his testament, and in 1325 Prior Eastry 
urgently entreated Archbishop Reynolds to 
suffer the administration to be completed on 
account of the scandal caused by the delay 
(Lit. Cantuar. i. 44, 54, 134). This scandal 
was all the greater since popular veneration 
had already made Winchelsea an object of 
worship. The wounds discovered on his body 
lad been attributed to self-maceration 

v 3N-, p. 13). Many miracles had 

teen worked at his tomb, and his associates, 
the ordainers,pressed strongly for his canoni- 
sation. In 1319 Thomas of Lancaster sent a 
report of his miracles to Avignon, and Rey- 
nolds ordered the bishops of London and 
Chichester to investigate their authenticity. 
John XXII answered Lancaster by explain- 
ing the deliberate nature of the procedure 
of the curia in such matters, and nothing 
more seems to have been done in Thomas's 
lifetime. After the fall of Edward II the 
agitation was renewed, and in March 1327 
Reynolds sent the pope a long schedule of 
miracles worked by him (Lit. Cantuw* 
iii. 398-402, gives the correspondence ; cf. 
SOMNEK, App. i. 56; Cal. Papal Letters, 
1305-42, p. 422). Nothing, however, came 
of the effort to make him a saint. 

[Wharton's Anglia Sacra, especially Birch- 
ington in i. 11-17. Annales Monastic! (Osney, 
Wykes, Dunstaple, and "Worcester), Chron. 
Edw. I and Edw. II (Ann. Londin. and St. 
Paul's, and Canon of Bridlington), Cont. Gervase 
of Canterbury, Bartholomew Cotton, Rishanget* 
Langtoft, Murimuth, Flores Hist., Chron. de 
Melsa, Literse Cantuarienses (all in Rolls Ser.) ; 
Hemingburgh (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Thorn in 
Twysden's Decem Scriptores; Chron. deLaner- 
cost (Bannatyne Club) ; Rymer's Fcedera ; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 5tH and 8th Rep.; Parl. Writs; 
Rolls of Parl. vol. i, ; Cal. of Papal Letters, 
vols. i. and ii. ; Cal. of Patent and Close Rolls, 
Edw. I and Edw. II ; Le Keve's Fasti Eccl. An^ 
ed. Hardy ; Godwin, De Praesulibus, 1743 ; Som- 
ner's Antiquities of Canterbury. The best modern 
accounts are in Stubbs's Const. Hist. vol. ii. and' ' 
prefaces to the Chron. of Edw. I and Edw. II 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Hook's Life in Archbishops otf Can- 
terbury (iii 368-454), though elaborate, is care- 
less in details and unhisrorical in tone ; .many 
extracts from Winchelsea's register, still a't , 
Lambeth, are given in Wilkins's Concilia, iiv 
185-423 ; the whole well deserves calendaring or * 
publishing.] * % T. E, T. , j, 

PAULET, WILLIAM, 1485 P-1572, first MAE- 
QTJIS; PATTLET, WILLIAM, 1 535 ?-l 698, third 
; PAULET, JOHN, 1598-1675, fifth 




HTOH LK, 1262-1326.] 

1107), Latin poet, [See GODIOIBY.] 

1270), historian. [See GREGORY.] 

(d. 1460 P), bishop of Moray, is said to have 
been an Englishman who came into Scot- 
land in the retinue of James I on his return 
from England in 1424. His name ("though 
there are contemporary instances ol it as a 
surname in Scotland) suggests that he may 
have been a priest of the household of Cardi- 
nal Beaufort, bishop of Winchester, who was 
the uncle of James's queen and solemnised 
their marriage. From the beginning of James's 
actual reign Winchester appears as his trusted 
friend, and is constantly in attendance at 
court. In the church he is chaplain to the 
Idng, prebendary of Dunkeld, canon of Glas- 
gow ( 1428), and provost of Lineluden (1435). 
In the same year he is bishop-elect of 
Moray, and receives certain payments for 
promoting the king's aifairs at the court; of 
Home. His election was confirmed by tho 
pope in 1436, and next year he was con- 
secrated at CambuskennetL He held the 
see for twenty-three years (not thirteen, as 
Spottiswoode says), and obtained for it 
certain valuable privileges. His men were 
not to be distrained for 'wupinschaw or 
hosting' by either of his powerful neigh- 
hours, the earls of Moray and Huntly, but 
were to rise and pass with his own bailies, 
as other barons' men (1446). His town of 
Spynie was erected into a burgh of barony, 
and the church-lands of his diocese (which 
were in six counties Elgin, Banff, Aber- 
deen, Inverness, Ross, and Sutherland) were 
erected into one regality (1451), the latter 
being given^him (says James II) in gratitude 
for * a multitude of services rendered to our 
late father, of cherished memory, and faith* 
fully continued to ourselves/ 

The records teem with notices of these 
services, rendered in the household, the -ex- 
chequer, as lord-register, and as lord-trea- 
surer, and ranging from payments ' pro zucure 
et gingibero ad usum regis ' to embassies to 
England (1462), and especially supervision of 
the works at the royal castles of Linlithgow 
(which he visited along with James I in 
1434), Stirling (1434), Urquhart (on Loch 
Ness), and Inverness (1458) ; and in the de- 
molishing of the Douglases' island fortress of 
Lochindorb (1468) his deputy at the latter 
place, Cklder of that ilk, carried the great 
iron door of Lochiudorb to hia seat, Cawdor 

Castle, where it may still be seen. The 
strengthening and demolishing of these castles 
respectively formed part of the policy of 
James I and James II, and Winchester was 
their adviser in regard to that policy, as well 
as in the acts by which it was carried out. 
J rom July 1467 to April 1458 James II spent 
his time mostly in the bishop's diocese and 
"Winchester entertained him at his palace of 
Spynie. On the king s return to the south 
Winchester complained that the Earl of 
Iluntly had seized his lands and was draw- 
ing his rents, 

Winchester died on 1 April 1459 or 1460 
and was buried in his cathedral at Elgin' 
in St, Mary's Isle, where his efligy remains' 
There are still in the north of" Scotland 
families of the name who claim descent from 
him ; they spring more probably from mem- 
bers of his household, who, following a 
northern custom, had, as his < baron's men ' 
assumed his surname, lie is said to have 
been a bachelor of tho canon law. Spottis- 
woode, who, like Shaw and Keith, is in 
error in. rogard to the dates of his life, 
describes him as ' a man of good parts,' 

[Exchequer Holla; Groat Soal Kogisters; 
EcgiKtrum Moravionso ; Keith's Catalogue of 
Scottish liishopn ; Grub'a Ecclesiastical History; 
Shaw's Hibtory of Moray j Young's Annals of 
EWn.] J. 0. 

1000), vcvsiiier. [See WCTLFSTAK] 

HBNJBAaja, d, 1689, second EARL; FINCH, 
DANIEL, 1647-1730, sixth EARL; FINOH- 
ninth EABL,] 

FINCH, AinsrB, d. 1720.] 

1646), secretary of state, born in 1682, was 
the only son ol Sir Thomas "Windebank and 
his wife Frances, younger daughter of Sir 
Edward Dymoke of Scrivelsby, Lincoln- 
shire (MBTOALFfl, FwtV, of Lincolnshire, p* 
42 ; LODGE, Sorfahty 1898, p, 71), Hia 
grandfather, Sir Bichard Windebank, was 
serving at Calais in 1583 (Chron, tf Calais, 
P. 187 ; Letters and Papers, xv. 750), at 
Guisnes in 1641, and was knighted in 1544. 
He acquired lands at Hougham, Lincolnshire 
(i!ft. xy. 831 [18]), and in 1547 was one of the 
council at Boulogne ; he was deputy of Guisnes 
at the end of Edward's reign, and proclaimed 
Mary on 24 'July 1563. He was in 1556 
granted an annuity of a hundred marks for 
his ' age and long service/ but was still acting 
as deputy of Guisnes in 1660, His wife Mar- 
garet, daughter of GriiHth ap Henry, was 




buried in St. Edmund's, Lombard Street, on 
10 Dec. 1558 (STBYPE, Eccl. Mem. m. i. 22, 
ii. 174, Annals, i. 46 ; Cotton MS. Titus B. 
ii. f. 206 ; Cal State Papers, For. 1547-53, 
p. 294; Acts P. C. 1554-6, p. 383 ; Notes and 
Queries, 8th ser. i. 23, 150). His son Sir 
Thomas owed his fortunes largely to his Lin- 
colnshire neighbour, Sir William Cecil, who 
secured his appointment to the fourth stall 
in Worcester Cathedral in 1559, and sent 
him as travelling companion to his son 
Thomas (afterwards Marquis of Exeter). 
Many of Windebank's letters, describing his 
vain efforts to keep his charge straight and 
teach him French, and their travels in France 
and Germany during 1561 and 1562, are ex- 
tant in the Kecord Office. He also took every 
opportunity of sending his patron lemon 
trees, myrtle trees, and tracts on canon and 
and civil law (Cal State Papers, Dom. 1547- 
1580, pp. 177-202). After his return he 
was made clerk of the signet, and occasion- 
ally acted as clerk of the privy council. He 
continued his friendly relations and corre- 
spondence with Burghley until the latter's 
death, and afterwards with Sir Robert Cecil 
(cf. Hart. MS. 6995, arts. 81, 39, 47, 49, letters 
wrongly ascribed to Sir Francis Windebank). 
He was knighted by James I on 23 July 1603, 
settled at Haines flail, Berkshire, and died on 
24 Oct. 1607. He left one son, Francis, and 
three daughters, of whom Mildred (d. 1630) 
married Robert Read of Linkenholt, Hamp- 
shire, and was mother of Thomas Read or 
Reade [q. v.] the royalist ( mortem, 
6 James I, pt. ii. No. 200; Harl MS. 1551, 
f. 57 b; Egerton Papers, pp. 134-5; Btra- 
GON, Gresham, i. 422 sqq. ; Court and Times 
of James I , i. 175 ; Cal. State Papers, 1547- 
1610, passim ; Cal. Hatfield MSS. vols. i- 
vii. passim). 

Francis was baptised at St, Martin's-in- 
the-Fields, London, on 21 Aug. 1582 (Regis- 
ter, Harl. Soc,, p. 15), and on 18 May 1599 
matriculated from St. John's College, Ox- 
ford. He graduated B.A. on 26 Jan. 
1601-2, and in the same year was entered 
a student in the Middle Temple. While 
at St. John's Windebank came much into 
contact with Laud, who exercised great 
influence upon his views and subsequent 
career. On 21 Feb. 1604-6 his father pro- 
cured for him a grant of a clerkship of the 
signet, in reversion after Levinus Munck 
and Francis Grag^e, who themselves held only 
a reversionary interest in the office; and 
this somewhat distant prospect was no bar 
to a few years' sojourn on the continent. 
In the autumn of 1605 Windebank was at 
Paris, which he proposed to leave on 29 Jan, 
1605-6 <to avoid the profligate English;' 

the summer he spent in Germany, and the 
following winter in Italy ; he was at Lucca 
in July 1607, and at Piacenza in October, re- 
turning to England in February 1607-8. 
Though the clerkship of the signet did not 
fall to him for some years, he was almost at 
once employed in that office. In 1629 he 
spoke of having served ' nigh three appren- 
ticeships' (probably nearly twenty-one years) 
in the clerkship, and having passed through 
* the active and strict times of Lord Salis- 
bury without check* (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1628-9, p. 252), and he first got access 
to the king in 1611 (ib. 1611-18, p. 71). He 
was placed on the commission of the peace 
for Berkshire, and became clerk of the signet 
before 1624. He also served on various 
other commissions, in one of which George 
Wither [q. v.] was a colleague (12 Feb. 
1627-8 ; ib. 1627-8, p. 557), and was able to 
befriend John Florio [q. v.] and Laud, who 
afterwards spoke of Windebank's * great 
love and care ' during his ' #reat extremity/ 
probably in 1614 (ib. 1619-23 p. 101, 1629- 
1631 p. 297). 

Windebank's political importance had, 
however, been very slight, and the court 
was considerably surprised when, on 12 June 
1632, Sir John Coke [q. v.] informed him 
that the king had 'taken notice of his worth 
and long service,' and selected him as Coke's 
colleague in the secretaryship in succession 
to Dudley Carleton, lord Dorchester [q, v.] 
He was sworn in ' in the inner Star Cham- 
ber,' took his seat at the council on the 15th, 
and was knighted on the 18th. Sir Thomas 
Roe [q. v.], himself a disappointed candi- 
date, wrote, 'There is a new secretary 
brought out of the dark.' Windebank owed 
his appointment partly to Laud's friendship, 
but more to the influence of Richard Weston, 
first earl of Portland [q, v.l, andFrancis, lord 
Cottington [q. v.], with whose Spanish sym- 
pathies and Koman catholic tendencies he 
was in partial if not in full accord. The 
three formed an inner ring in the council, 
by whose advice Charles was mainly guided 
till 1640, and with whose help he frequently 
carried on negotiations unknown and in 
opposition to the rest of the council. He 
was one of those of whom Fontenay said in 
1634, 'L'interest les fait espagnolz, tirans 
plusieurs notables avantages du commerce 
et des passeports que le C te d'Olivares ac- 
corde aux marchands qui n6gotient pour 
eux'(R^TO!,y, 447). In 1633 he, Port- 
land, and Cottington were appointed to ne- 
~">tiate in secret with the Spanish ambassa- 
r Necolalde (see Addit MS. 32093, ff. 
57-91), and in March 1635 with Richelieu's 
envoy, the Marquis of Seneterre, On Port- 



land's death) in that month, ho was one 
of the commissi oners to whose hands the 
treasury was entrusted, and his conduct in. 
this oflice led to a broach of hie long stand- 
ing friendship with Laud. The cause was 
Windebank's consistent support of Ootting- 
ton over the soap monopoly and his opposi- 
tion to the archbishop's endeavours to cneck 
the peculation aud corruption rampant in 
high quarters. 

windebank'a Roman catholic tendencies 
found vent in his negotiations with tho papal 
agent, Gregorio Panzani, with whom ho waa 
appointed by Charles in December 1634 to 
discuss the possibility of a union between 
the Anglican and Roman churches. * Mo- 
rally and intellectually timid, the secretary 
was thoroughly alarmed at the progress of 
puritatiism, and looked anxiously about for 
a shelter against the storm, ot 'which he 
could avail himself without an absolute 
surrender of all the ideas which he had im~ 
Mbed in his childhood and youth. By the 
side of Portland and Cottington he shows to 
advantage. If ho was a weak man, he was 
not without a certain honesty of purpose ; 
and if he missed the way in his search ings 
after truth, it was at least truth that he 
sought, and not pelf in this world and ex- 
emption from punishment in the other' 
(GA.KmNt3E,viii. 90). Anxious for the reunion 
of the churches, he thought it possible, were 
it not for Jesuits and puritans, and sug- 
gested that the latter might be got rid of by 
sending them to the wars in Flanders. lie 
proposed the despatch of a papal agent to 
reside with Queen Henrietta Maria, pointed 
out to Charles the advantage of haying some 
one to excommunicate unruly subjects, and 
referred to the sacrilege committed by ' that 
pig of a Henry VIII/ Later on, in August 
1639, he talked to Hossetti, Panaani's suc- 
cessor, ' like a zealous catholic/ and offered 
to give him any information of which he 
stood in need. 

Meanwhile, in 1686, Juxon vainly en- 
deavoured to effect a reconciliation between 
Laud and Windebank, and in July of the 
same year the secretary was in temporary 
disgrace, He was confined to his house in 
August for issuing an order for the convey- 
ance of Spanish money to pay the Spanish 
army in the Netherlands, but was soon at 
liberty. In 1637 Charles sent him to the 
Spanish ambassador Onate to propose one 
more secret and abortive treaty for the 
settlement of the palatinate difficulty, and 
in the same year he was engaged in an 
equally ineffectual attempt to induce Dutch 
fishermen to take out English licenses to 
fish in the Narrow Seas, In July 1638 he 

was one of the committee of the council 
consulted by Charles with regard to Scot- 
land, and, like Arundel and Cottington he 
voted for instant war. In May 1689 he was 
directed by the king to spread exaggerated 
reports as to the number of men at his dis- 
posal, and in June supported a scheme for 
compelling the city of London to contribute 
towards their equipment aud maintenance 
On March 16:J9-4() he was returned to the 
Short, parliament as member for Oxford Uni- 
versity, and on It* April he read to the 
house the Scots' letter to Louis XIII. In 
May he conveyed a letter from the queen to 
Kossetti, asking him to write to Rome for 
help in money and men ; and even in June 
he saw no difficulty in collecting an army 
to fight the Scots. His unpopularity was 
so groat that in 'the elections to the Long 
parliament even Oxford University preferred 
Sir Thomas lioe and John Selden, and 
Windebank found a seat at Oorfe, for which 
he was returned on 22 Oct. lie did not re- 
tain it long; for on 1 Doc. Glynne reported 
to the house that Windehank had signed 
numerous letters in favour of priests and 
Jesuits, and Ilyde declared that * it was not 
ni the wit of man to save Windebank' 
(Cal. Clarendon State Papers, i. 212; cf. 
PKYNNT3, Popish Itm/al Favourite, 1643, p, 
22, and Jtowu? 1 * MarterpwM, 1644, p, 83), 

The house drew up ten articles, and sent for 
Windebank to answer them. The mes- 
sengers were told that he was ill in bed, 
and that night he fled with his nephew and 
secretary, Robert Head, to (Jueenborough, 
whence he made his way in an open shallop 
to Calais (Addit. MS. 205tf9, f. 886 b ; Earl, 
MS. 379, f. 76 ; Let tm of Em. Lit. Men, 
p. 804 ; for the articles see Lansd. MS. 498, 
f. 188. Karl MS. 1219 art. 29, 1327 art, 84, 
and 1760 art, 8), 

Windebank's flight was the subject of 
some contemporary satire* In the ' Stage- 
player's Complaint' Quick refers to 'the 
times when my tongue have ranne as fast 
upon the scaene as a Windebankes pen over 
the ocean ' (Notes and Queries, 4th ser. ill 
61) j and in a print by Glover to illustrate 
'Four fugitives meeting, or a Discourse 
amongst my lord Finch, Sir Francis Winde- 
banke, sir John Sucklin, and Doctor Roane' 
(London, 1641, 4to, Brit. Mus,), Winde- 
bank is represented with a pen. behind his 
ear. He was coupled with Laud in popular 
hatred, and in a ballad against the pair is 
described as * the subtle whirly Windebank * 
(ib. 2nd ser. x. 110; cf, Cat Brit. Mus. 
Satiric Printi). 

From Calais Windebank wrote ^ an elo- 
quent appeal for compassion to Christopher, 




first lord Hatton [q. v.l He defended him- 
self from the charge of having been bribed 
by the Romanists to introduce popery into 
England, declared that he held the English 
church to be * not only a true and orthodox 
church, but the most pure and neere the 
primitive of any in the Christian world,' 
and that he had not added one foot of land 
to the five hundred pounds' worth left him 
by his father a poor return for their eighty 
years spent in the service of the state 
(Addit. MS. 59569, ff. 336-7). He wrote 
in a similar strain to Robert Devereux, third 
earl of Essex [o^. v.] ; but at Paris, where he 
arrived early in January 1640-1, his be- 
haviour belied the pitiful tone of his letters. 
*He is as merry as if he were the con- 
tentedest man living/ wrote Aylesbury to 
Hyde; and the letters of introduction which, 
in spite of his hasty flight, he had obtained 
from Charles I and Henrietta Maria smoothed 
his way in the French capital, where he was 
not likely to be popular on account of his 
Spanish sympathies. Probably with a view 
to increasing his difficulties, parliament in 
1642 published an account of an alleged 
plot hatched by Windebank against the life 
of Louis XUE and Richelieu because they 
refused open aid to the royalists (New 
Treason plotted in France, being the Project 
of Finch and Windebank . . .,' London, 4toV 
He also appears to have had a hand with 
his friend Walter Montagu fa. v.] in a 
scheme for rescuing Straffora from the 
Tower (Karl. MS. 379, f. 88 ; Letters of 
Em. Lit. Men, p. 369). 

In spite of the dangers on which Winde- 
bank dilated to his son (Addit. MS. 27382, 
ff. 239-44) he remained in Paris till his 
death, with the exception of a visit to Eng- 
land in the autumn of 1642, when he was 
refused access to the. king at Oxford. He 
was back at Paris in July 1643 (cf. Cal. 
Clarendon State Papers, i. 243), and died 
therein 1 Sept. 1646, having shortly before 
been received into the Roman catholic 
church ('Mem. of the Capuchin Mission' 
apud Court and Times of Charles I t iL 
400-1 ; DODD, Church Hist. iii. 59). 

By his wife, whose name has not been 
ascertained, Windebank had a large family. 
Laud referred in 1630 to his ' many sons ' 
(Cal. State Paper*, Dom. 1629-31, p. 297). 
He had five at least, and four survived him. 
The eldest, Thomas, born about 1612, was 
intended to follow in his fathers footsteps. 
He matriculated from St. John's College, 
Oxford, on 13 Nov. 1629, aged 17, but cud 
not graduate. In 1631 his father secured 
for him the reversion of a clerkship of the 
signet, and soon afterwards he entered the 

service of the earl marshal. In 1635-6 he 
was travelling in Spain and Italy, whence 
he returned to take up his duties as clerk of 
the signet. He was M.P. for Wootton 
Basset in the Short parliament of 1640, 
sided with the king in the civil war, and 
was created a baronet on 25 Nov. 1645. He 
compounded on the Oxford articles (Cal. 
Comm. for Comp. p. 1465), and left a son 
Francis, on whose death in 1719 the ba- 
ronetcy became extinct (BTTRKE). The 
second son, Francis, was admitted a student 
of Lincoln's Inn on 19 March 1632-3 (Keg. 
1896, i. 220), entered the service of Thomas 
Wentworth, first earl of Straftbrd (Str&ffbrd 
Letters, i. 256, 361-2, 369, 416), was made 
usher of the chamber to Prince Charles 
(ib. ii. 167), became a colonel in the royalist 
army, and was appointed governor of Bletch- 
ingdon House, near Oxford. This he sur- 
rendered at the first summons to the par- 
liamentary forces in April 1645, and was 
consequently tried by a royalist court-martial 
and shot. He was married, and left a daugh- 
ter Frances (CARTE, Original Letters, i. 84 ; 
DODD, iii. 59 ; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. i. 
150; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661-2, p. 
631). Another son, Christopher, born in 
1615, was a demy of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, from 1630 to 1635 (BLOXAM, Reg. v. 
124-7). He was then sent to Madrid ' to un- 
derstand that court,' and lived for a time 
with the English ambassador, Sir Arthur 
Hopton [q, v.] In 1638 he made an 
imprudent marriage, which cost him his 
post, and on 5 Aug. 1639 Hopton sug- 
gested that his wife should be placed tn 
a convent. Subsequently, being 'a per- 
fect Spaniard and an honest man/ he was 
found useful as a guide and interpreter by 
English ambassadors at Madrid . (CLAREffDOK, 
Rebellion, ed. Macray, bk. xii. 103 note). 
The fifth son, John, baptised at St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, on 11 June 1618, was 
by Laud's influence admitted a scholar of 
Winchester in 1630 (KiRBY, p. 174; CaL 
State Papers, Dom. 1629-31, p. 297). He 
matriculated from New College, Oxford, on 
23 Sept. 1634, graduated B.A. on 5 April 
1638 and M.A. on 22 Jan. 1641-2. He was 
fellow from 1636 to 1643, when apparently 
he went abroad. He compounded on 9 Aug. 
1649, being fined only 10$., and was created 
M.D. on 21 June 1654 on Cromwell's letters 
as chancellor. In these letters it was stated 
that he had spent some time in foreign parts 
in the study of physic, and had practised 
for some years with much credit and reputa- 
tion. He practised at Guildford, and was 
admitted honorary fellow of the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians on 30 Sept, 1680. He 




W*IR buried in Westminster Abbey on 16 Aug. 
1704 (FOSTER Alumni Qxon. 1500-1714; 
MUNK, Coll of Miys, i. 409; CHBSTBB, 
Wwtin. Abbey Reg. pp, 202, 204, 254, 847). 
Of Windebank's daughters, Margaret mar- 
ried Thomas Turner (1091-1672) [q. v,], and 
waw mother of Thomas Turner (1645-1714) 
[q, v.], president of Corpus Clmsti, Oxford, 
and of Francis Turner [q. v.], bishop of 
Ely; Frances married, on 12 July 1669 
(CinisTBit, Marr. Zic. col, 605), Sir Ed\vard 
11 ales, titular lord Tenterden [q. v.]; one 
died unmarried at Paris about 1650, and 
two became nuns of the Calvary at the 
du Temple, Paris. 

[The principal authority for Windobank's 
biography is his own vohiminouB correspondence 
in the Kecord Office, of which only the JDomefitic 
portion has been calendared* Soo also Brit. 
JMCns* Harloian MSS, 286 art. 179, 1219 arts. 29, 
107, 1327 art. 34, 1651, f. 87, 1769 art, 8, 4713 
art, 126, 7001 art. 90 ; Lansd. MS, 403, art, 39 ; 
Addit MSft, 27382 if. 230-44, 29569 ff, 333-7 ; 
Bodleian MS3, Kawlinaon A, 148 pawiim, B. 
224, f. 40 (notes of dates in hit* lifo), f. 41 
(* daily devotions ex autopjrapho ') ; Tanner MS. 
lxv f. 224, Ixvi. f, 104, and ccxc. f. 50 ; Cal. 
Clarendon State Papers, ed. Maoray, vol. i. ; 
Kuwh worth's Collection of State Papers ; Win- 
wood's Memorials; Laud's Works, VO!H iii-vii, 
passim; D'Kwes'ti Autobiography; Commons' 
Journals; Clarendon's Hist, of the Great JR.- 
beliion ; Court and Times of James I and of 
Charles I; Anthony Weldon, Arthur Wilson, 
and Sir William Sanderson's Histories; Pan- 
zaui'B Memoirs, ed. Berington, 1793, pp. 190, 
237, 244-5, and the Panzani transcripts in the 
Record Office; Dodd's Church History; Bovo- 
roxu'y Earls of EHSOX, i. 489 ; Wood's Fasti, eel 
Bliss; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Off, 
Ret, Members of Parl. ; Masson's Milton ; 
Gardiner's History of England, vols. vii-ix.; 
Kotos and Queries, 1st ser, iii. 373, 2nd Her. x. 
110, 4th ser. ix. 394, 454, and 8th ser. i. 123, 
150; tracts catalogued s,v, * Windebank ' in 
Brit. Mm Libr.] A. F, P. 

JOHN (1801-1866), Irish 
antiquary, was bom at Cork in 1801. Early 
in liie^he showed a strong love of antiquarian 
pursuits, and made an especial study of 
Irish antiquities, He became a contributor 
to * Bolster's Quarterly Magazine/ an anti- 
quariau journal published at Cork, and thus 
became acquainted with a number of Irish 
archaeologists and literary men, including 
Abraham Abell, 'William Willes, Matthew 
Horgan, andFrancis Sylvester Mahony [q. v.], 
better known as * Father Prout.' With these 
antiquaries Windele iwade many excursions, 
examining and sketching ruins and natural 
eurioaities. His favourite pursuit was search- 
ing for the primitive records engraved on 

stone known aa Ogham inscriptions, and he 
saved many of them from destruction by 
removing them to his own home, where 
they formed what he termed his megalithic 

Windele also devoted much time to the 
study of ancient Irish literature. He was 
himself a good Erse scholar, and made a 
large collection of manuscripts in that lan- 
guage. In 1839 he published an antiquarian 
work entitled 'Historical and Descriptive 
Notices of the City of Cork and its Vicinity ' 
(Cork, 12mo), which in 1849 was abridged 
and published as a ' Guide to Cork' (Cork, 
12mo). Windele died at his residence, Blair's 
Hill, Cork, on 28 Aug. 1865. 

Besides the work mentioned, Windele 
wrote * A Guide to Killarney,' and frequently 
contributed to the ' Dublin Penny Journal ' 
and to the * Proceedings' of the Kilkenny 
Archaeological Society, of which he was, a 
member from its foundation in 1849, He 
alao edited Matthew Horgan's ' Cahir Conri/ 

a collection of manuscripts extending to 
130 volumes, which were purchased by the 
Royal Irish Academy in 1865. They in- 
cluded copies of many ancient Irish manu- 
scripts, Selections from a manuscript jour- 
nal of his archaeological expeditions which 
was found among them were published in the 
'Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeo- 
logical Society 'between May 1897 and March 

[Gont. Mag. 1865, ii. 519; Allibone's Diet 
of Engl, Lit/; Proceedings of the Eoyal Irish 
Academy, 1864-6, ix. 306, 381,] E. I. C. 

WITOEB, HENRY (1693-1752), dis- 
senting divine and chrouologist,8on of Henry 
Winder (d. 1783), farmer, by a daughter 
of Adam Bird of Penruddock, was born at 
Hutton John, parish of Greystoke, Cumber- 
land, on 16 May 1693. 

His grandfather, Henry Winder, farmer, 
who lived to be over a hundred (he was 
living in 1714), was falsely charged with 
murdering his first-bom son. The accusa- 
tion was supported by two of his wife's 
sisters, and the case attained some celebrity 
(see WINDER, Spirit of Qmkerwn, 1698, 

, Spirit of Quakerism Clov&nrfooted, 

1707, 4to, drawn up by Henry Winder se- 
cundus, and prefaced by Thomas Dixon, M.D. 
[q.v.lj on the other side, COOLB, Qpakin 
Cleared, 1696, 16moj CAMM, Old Apostate, 
1698, 16mo, Truth prevailing with Jfoawn, 
1706, 16mo, and Lying-Tongue Reproved^ 

1708, 16mo). 




Henry Winder, the grandson, after passing 
through the Penruddock grammar school 
under John Atkinson, entered (1708) the 
Whitehaven Academy under Thomas Dixon, 
where Caleb Rotheram [q. v.] and John 
Taylor (1694-1761) [q. v.], the hebraist, were 
among nis fellow students. For two years 
(1712-14) he studied at Dublin under Joseph 
Boyse [q. v.] In Dublin he was licensed to 

Breach. In 1714 he succeeded Edward 
tothwell [q. v.] as minister of the inde^ 
pendent congregation at Tunley, Lancashire, 
and was ordained at St. Helen's on 11 Sept. 
1716, Christopher Bassnett [q. v.] preaching 
on the occasion. In 1718 (his first sacra- 
ment was 16 Nov.) he was appointed mini- 
ster of Castle Hey congregation, Liverpool. 
The first entry in the extant minutes of the 
"Warrington classis (22 April 1719) records 
his admission to that body, 'upon his 
making an acknowledgment of his break- 
ing in upon the rules of it, in the way & 
manner of his coming to Livernoole.' A 
strong advocate of non-subscription in the 
controversy then pending both in England 
and in Ireland, he brought round his congre- 
gation to that view. His ministry was 
successful; a new chapel was built for him 
in Benn's Garden, Red Cross Street, and 
opened in July 1727. From 1732 he corre- 
sponded with the London dissenters, with a 
view to the repeal of the Test and Corporation 

He married the widow of "William Shawe 
of Liverpool, and educated her son William 
Shawe, afterwards of Preston. On taking 
him in 1740 to study at Glasgow, he re- 
ceived the diploma of D.D. For young 
Shawe's use he had drawn up (about 1733), 
but did not publish, *a short general system 
of chronology 7 on 'the Newtonian plan/ 
This was the germ of his bulky work, the 
result of twelve years' labour, * A Critical and 
Chronological History of the Rise, Progress, 
Declension, and Revival of Knowledge, 
chiefly Religious. In two Periods. I. ... 
Tradition, from Adam to Moses. IL . . . 
Letters, from Moses to Christ/ 1745, 2 vols. 
8vo (dedication to William Shawe). He 
prefers Moses to all secular historians, as 
earlier and more authentic. In vol. ii. chap, 
xxi. 3, is an animated eulogy of British 
liberties, with evident reference to the 
events of 1746, during which Winder had 
exerted himself in helping to raise a regi- 
ment for the defence of Liverpool. The 
work did not sell, and was reissued as a 
second edition in 1756, with new title-page, 
*m/l <MO' O f the author by George 

Benson [q. v.l 
In September 1746 he had a stroke 


paralysis, and never again entered the pulpit, 
though he preached twice from the reading- 
desk in January 1747, and occasionally 
assisted at the sacrament in that year. John 
Henderson (d. 4 July 1779), who took 
Anglican orders in 1763, and was the first 
incumbent of St. Paul's, Liverpool (see ' 
Memoirs of Gilbert WaTcefield, 1804, i. 204), 
became his assistant and successor. Winder's 
faculties failed, and he died on Sunday 
9 Aug. 1752. He was buried on the south 
side of the churchyard of St. Peter's, Liver- 
pool (now the cathedral); the memorial 
stone was earthed over when the church- 
yard was laid out as a garden. Henderson 
preached his funeral sermon. No portrait 
of Winder is known ; he outlived his wife, 
and left no issue. His library (a remark- 
able one, with a valuable collection of tracts) 
and manuscripts were bequeathed to his 
congregation. The library was transferred 
to Renshaw Street chapel, to which the 
congregation removed in 1811 ; of the manu- 
scripts, a catalogue with excerpts was 
drawn up by the present writer in 1869; 
between 1872 and 1884 the papers were 
scattered and the bulk of them lost. A 
very important letter (now lost) giving an 
account (6 Aug. 1723) of the non-subscrip- 
tion debates in the Belfast sub-synod, which 
Winder had attended as a visitor, was 
printed in the * Christian Moderator/ Octo- 
ber 1827 (p. 274), from a copy by John 
Porter (1800-1874), then minister at Tox- 
teth Park chapel, Liverpool. 

[Memoirs by Benson, 1756; Thorn's Liver- 
pool Churches and Chapels, 1854, p. 67 ; Hal- 
ley's Lancashire, 1869, ii. 323; Nightingale's 
Lancashire Nonconformity [1892] iv. 28, 1893 
vi. 112; Addison's Graduates of the University 
of Glasgow, 1898, p. 655 ; "Winder's manuscripts 
in Renshaw Street chapel library, Liverpool.] 

A. G. 

WI3STDET, JAMES (d. 1664), physician, 
is erroneously said to have been originally 
of Queen's College, Oxford (FOSTER), He 
graduated M.D. at Leyden on 26 June 1656, 
and was incorporated at Oxford on 27 March 
1656. He became candidate or member of 
the College of Physicians of London on 
25 June 1656. He at first practised at Yar- 
mouth, but after 1656 in London. In 1660 
he published in London two Latin poems,, 
' Ad majestatem Caroli secundi Sylvsa duse.' 
The first begins with the word ' occidimus,' 
and is on the execution, of Charles I ; the 
second begins with the word * vivimus, 7 and 
is on the Restoration. la 1663 he published 
' De vitafunctorum statu, 7 a long Latin letter, 
with numerous passages in Greek, Hebrew, 
and Arabic, addressed to Dr. Samuel Halloa 




ruply to a lottor from him, It bopfins with 
a Amoral diseiiBBicm of the "word * Tartarus ' 
and of the Greek and Hebrew words and 
phrases uaed in describing the state of man 
after death, and goes on to consider the 
Greek and Hebrew views on the state and 
place of the good, on a middle state, and 
on the place of the wicked with related 
subjects* A second edition was published 
at Rotterdam in 1693, He vraa a friend 
of Sir Thomas Browne [q, v/], and Simon 
Willdn [q. v.], who had examined Winders 
letters to Browne, states that they are un- 
interesting and pedantic* He died in Milk 
Street, London, on 20 Nov. 1004 (SMOTH, 
OWfwary, p, 63). Wood (Fasti 0*w. ii. 
790) states that he left a quarto manuscript 
of Latin poems. 

[Mtuik's Coll. of Phys,i. 273; Works j Wil* 
kin's 8ir Thomas Browne's Works, vol i.] 

N. M. 

first recognised reporter in tho House of 
Lords and Auwtralian magistrate, son ^of 
Walter Windsor, descended from the Swiss 
family of Wingeyer, canton of Borno, was 
born in Staffordahire in 1780, He was law 
reporter to the *Law Chronicle/ and also 
connected with tho * Times.' ^Evcn after the 
House of Commons recognised the press 
gallery, the lords professed to ignore the 
presence of reporters, who were debarred 
the use of paper and pencil, Charles Win- 
deyer was the first reporter ' who had the 
courage to rest his notebook on their lord- 
ships' bar.' Lord Kldon, who had strenuously 
opposed verbatim reporting', * proceeding to 
the bar to receive a deputation from his 
majesty's faithful commons^ caught Mr. 
Wlndeyer's notebook with his robe, and it 
Mi within the bar' (Pkomtic Jownal, 
19 Dee, 1886). The preat torv chancellor 
picked up the scattered leaves (knowing full 
well what they contained) and courteously 
returned them with a smile to the young 
reporter, From that time forth the pre- 
sence of the press was virtually recognised 
by the peers. 

When Benjamin Disraeli was busy launch- 
ing the ill-rated 'Representative,' he in- 
formed John Murray, tie publisher, that he 
1 had engaged S. 0. Hall and a Mr. Win- 
dyer (P), sen., both of whom we shall find 
excellent reporters and men of business ; the 

latter has been on the "Times"' (Memoir 
of John Murray, ii, 206). 

Charles Windeyer emigrated to New 
South Wales in 1828, with the intention of 
taking up land and becoming a settler ; but, 
owing to the lack of officials with legal 
training and experience, was induced to ac- 

cept the oilice of clerk of petty sessions, and 
afterwards became police magistrate for 
Sydney. His affairs suffered in the financial 
crush following 184ii ; but as a magistrate 
he was universally esteemed ; he converted 
what was mere chaos into an orderly system, 
and the cause of public justice in Sydney 
was greatly advanced by 'his patient unre- 
mitting efforts. On his retirement the legis- 
lative council , in recommending a super- 
annuation allowance, passed a vote advert- 
ing in high terms to his long and useful 

Windeyer died in 1855. He married Ann 
Mary (d. 1864), daughter of Richard Rudd, 
on 8 Aug. 1805, by whom he had a son, 
Richard Windeyor [q, v,l, the Australian 
politician. A bust ol Charles Windeyer was 
placed in the central police office, Sydney, 
as a mark of public esteem. 

[Tho Three Windcyors, Reporters, in Phonetic 
Journal, 19 Dae. 1886 ; Htmmker-Heaton'sDiet, 
of Australian. Dates; private sources.] 

A. KM. 

WINDEYEB, BIOIIART) (1806-1847), 
Australian reformer and statesman^ son of 
Charles Windeyer [q, v,], was born in Lou* 
don on 10 Aug. 1806. He was educated 
partly in Franco, became writer and parlia- 
mentary reporter for the ' Morning Chronicle/ 
the * Sun,' and ' The Times.' He is said to 
have helped to originateDod's 'Parliamentary 
Companion ' (HBATOK). 

He was intimately associated with Thomas 
Porronot Thompson [q. v J, with whom he co- 
operated as one of the first secretaries of the 
Anti-Cornlaw League, was called to the bar 
at the Middle Temple in 1834, and occupied 
$ Pump Court until he emigrated to Aus- 
tralia m the following year, arriving in 
Sydney on 28 Nov. 1835, where, after the 
retirement of William Charles Wentworth 
[q, v.j, he became a leader of the bar. 

In August 1843 he was elected for the 
county of Durham to the first representative 
legislative council, and in conjunction with 
Wentworth, and afterwards with Robert 
Lowe (Viscount Sherbrooke) fa. v,], took a 
most prominent part as one of the popular 
leaders against the bureaucratic government 
of Sir George Gipps fa. v.J who^ feared his 
uncompromisingly radical opposition more 
than that of any other member of the coun- 
cil. 'There is a barrister,' wrote Mrs, Ro- 

bert Lowe, before her husband had definitely 
decided to join the opposition, *a Mr, Win- 
deyer, an undoubtedly clever man, who has 
a strong party opposed to the government 
and the home government also ; this man is 
a popular [elected] member; to oppose him 
and to conquer U possible is to pe J 





main point' (Life and Letters of Lord Sker- 
Irooke, i. 189). 

At this time New South Wales, with its 
province, Port Phillip (now the colony of 
victoria), was in a state of financial depres- 
sion amounting almost to general bank- 
ruptcy ; and Windeyer brought forward his 
monetary confidence bill, based on the re- 
port of his select committee, which recom- 
mended the Prussian Pfandbriefe system; 
the bill was carried in the council but vetoed 
by the governor. 

_ By his never-ceasing criticism and per- 
sistent attacks on the public expenditure, he 
earned the sobriquet of the ' Joseph Hume 
of the council/ His reforming zeal was as 
unselfish as it was thorough ; and, in pur- 
suance of this policy of economy, he voted 
against the salary of his own father, then 
police magistrate of Sydney. He held that 
Sir George Gipps's assessment for quit-rents 
was illegal, and refusing to meet the demand, 
an execution was put into his house, and his 
newly imported wine-vat seized. Acting 
on the advice of Lowe, he entered into an 
action against the government for trespass, 
but lost it. He originated the present jury 
act as well as the libel act of New South 
Wales. Throughout his public career he 
was an earnest supporter of public education, 
and a consistent advocate for the introduc- 
tion into New South Wales of representative 
institutions and responsible government. 

As a colonist Windeyer was one of the 
agricultural pioneers on the Hunter, and de- 
voted much time and money to scientific 
farming and the draining of his land at 
Tomago. He was one of the first settlers in 
Australia to embark in the wine industry, 
and to import German and other foreign 
viffmrons. He also introduced the first 
reaping-machines. He was always much be- 
loved by the * emancipist ' class, and never 
had the slightest difficulty with his convict 
''assigned servants ; ' while he was one of 
the very few pioneer settlers who displayed 
a sympathetic interest in the well-being of 
the aboriginal race. Windeyer's broad huma- 
nity in this respect is commended by an 
able writer who is altogether hostile to his 
political creed. ' One of the hardest worked 
men in the colony took up the cause of the 
weak. Richard Windeyer, a barrister over- 
whelmed with briefs, which he conscientiously 
toiled &t by day or by night, was at all 
hours in the legislative council as unflinch- 
ing as in the supreme court. In the course 
of the session of 1845 he obtained a select 
committee of eight members to consider the 
condition of the aborigines ' (RusBBN, Jfist. 
of Australia, ii. 247-8). Despite his great 

practical ability and unremitting industry 
(though doubtless partly due to his devotion 
to public affairs), Windeyer's estate never 
recovered from the financial depression of 
1842 and the two or three succeeding years. 
His health entirely broke down, and he was 
compelled to leave Sydney and relinquish 
his public work and private affairs. He died 
at the residence of his brother-in-law, Wil- 
liam Henty, near Launceston, Tasmania, on 
2 Dec. 1847. After his death his estate was 
compulsorily sequestrated, and his father was 
also compelled to go through the insolvent 
court; but the legislative council showed 
their practical respect for his memory by sub- 
scribing a sum for the benefit of the family, 
while the Tomago property was secured by 
the sacrifice of his widow's inheritance. When 
the news of his death reached Wentworth, 
he declared that ' he had lost his right hand.' 

Richard Windeyer was married at Speld- 
hurst church to Marion (d. 1878), daugh- 
ter of William Camfield of Groombridgo 
Place and Burswood, Kent, on 25 April 
1832. His only son, Sir William Charles 
Windeyer, is separately noticed. 

[Personal information, kindly supplied by the 
late Sir William Windeyer, and researches made 
specially by Mr. Edward A. Petherick. Also 
Eusden's Hist, of Australia, vol. ii. ; Patchett 
Martin's Life and Letters of Lord Sherbrooke, 
vol. i. ; Burke's Colonial Gentry.] A. P. M. 

CHARLES (1834-1897), Australian legis- 
lator and judge, only son of Richard Win- 
deyer [q. v, J, born in Westminster on 29 Sept. 
1834, and taken by his parents the following 
year to New South Wales, On the death of 
his father in 1847, which left the family iu 
embarrassed circumstances, his mother was 
advised by Robert Lowe (Viscount Sher- 
brooke) to give him a classical and profes- 
sional education, in which he undertook to 
assist her. In a letter of condolence to Lady 
Sherbrooke on her husband's death, Windeyer 
wrote (Sydney, 15 Aug. 1892): 'After my 
father's death, when my mother was left 
very badly off, he proved himself a most 
generous friend, and to his kindness it was 
owing that my interrupted education was 
continued. ... It was he who urged me to 
go to the bar as soon as I was old enough ; 
the act which enables Australians to go to 
the bar of the colony having been passed by 
him ' (Life and Letters of Lord SherbrookL 
u. 477), ' 

Educated at King's school, Paramatta, 
ne entered the university of Sydney on its 
first opening [see WENTWOBTH, WIUIAM 
CHABLES], where, after a distinguished career, 
he became the first Australian graduate (M, A . 




with honours in I860), Admitted to tho 
bar in 1857, ho at first followed in the foot- 
Ntopft of his father and grandfathor, and be- 
came law reporter on tho atali 1 of (Sir) Henry 
ParkoiVs journal, * The Empire.' He entered 
jxirliunumt as a liberal for tho Lower Hunter 
in August 1859, and on the dissolution in 
the following yoar was returned for Woat 
Sydney, for wliich he sat from 18(K) to 1862 
and from I8tt to 1872. In I860 ho initiated 
Urn volunteer movement in New South Wales, 
being gazetted major in 1808. 

Having on nix occasions declined olficft, 
AVindwyer became solicitor-general, under 
Hir James Martin [q. v.l on KU)oc. 1870, He 
was elected iiwt imarilbw for tho university 
of Hydney on 8 Sept. 1876, and occupied this 
wat until his retirement from polities, lie 
was attorney-general from 1877 to 1870, Ho 
introduced the act enabling AuHtralum bar- 
rust ers to become judges, the Married 
"Women's Property Act (1870), axid tho 
Copyright Act (1879)* Ho originated tho 
Discharged PriHonora' Aid Society (1874), 
and he took a very active part in Hcholantic 
institutions and tho public chariti, and was 
chairman of tho College for Women in tho 
Sydney University, of winch institution ho 
bticumo vice- chancellor in 1883, and chan- 
cellor in 181)5. 

From 1879 Windeyer was judge of the 
divorce and matrimonial causes court, and 
deputy judge of tho vice-admiralty court, 
Groat public commotion arose in New South 
Wales in connection with his verdicts in 
what are known as the * Mount Ronnie ' and 
the i Deane ' cases, during which the judg^e 
was exposed to much adverse newspaper criti- 
cism and not a little unmerited abuse. In 
1891 ho was knighted, He resigned his 
A ustralian judgosnip in August 1806, the 
Now South Walos government doRjrmff his 
elevation to the judicial committee of the 
]>rivy t council ; but, in deference to the pub- 
lic opinion of the other colonies, Chief-justice 
Hamuel James Way of South Australia was 

At the desire of Mr, Chamberlain, secre- 
tary of state for the colonies, Windeyer con- 
sented to act as temporary judge of the 
supreme court of Newfpundland to try a 
special case of conspiracy, but he died sud- 
denly at Bologna from paralysis of the heart 
on 11 Sept, 1897, Windeyer was an hono- 
rary LLoX of Cambridge, He married, on 
31 Dec* 1857, Mary Elizabeth, daughter of 
the Rev, R. T* Bolton, vicar of Padbury, 
Buckinghamshire, who survives Mm, and by 
whom he leaves several children, 

[Personal knowledge, and data supplied by 
Lady Windeyer and Hiss Boltoa. Sir Henry 

-?rkoB H 1'iHjr Years m the Making of Austra- 
bun History; Hoaton'B Diet of Australian 
Dates; Meunoll's Diet, of Australasian Bio- 
graphy ; Burke's Colonial Gentry,] A. P. ] 


(1810-1870), lieutenant-general, born at Fel- 
brigg ou 8 Oct. 1810, was fourth son of Ad- 
miral William Windham of Felbrig-g Hall 
Norfolk, and a great-nephew of William 
Windham [q. v,l Ho was educated at the 
Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and en- 
terod the Coldstream guards at the age of 
sixtoon. Hi regimental commissions bore 
the following dates : ensign and lieutenant 
80 Dec, 1^0, lieutenant and captain 81 May 
1H&3, captain and lieutenant-colonel 29 Dec. 
18-ltf, Windham accompanied the 2nd bat- 
talion of the Ooldatream guards to Canada 
in January 1838, and served with them in 
that country during Papinoau's rebellion, 
returning to England in the autumn of 1842. 
On 22 June 1840 he retired on half-pay, 

On the outbreak of the Crimean war 
Windham was still on half-pay, but, having 
on 20 June 1854 been promoted to the rank 
of colonel, ho was appointed assistant 
qnarternuistor-gonoral of the 4th division, of 
tJae^ army of the east, and accompanied his 
divisional commander, XJeutenant-general 
Sir George Oathcart [3. v.], to Constantinople 
and thence to the Crimea, 

Windham landed with the 4th division on 
14 Bept. 1854, and immediately attracted 
notice by his energetic performance of his 
duties. Ho was present at the battle of the 
Alma on 20 Sept,, but the 4th division, being 
in reserve, was vary slightly engaged. During 
the hazardous march of the allied armies 
from the valley of the Belbek to the position 
south of Sebastopol, Windham was sent by 
Cathcart to inform the senior naval officer 
on the Katcha station of the change^of base 
to Balaclava, a service involving considerable 
risk, The 4th division was slightly engaged 
at the battle of Balaclava (2f> Oct. 1864), 
occupying two of the redoubts from which 
the Turkish infantry hud been driven. Wind- 
ham highly distinguished himself at the 
battle of Inkermau (6 Nov.1864), and, owing 
to the death of Cathcart and to the death of 
one brigadier of the division and the disable- 
ment of the other, he succeeded at an early 
period of the battle to the command of the 
4th division. After the engagement he wrote 
the official report of the proceedings of the 
division during the battle. 

Throughout the terrible winter of 1854 
Windham exerted himself to the utmost to 
alleviate the sufferings of his own division 




and of the army generally. Never absen 
from duty, lie devoted Ms spare time to making 
daily personal visits to the base at Balaclava 
-with the object of obtaining supplies for hi 
starving and frozen division. At the sam 
time he incessantly plied both his immediat 
superiors and the headquarter staff of the 
army with advice and suggestions. In Julj 
1855 he was made a companion of the orde 
of the Bath, and in the following month h< 
was given command of the 2nd brigade o 
the 2nd division, but did not receive the ran] 
of brigadier-general. 

Windham was selected to lead the storm 
ing party of the 2nd division at the assaul 
on the Kedan on 8 Sept. 1855. Although th< 
assault failed, the gallantry of Windham'u 
conduct earned the warm commendation o: 
General (Sir) James Simpson [q.v.], who hac 
succeeded Lord Raglan in the command o: 
the army in the Crimea. Extraordinary 
enthusiasm was aroused when the descrip- 
tions of the assault, written by the special 
correspondents of the ' Times ' and other 
papers, were published in England, and 
windham became, in a moment, the best 
known and most popular man in his native 
country. On 2 Oct. 1855 he was promoted 
to the rank of major-general 'for his dis- 
tinguished conduct.' On the day following 
the fall of Sebastopol he was appointed com- 
mandant of the portion of that town which 
was allotted to our army ; and on the news 
of his promotion to major-general reaching 
the Crimea he was given command of the 
4th division. A month later the command 
of the army was resigned by General Simp- 
son, who was succeeded by Sir William John 
Codrington [q.v.], with Windham as his 
chief of the staff. He exerted himself inde- 
fatigably to fulfil the duties of his post and 
to render the Crimean army efficient and 

On his return from the Crimea he was 
received with great honour, particularly in 
his native county of Norfolk. The gift of a 
sword of honour and the freedom of the 
city of Norwich were followed by his return 
to parliament as one of the two liberal repre- 
sentatives of East Norfolk(6 April 1857). Sis 
parliamentarycareer,however, was short. On 
the outbreak of the Indian mutiny he offered 
his services, and almost immediately was 
directed to proceed to Calcutta, where he 
arrived on 20 Sept. 1857, shortly after the 
capture of Delhi. Finding that Sir Colin 
Campbell [q. y.l, the recently appointed com- 
mander-in-chief in India, destined him for the 
command of the Sirhind division,far from the 
scene of action,Windham volunteered to keep 
open the lines of communication if given the 

services of some of the disarmed regiments 
of the Bengal army. This offer was declined ; 
but while proceeding to Umballa to join his 
division, Windham was placed by Sir Colin 
Campbell in command of the troops at Cawn- 
pore. Sir Colin was about to move from 
this base to carry out the operations known 
generally^as the second relief of Lucknow ; 
and, considering it necessary that his force 
should be strengthened as rapidly as possible, 
he left Windham little freedom of action. 
Windham's force consisted at the time of 
the commander-in-chief 's departure (9 Nov. 
1857) of no more than five hundred mixed 
troops ; but five days later, when it became 
clear that^ Cawnpore would be attacked by 
the Gwalior army before Sir Colin could 
return from Lucknow, Windham was autho- 
rised by the chief of the staff, Sir William 
Mansfield, to detain troops that arrived from 
down country. Thus it was that on 26 Nov., 
when Windham fought his first action as an 
independent commander, his foi'ces consisted 
of about ^ fourteen hundred of all arms, to- 
gether with three hundred men left to gar- 
rison the Cawnpore entrenched position. 

Windham had been directed by the com- 
mander-in-chief to place his troops within 
the entrenched position, and not to attack the 
enemy unless by so doing he could prevent 
a bombardment of the entrenchment. But 
on completing his arrangements for defence, 
he found that he would inevitably be bom- 
barded if he awaited the attack of the enemy 
in the entrenchments, and that the only 
course that would enable him to preserve 
the bridge over the Ganges would be to 
bake up a more advanced line of defence. 
The loss of this bridge would have rendered 
Sir Colin Campbell's position in Oude one of 
the utmost peril. 

Windham asked (on 10 Nov.) permission 
to hold a line outside the town of Cawn- 
?ore, and the reply of the chief of the staff, 
written on the following day, clearly autho- 
rised him to do so, provided that he could 
secure his retreat from the advanced posi- 
tion to the entrenchment. 

On 19 Nov. all communication with Luck- 
now suddenly ceased, and Windhain dis- 
covered that the Qwalior contingent was 
rapidly approaching Cawnpore in three di- 
isions.^ No reply reached him to several 

^ a 

.etters in which he begged for permission to 

attack the advancing enemy in detail, and 
hue it was that he decided at last to do so 

snhis ownresposibility, seeing in this action 

his only chance of holding the town, bridge, 
nd entrenchment of Cawnpore against the 
yerwhelming force that was about to attack 

him. On 24 Nov. he marched six miles to the 




Bouth-wtsst of Gawnpore, and two days later 
ho there fought a successful action against 
the centre division of the Gwalior troops 
under Tantia Topi, three thousaiul men, wit h 
six heavy jjuns, three of which were captured. 
After this successful action Windham 
marched back and took up a position from 
which ho hoped to bo able to cover Cawn- 
poro against tho attack of the combined 
forces of the three bodies of the Gwalior 
troops. Two days of severe fighting fol- 
lowed, in which ho was forced back through 
the town of Cawnpore and lost his baggage, 
but held safely the bridge and ontremchniont. 
The reason way ho was not micctissful in pro- 
tectingthe town has never bean generally 
known. It lies in the circumstance that one 
of his subordinate commanders seriously 
failed in his duty. Windham treated the 
offender with remarkable generosity, and it 
was not xxntil several clays later that the 
circumstance came to the knowledge of Sir 
Colin Campbell, who had meanwhile omitted 
ail mention of Windham and his troops in his 
despatch of # Dec, 1857 describing the opera- 
tions, This omission was repaired to a certain 
extent by a private letter from Hir Colin 
Campbell to 1 1.1 1. H. the Duke of Cambridge 
(published in 'The Crimean Diary and Let- 
ters of Sir Charles Windham ') ; but the 
public slight was never publicly withdrawn, 
nor was Windham again entrusted with a 
command in the field. 

On the termination of the operations about 
Cawnpore, Windham was di routed to luavo 
the field army and to assume command of 
the Lahore division, to which ho had boon 
transferred, He remained in command at 
Lahore until March 1801, when he returned 
to England. 

Irx June 1801 Wintlham was appointed 
colonel of the 40th regiment, and on 5 Fdb 
IROt'J he became a lieutenant-general, In 
1805 he received the honour of K*C,B,, and 
on 8 Oct. 1867 was appointed to the command 
of the forces in Canada, which appointment 
he held until his death at Jacksonville in 
Florida on 4 Feb. 1870. 

Windham married, first, in 1849, Marianne 
Catherine Kmily, daughter of Admiral Sir 
John Beresford; and secondly, in 1806 
Charlotte Jane, sister of Sir Charles Dos 
Vceux, bart, His eldest surviving son is 
Captain Charles Windham, R.N. 

[The Crimean Diary and Letters of Bit Charloa 
"Wmdbam^d. Pearse, 1897; Official Becordf* and 
Despatches; Adye's Cawnpore; Shad well's Life 
of Clyde, 1887, ii. 24-30 ; Lord Roberto's Forty 
one Years in India, 1807, i. 361-9, 377-80 
Times, war correspoadence (SirW. HMJuHnell VI 

H. W, P. 

WINDHAM, JOSEPH (1739-1810) 
Antiquary, born at Twickenham on 21 Aug! 
.73$), at a house which was afterwards the 
osidonce of .Richard Owen Cambridge [q,vj 
was related to the Windham family of Nor- 
blk, Ho was educated at Eton, proceeding 
o Christ's College, Cambridge, but did not 
graduate. In 1709 he returned from a pro- 
onged tour through France, Italy, Istria, 
ind Switzerland. lie had a strong interest 
n mattors connected with art, was well read 
n clftHMical and moduoval writers, and made 
inmerous drawings both of natural objects 
and of antjiquitieH. lie was also an ex- 
colhmt Italian scholar. While residing in 
lomo ho made many nkotchos and plans of 
tho baths, which he proaonted to Charles 
Damoron, by whom thoy wore published in 
1772 in his work on the ' Baths of the 
[tomans ' (London, foL) Windham contri- 
)utcd a considerable part of the letterpress 
of the work as well as most of the letter- 
woftfl of tho Hond vohuno of * Antiquities 
of Ionia/ published in 1797 by the Society 
of 1 Hltittaut.L He also assisted James Stuart 
^1718-1788) [q. v.l in tho second volume of 
his * Antiquities of A l-hcnH.' Windham was 
elected a follow of tho Society of Anti* 
quartos on 6 April 1775, and oi the Royal 
Society on 8 No v, 1 7B I . I to was also elected 
a raombor of tho Society of Dilettanti in 
1779, II a possosseid some knowledge of 
natural history, and acquired one of the best 
antiquarian librarian in the country. He 
died at Kitfttkam Llonsu, Norfolk, on $1 Sept. 
181 0. He married, in 1 760, Charlotte, daugh- 
ter of Sir William do Gray, first baron Wal~ 
flinffham [q.v.] Windham'w onlypublicatiou 
in uis own namo was * Observations upon a 
Passage in Pliny f s Natural History, relating 
to tho Tomplo of Diana at KpliesuB." which 
appeared in ' Archmologia ' (vol vi*) 

[Gout Mag, 1810, ii, 800, 488-90; Hist. 
Notices of the tioc, of Dilettouifci, 1H65; Ouwt's 
ITwtory of the ^ocioty of Dilettanti, 1898, 

E. I. C. 

WINBHAM, WILL! Al\f (1760-1810), 
statesman, came of an old Norfolk family 
sottled at Felbrigg, noar Oromor, since the 
iifteenth century, whose name was the same 
originally as that of the town of Wymond- 

His father, Colonel WIU.TAM WIKDIUM 
(1717-1761), sou of William Windham, JVLP, 
jfor Sudbury 17^^-7 aiid for Aldeburgh 1727 
until his death in 1780, possessed distin- 
guished military talent, Disputes with his 
father had caused him to live much on the 
continent. He travelled with Eichard 
Pococlu) [q, v,] in Switzerland in 1741, and 




his * Letter from an English Gentleman to 
Mr. Arland, giving an Account of a Journey 
to the Glacieres or Ice Alps of Savoy ' (1744), 
is one of the earliest printed accounts of Oha- 
monix and Mont Blanc (see COXE, Life of 
&tillmgfleet\ C.E. MATHEWS, Annals of Mont 
Blanc ; 0. DUBIEB, Le Mont Blanc, 1897, 
pp. 50-62 ; TH. DTTKUHR, William Windham 
t Pierre Martel, Qenbve, 1879). He also 
visited Hungary, and for some time was an 
officer in one of Queen Maria Theresa's 
hussar regiments. Returning to England, 
he vigorously supported Pitt's scheme for a 
national militia in 1766, and helped the 
Marquis Townshend to form the Norfolk 
militia regiment in 1757. He published ^ in 
1760 a ' Plan of Discipline ' in quarto, with 
plates, which came into general use, and lie 
sat in parliament for Aldeburgh in 1754, 
The statesman's father married Sarah Hicks, 
widow of Robert Lukin of Dunmow, Essex, 
and died of consumption on 30 Oct. 1761 at 
the age of forty-four. 

William, the only son, was born on 3 May 
(0. S.) 1750 at No. 6 Golden Square, Soho. 
Prom 1762 to 1766 he was at Eton, where 
he was a contemporary of Fox, and was then 
placed with Dr. Anderson, professor of natural 
philosophy in the university of Glasgow. He 
attended the lectures of Robert Simson [q. v.], 
professor of mathematics, and pursued the 
study in later life, even composing three 
mathematical treatises, which, however, he 
never published. On 10 Sept. 1767 he 
entered University College, Oxford, as a 
gentleman commoner, and oecame a pupil of 
Robert Chambers. He was created M.A. 
on 7 Oct. 1782, and on 8 July 1793 he be- 
came an honorary D.O.L. Jtoth at school 
and at college he was quick and industrious, 
but as a young man he was completely in- 
different to public affairs, though distin- 
guished both as a scholar and a man of 
fashion. Accordingly he refused Lord Towns- 
hend's offer .of the secretaryship to the lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland, made while he was 
still at college, and left Oxford in 1771. 
Two years later he started with Commodore 
Constantine John Phipps (afterwards second 
baron Mulgrave [q. v.j) upon a voyage of 
polar exploration, put was compelled by sea- 
sickness to land in Norway and make his 
way home. He afterwards spent some time 
with the Norfolk militia, in which he at- 
tained the rank of major, and passed a couple 
of years abroad, chiefly in Switzerland and 
Italy. He also became known to Johnson 
and Burke. He was Johnson's favoured 
friend, attended him assiduously in his last 
days, and was a pall-bearer at his funeral. 
His attachment to Burke was such that he 

became his political pupil. He joined the 
Literary Club and attended its meetings 
almost till he died, and was also a member 
of the Essex Head Club. 

Meantime he was gradually drawing to- 
wards a public career. He made his first 
public speech on 28 Jan. 1778 at a public 
meeting called to raise a subscription to- 
wards the cost of the American war, and 
opposed the project. He won some local 
repute by personal courage and promptitude 
in quelling a mutiny at Norwich, when the 
Norfolk militia refused to march into Suf- 
folk, and in September 1780 he unsuccess- 
fully contested Norwich. In 1781 he was 
a member of the Westminster committee, 
and came very near standing for West- 
minster in 1782. He, however, gradually 
drifted away from his earlier reforming 
opinions into a fixed antipathy to any con- 
stitutional change. In 1783 he became 
chief secretary to Northington, lord lieu- 
tenant of Ireland in the Portland admini- 
stration, but resigned the post in August, 
nominally owing to ill-health, but in reality 
because he desired to give Irish posts to 
Irishmen, a policy not in favour with his 
superiors. After the dissolution in March 
1784 he was one of the few coalition candi- 
dates who were successful, and was elected 
at Norwich on 5 April, For some time he 
acted steadily with the opposition, and Burke 
chose him in June to second his motion on 
the state of the nation. He spoke in 1785 
on the shop tax and the Westminster 
scrutiny ; he strongly supported the right of 
the Prmce of Wales to be regent without 
restrictions in 1788, and in 1790 killed 
Flood's reform bill by the happy phrase that 
'no one would select the hurricane season in 
which to begin repairing his house/ He was 
also one of the members charged with the 
impeachment of Warren Hastings, and under- 
took that part of the case which dealt with 
the breach of the treaty of 1774 with Faizulla 
Khan. He was re-elected at Norwich in 
1790, and in February 1791 supported Mit- 
ford's catholic relief bill for England. Fol- 
lowing Burke, by whom he continued to be 
largely guided, he took alarm at the French 
revolution, and in 1792 and 1793 was one of 
the most ardent supporters of the govern- 
ment's repressive legislation. He supported 
the proclamation against seditious meetings 
and the aliens bill, had a plan for raising 
a troop of cavalry in Norfolk, and on 11 July 
1794, on Burke's advice, he somewhat re- 
luctantly consented to take office under Pitt, 
with the Duke of Portland, Lord Fitzwilliam, 
and Lord Spencer (PaiOE, Life of Burke, u, 
264). A secretaryship of state was at first 




him, but eventually lie became 
secretary at war, with a st x at in the cabinet. 
This wa the first time that the cabinet was 
opened to the holder of the secretaryship at 
war. His change of front was somewhat 
resented aft Norwich, but lie secured re- 
election, and from Augiwt to October was 
with the Duke of York's army in Flanders, 
I lo held that the royalistain the west of France 
deserved assistance, and was the person most 
responsible for the Quiberon expedition in 
J uly 1795, Vigorously supporting the con- 
tinuance of war, and steadily opposing pro- 
jects of reform, he only after a sharp tight 
saved his Beat at Norwich, 26 May 1796, 
He hold office till February 1801, when he 
resigned with Pitt To the Irish union he 
had boen at first opposed altogether, but 
consented to it in consideration of the pro- 
miwe that catholic disabilities should be 
removed, He had by no means always ap- 
proved of Pitt's war policy, and had hold 
that, as the war was fought for the restora- 
tion of the Bourbons, more efforts should 
have been made to assist the royalists in 
France. Much was done under his admini- 

stration to increase the comfort of the troops, 
Their pay was raised, pensions wore esta- 
blished, and the Koyul Military Asylum was 

Windham's chance in opposition soon 
came. He had a rooted distruwt of ^Napoleon, 
and strongly opposed the peace of 1803^ Ho 
assisted Oobbott, whom ho greatly admired, 
to found the ' Political Register,' and tho- 
roughly agreed with its attacks on Adding 
ton, lie spoke against the peace prelimi- 
naries on 4 Nov. 180 J , and moved an address 
to the crown against the peace on 18 May 
1802, As the peace was popular in the 
country, this attitude coat him his seat at 
Norwich in June 180& He declined to 
contest the county, and accepted from tk< 
Gwinville family the borough of St. Mawes 
in Cornwall, where he wfts elected on 7 July 
This seat he hold till November 1806, when he 
waa elected for New Bomuey , and later in th< 
sarao month for the county of Norfolk* Thii 
latter election was afterwards declared void 
upon a petition alleging breaches of th 
Treating Act, Windham being thus iu 
eligible for re-election for the same seat 
Throughout these proceedings he retaine 
his seat for New Bomuey till the dissolutio 
of parliament 29 April 1 807. At the genera 
election iu May he was returned for Higham 
Ferrers, and held that seat till his death. 

Windham welcomed the renewal of hos 
tilities with France. He had never sup 
ported a policy of fortifications or of larg 
land forces, and when iu cilice had consldere 

10 erection of martello towers a sufficient 
efence for the coast, his chief reliance being 
^)on the fleet. Ho doubted too the value 
i volunteers, and made somewhat savage 
ttacks upon them, but took part in the general 
novoment in 1803, and raised a volunteer 
orce at Felbrigg, and became its colonel, He 
ow became leader of the Grenville party in 
lie House of Commons, and engaged in the 
ttack on Addinftton, out declined to join 
*itt again in May 1804, owing to the king's 
bjcction to tho admission of Fox to the 
nmiwtry. Ho then found himself once more 
cting with Fox and opposing Pitt, and at 
he time of Pitt's deatli he incurred some 
lostility in consequence. He accepted the 
war and colonial office in Lord Grenyille's 
administration, and on 3 April 1800 intro- 
.uced a plan for improving the condition of 
he military forces, and making the army an 
attractive profession^ "With this object he 
mssed bills for reducing the term of service 
md for iucreaning the soldiers' pay, He had 
jjjgim the arrangements for the South Ame- 
rican expedition when, with the rest of the 
ministry, he was dismissed in March 1807. 
in the previous year ho had refused the offer 
>f a peerage, preferring a career in the House 
of Commons, and he continued to devote 
himself to the conduct of the war and to 
criticism of the policy of his successor Castle- 
reogh. On general policy, however, he hold 
aloof from debate, and, from growing dislike 
of London, lived much in the country. His 
only conspicuouH speeches in the later years 
of his life on civil topics were (14 May 1805) 
in favour of the Itoman catholic claims, to 
which subject he returned in 1810, and on. 
Curwen's bill for preventing the sale of seats 
in May 1809. Aft Oaatlereagh's proposals 
with regard to the militia ran counter to his 
own plan of 1800, ho opposed the local 
militia bill in 1808, and, as he was adverse 
to a policy of scattered and, as ho thought, 
aimless expeditions, he spoke against the 
Copenhagen expedition in 1807, and the 
Scheldt expedition in January 1810, On the 
other hand, he was a very warm supporter of 
the Spanish cause, and even began to learn 
Spanish with a view to a personal visit to 

>ain, In his view, however, the objective 
the English force should have been the 
passes of the Pyrenees, and not Portugal, so 
as to cut off the French from Spain, and he 
thought that Moore ought to have been sent 
with a much larger force to the north of 
Spain, and there could and should have held 
his ground, The Peninsular war, once begun, 
was to be pressed with vigour, and such an 
expedition as that to Antwerp did not seem 
to Windham consistent with the successful 



prosecution of the Spanish war. He con- 
tinued to express these views energetically, 
but, by supporting a proposal made early in 
1810 for the exclusion of reporters from the 
House of Commons, he provoked the hostility 
of the press, which for some time refused to 
report his speeches. 

Windham's last speech was made on 
11 May 1810. In July of the previous year 
he had injured his hip by his efforts in re- 
moving the books of his friend the Hon. 
Frederick North (afterwards fifth Earl of 
Guilford) [q.v.l out of reach of a fire. On 
17 May 1810 Cline operated upon him for 
the removal of a tumour, but he never re- 
covered from the shock, and died at his house 
in Pall Mall on 4 June, and was buried at 
Felbrigg. He married, on 10 July 1798, 
Cecilia, third daughter of Commodore Arthur 
Forrest [q.v.], but had no children. 

Windham's personal advantages were many. 
He was rich, and had an income of 6,OOOZ. a 
year. He was tall and well built, graceful 
and dignified in manner, a thorough sports- 
man, and in his youth, like his father, was 
very athletic and a practised pugilist. He 
had a good memory, and was widely and well 
informed; he was an ardent Greek and 
Latin scholar, and fluent in French and 
Italian. Though his voice was defective and 
shrill, he was, when at his best, a most elo- 
quent orator, and was always a clear speaker 
and a keen debater,' but his speeches were 
marred by occasional indiscretions of temper 
and want of reticence. He was pious, chi- 
valrous, and disinterested, and his brilliant 
social qualities made him one of the finest 
gentlemen as well as one of the soundest 
sportsmen of his time. His diary, published 
in 1866, shows him to have been vacillating 
and hypochondriacalin private, but he seems 
to have relieved his feelings by this habit of 
private confession; and in public, though 
somewhat changeable, he was not irresolute. 
In an age of great men his character stood 
high, and although his conduct on two occa- 
sions in his political life led to charges of 
inconsistency, and earned for him the nick- 
name of i Weathercock Windham,' his per- 
sonal integrity was unimpugned. The army 
undoubtedly owed much to his labours in 
improving its efficiency and condition. Pane- 
gyrics were pronounced upon him in the 
House of Lords by Lord Urey on 6 June 
1810, and in the House of Commons by Lord 
Milton the following day, and Brougham 
paints him in laudatory terms in his ' His- 
torical Sketches of British Statesmen ' (i. 219). 
A portrait of him by Hoppner was placed in 
the public hall, Norwich, and there is another, 
by Sir Thomas Lawrence, at University 

College, Oxford (Oat. QudphExHl. No. 150). 
A print from the portrait by Hoppner was 
engraved by Say, and was published. There 
are also a portrait of him by Sir, Joshua 
Reynolds and a second by Lawrence, both 
in the National Portrait Gallery, London, 
and a bust by Nollekens. 

[Windham's Speeches, with Memoir by his 
secretary, Thomas Amyot (3 vols. 1806); Wind- 
ham's Diary, 1784-1810, ed. Mrs. Henry Baring, 
1866; Malone's Memoir of Windham, 1810, re- 
printed from 6-ent. Mag. 1810, i. 588 (cf. ib. 
566) ; Memoires du Comte Joseph de Puisaye ; 
Leeky's Hist, of England in the Eighteenth 
Cent. ; Hard/s Lord Charlemont, ii. 82, 86 ; 
Colbnrn's New Monthly Mag. xxxii. 555 ; Edin- 
burgh Review, cxxiii. 557 ; Jfcomilly's Life ; 
Stanhope's Life of Pitt ; Boswell's Life of John- 
son, ed. Hill ; Cooke's Hist, of Party, iii. 433 ; 
Harris's Radical Party in Parliament.] 

J. A. H. 

"WINDSOR, ALICE DE (d. 1400), mis- 
tress of Edward III. [See PERRERS.] 

(1627 P-1687), bora about 1627 and baptised 
under the name of Thomas Windsor, was 
son and heir of Dixie Hickman of Kew, 
Surrey, by his wife Elizabeth, eldest sister 
and coheir of Thomas Windsor, sixth baron 
Windsor of Stanwell. 

No connection has been traced between 
the Windsors of Stanwell and Sir William 
de Windsor, baron Windsor [q. v.], the 
husband of Alice Perrers. The Stanwell 
family claim descent from Walter Fitz- 
Other (fl. 1087), who held that manor at the 
time or Domesday and was warder of Wind- 
sor Castle, whence he derived the name 
Windsor. His third son, GERALD DE 
WINDSOR ( fl. 1116), was constable of Pem- 
broke Castle (It in. JZambriee, pp. 89, 91), 
and steward to Arnulf, earl of Pembroke 
[see under ROGER DE MONTGOHERY, d. 
1093?], in whose service he saw much fight- 
ing in Pembroke. He was sent to king Mur- 
tagh in Ireland to ask his daughters hand 
for Arnulf, married Nest or Nesta [q. v.], 
mistress of Henry I, and was father of Wil- 
liam Fitzgerald, Maurice Fitzgerald (d. 1176) 
[q. v.], David (d. 1176) [q. v.], bishop of 
St. David's, and Angharad, mother of Giral- 
dus Cambrensis[q.v.], the historian j he was 
thus tte reputed ancestor of the numerous 
G-eraldine families (see, besides the articles 
referred to, FREEMAN, Norman Conquest, v. 
210, and William Itufus, ii. 96-7, 101, 108- 
110, 425, 451 and the authorities there cited). 

It was from Gerald's eldest brother Wil- 
liam that the Windsors of Stanwell claimed 




descent. That manor remained in the hands 
of the family until Henry VIII compelled 
Andrew Windsor (1474 P-1643), whom he 
had in 1529 summoned to parliament as first 
Baron Windsor of Stairwell, and made 
keeper of his wardrobe (see Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, YO!S. i-xvi. passim), 
to exchange it. for Bordesley Abbey, Wor- 
cestershire. By his wife Elizabeth", eldest 
sister of Edward Blount, second lord Mount- 
joy, he was father of William Windsor, 
second baron (1499 ?~1 558), whose widow 
married George Puttenham [q. v.], and pes- 
tered the council for many years with suits 
against him for maintenance (Acts P. CX 
vols, xii-xvi. passim) , William's son Ed- 
ward, third baron (1532-1575), was father 
of Frederick, fourth baron (1559-1685), and 
of Henry, fifth baron (1562-1615). The 
hitter's son, Thomas, sixth baron (1590--] 641), 
was created K.B. in June 1010, and was 
rear-admiral of the fleet sent to fetch Prince 
Charles from Spain in 1623; he married 
Catherine, youngest daughter of Edward 
Somerset, fourth earl of Worcester [q. v.], 
bat died without issue. The barony thus 
foil into abeyance between the heirs of his 
two sisters, while the estates passed to his 
nephew, Thomas Windsor Hickman, who 
assumed the surname "Windsor in lieu of 
Hickman, and was commonly known as 
Lord Windsor (cf. CaL State Papers, Dom, 
1(549-50, p. 70; CaL Comm.for Compound- 
ing p. 1260), 

Though little more than fifteen at the 
outbreak of the civil war, Windsor is said 
to Lave been captain of a troop of horse in 
the royalist army in 104-2, and lieutenant* 
colonel in May 1645; these commissions do 
not appear in Peacock's ' Army Lists/ but 
possibly he was the "Windsor serving in 
Ikrd's regiment of foot who was captured at 
Naseby on 14 June 1645 (PiucocK, 2nd 
edit, p, 98). He compounded for his 'delin- 
quency in arms' on 30 April 1646, and was 
de.scriDod as having been ( concerned in ' the 
articles for the surrender of Hartlebury 
Castle, Worcestershire (CaL Comm. for 
Compounding, p. 1200). His fine, fixed at 
a sixth of his estate, was 1,1QOJ,, which 
sterns to have been paid. On 4 April 1649 
he was reported to have gone to Flanders 
<upon challenge sent him by an English 
gentleman named Griffith ' ( CaL titatePapers, 
Dom. 1649-50, p, 380), According to Sir 
Kenelm Digby, who gives the challenger's 
name as Griffin, the latfcer's letters to Wind- 
sor caused much merriment among the exiles 
at Calais (ib. p. 880), and the council of 
state requested the Spanish ambassador to 
prevent the duel. On 19 May 1051 he was 

summoned before the council' of state and 
required to give a bond of 4,000 with two 
sureties of 2,0001. to appear when called upon 
and not to do anything prejudicial to the 
present government' (ib. 1651, p. 207). On 
2 Aug. 1658 he was granted a pass to go 
beyond seas, but for the most part he lived 
quietly in England, absorbed in a fruitless 
scheme to render the river Salwarpe navi- 
gable by means of locks, for the benefit of 
the salt trade at Droitwich. On 12 May 
1656 he married at St. G-eorge's-in-the- 
Fields, London, Anne, sister of George 
Savile (afterwards Marquis of Halifax) 
[q. v.] ' 

After the Restoration Windsor received 
on 16 June 1660 a declaratory patent deter- 
mining in his favour the abeyance into which 
the barony of Windsor of Stanwell had 
fallen (G. E. G[OKAYNW], Complete Peerage 
vi. 267 ; Egerton MS. 2651 , f. 27). He tools 
his seat as seventh Baron Windsor in the 
House of Lords two days later, and in the 
same year was made lord lieutenant of Wor- 
cestershire. On 20 July 1661 he was ap- 
pointed governor of Jamaica, with a salary 
of 2,(XXM. a year, though his commission was 
dated only from 2 A ug. following. He did not 
set out till the middle of April 1662 (PBPYS, 
Diary, ed, Braybrooke, i. #42), but during 
the interval seems to have developed some 
fairly enlightened views upon the govern- 
ment of colonies (Jtyertom M8, 2895, ff. 801- 
303). He arrived at Barbados on 11 July, 
and there published his proclamations for the 
encouragement of settlers in Jamaica. Lands 
were to oe freely granted; no one was to be 
imposed upon in point of religion, provided 
he conformed to tho civil government ; trade 
with foreigners was to be tree ; and all handi- 
crafts and tradesmen were to be encouraged 
( CaL State Paper*, America and West Indies, 
1661-8, Nos. 324, 3,%), He left on 1 Aug. 
for Jamaica, where he acted as governor for 
little more than ten weeks, part of which 
was occupied by an expedition to Cuba and 
the seizure of a Spanish fort there called St. 
Jago. But during this brief period Windsor 
claimed to have established an admiralty 
court-, disbanded the roundhead army in Ja- 
maica and remodelled its forces, called in 
all coin missions to buccaneers and ' reduced 
them to certain orderly rules, giving $W 
commissions to take Spaniards and bring them 
into Jamaica ' (ib. No, 879 ; cf. arts, MODY- 
SIE HBNBY). 'Being verie sick and un- 
easie,' he embarked for England on 20 Oct. 
1662, leaving Sir Charles Lyttelton (1629- 
1716) [q. v.] as hie deputy governor (Present 
State of Jww&w, 1083, p* 39), His com- 




mission was revoked on 15 Feb. 1663-4, Sir 
Thomas Modyford being appointed his suc- 
cessor (Cal. State Papers, America and West 
Indies, 1661-8, Nos. 656, 735). Windsor's 
sudden return provoked from Pepys the re- 
mark that * these young lords are not fit to 
do any service abroad/ and he was sceptical 
as to the reality of Windsor's achievements 
" " y, ed. Braybrooke, ii. 109, 117, 134) 

* i _vJ __i _ _ j_ j MI i lit- ji.;. 

indsor himself pleaded ill-health, and his 
statement that he came back 2,OOOJ. worse 
off than he went out supplies a further ex- 
planation (Hatton Correspondence, i. 46). 

On 9 July 1666 Windsor was commis- 
sioned captain of a troop of sixty horse 
(DALTOff, Army Lists, i. 76; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1665-6, p. 490) ; it was, how- 
ever, only a militia force, and was disbanded 
soon afterwards (Savile Corresp. p. 15). In 
June 1671, in return for a challenge which 
he believed John Berkeley, lord Berkeley of 
Stratton [q. v.l, the lord lieutenant of Ire- 
land, had sent him, Windsor challenged him 
at Kidderminster on his way to London 
(BBEWICK, Rawdon Papers, 1819, pp. 250-1 ; 
Cal State Papers, Dom. 1671, pp. 346, 387). 
Berkeley declined the challenge and informed 
the king, who sent Windsor to the Tower. 
He was 'mightily complimented by visitts 
from all the towne, and stayed there, I think, 
about a fortnight, and then, released, came 
to Windsore and kissed the king's hand there. 
The councill would heare nothing in favour 
of him. They looked upon his challenge to 
a person in the employment of L* of Ireland 
as such an affront to ye king as nothing 
should have made him presume to resent it 
at that rate ' (Hatton Corresp. i. 63). 

In 1676 Windsor was appointed master of 
the horse to the Duke of York, and on 
4 July 1681 was made governor of Ports- 
mouth (LUTTBELL, i. 106). On 11 Nov. 
1682 he was made governor of Hull, and on 
6 Dec. following was created Earl of Ply- 
mouth, taking his seat on 19 May 1685. 
On 30 Oct. 1685 he was sworn of the privy 
council (ib. i. 862), a few days after the ex- 
pulsion of his brother-in-law,- the Marquis 
of Halifax, with whom he can have had but 
little sympathy (FoxCBOFT, Life of Halifax, 
i.489). He died on 3 NOT. 1687 (Addit.MS. 
5856% 180),' and was buried on the 10th 
at Taraebigg, Worcestershire. 

Plymouth's first wife, Anne Savile, died 
on 22 March 1666-7, and was buried at 
Tardebigg on 1 April following. He mar- 
ried, secondly at Kensington on 9 April 
1668, Ursula, daughter of Sir Thomas Wid- 
drington [q. v.], with the consent of her 
guardian, John Rush worth (r612?-1690) 
[q, v,] She was born on 11 Nov. 1647, and 


died on 22 April 1717. Bv her Plymouth 
had issue (1) Thomas (d. 1738), who served in 
the war in Flanders, was on 19 June 1699 
created Viscount Windsor in the peerage of 
Ireland, and on 31 Dec. 1711 Baron Montjoy 
in the peerage of the United Kingdom, and 
left a son, Herbert, on whose death in 1758 
these peerages became extinct; (2) Dixie 
(1672-1743), who was scholar of Westmin- 
ster, fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
member for that university in six succes- 
sive parliaments, and brother-in-law of 
William Shippen [q. v.] (WELCH, Queen's 
Scholars, p. 221) ; (3) Ursula, who married 
in 1703 Thomas Johnson of Walthamstow ; 
and (4) Elizabeth, who married Sir Francis 
Dashwood, bart. 

By his first wife Plymouth had issue a 
daughter, Elizabeth, and a son, Other Wind- 
sor, styled Lord Windsor from 1682 till his 
death on 11 Nov. 1684 ; his son Other (1679- 
1727) succeeded his grandfather as eighth 
Baron Windsor and second Earl of Ply- 
mouth (cf. LTTTTKBLL, Brief Relation, passim; 
BITBNET, Own Time, 1766, iii. 376). His 
grandson, Other Lewis, fourth earl (1731- 
1777), maintained a voluminous correspon- 
dence with Newcastle, extant in British Mu- 
seum Additional MSS. 32724-982. The 
earldom became extinct on the death of 
Henry, eighth earl, on 8 Dec. 1843. The ba- 
rony eventually passed to Harriet, daughter 
of the sixth earl, who married Robert Henry, 
grandson of Robert, first lord Clive [q. v. ] ; 
her grandson is the present Baron Windsor. 

JCal. State Papers, Dom. 1650-72, America 
West Indies, 1661-8, passim; Brit. Mus. 
Lansd. MS. cclv. 112; Addit. MSS. 5504 f. 106, 
6530 f. 82, 6707 f.55, 125 14, 29 550-61, passim; 
Hist, MSS. Comm, 1st Rep. App. pp. 27, 56, 
2nd Rep. App. p. 15; Lords' and Commons 1 
Journals ; Hatton Corresp. and Savile Corresp. 
(Camden Soc.), passim; Luttrell's Brief Relation; 
Pepys's and Evelyn's Diaries ; Peacock's Army 
Lists ; Dalton's Army Lists, i. 76, 298 ; Chester's 
London Marr. Licences, col. 1488 ; History of 
Jamaica, 1774, Svols. 4to; Tracts relating to 
Jamaica, 1800, 4to; Nash's Worcestershire; 
TickelTs History of Hull; J. M. Woodward's 
Hist, of Bordesley Abbey; Foxcroft's Life of 
Halifax, passim ; Ledge's Peerage of Ireland, 
ed. Archdall; Burke's Peerage and Extinct 
Peerage; Doyle's Official Baronage; K E. 
Cfokaynel's Complete Peerage, s.vv. ' Plymouth ' 
and -Windsor/] A. F. P. 

WINDSOB (d. 1384), deputy of Ireland, was 
the son of Sir Alexander de Windsor of 
Grayrigg, Westmorland, and of Elizabeth 
(d. 1349), his wife. No connection has been 
proved between this family and that of the 





Windsors of Stanwell (G. E. (JoKAYNB?s 
Complete Peerage, viii ^183-4; SIB Q. F. 
DHCKETT, Ducketiana, gives a full account 
of the descent of the Windsor family). 
William was of full age in 1349, and served 
in the French wars of Edward ILL 

Before 1369 Windsor had held a command 
in Ireland under Lionel of Antwerp, and 
claimed lands in Kinsale, Inchiquin, and 
Youghal (King** Council in Ireland, p. 326). 
In that year he was appointed the king's 
lieutenant in Ireland, and had a grant of a 
thousand marks a year (Du&DiLE, Baronage, 
L 509). He at once set to work to reduce 
tie Dublin border clans, but in 1370 had to 
leaTe them in order to attempt the rescue of 
the Earl of Desmond, who had been taken 
prisoner by the O'Briens (GiLBEBT, Viceroys 
of Ireland, p. 230). To secure even partial 
order Windsor had been compelled to adopt 
measures of doubtful legality ; at a parlia- 
ment of 1369, failing to induce its members 
to promise new customs to the king, he ex- 
torted from the prelates, who met separately, 
a grant for three years, and afterwards had 
enrolment made in the chancery records that 
they were given in perpetuity to the crown. 
The colonists appealed to Edward III, and, 
in answer to their petition, the king on 
10 Sept. 1371 forbade Windsor, who had re- 
turned to England in March, to levy the 
sums for which he had exacted grants, ordered 
the enrolment to be erased, and on 20 Oct. 
formally rebukedhimfor his extortions, which 
he bade him make good (Foedera, vol. iii. pt. 
ii. pp. 922, 924, 928, 942). The mayor of 
Drogheda, arrested by Windsor's command, 
was released ($. p. 930), and on 20 March 
1373 an inquisition was held at Drogheda 
into Windsor's extortions in Meath and Uriel 
(#. pp. 977, 978, 979). Alice Perrers, who 
afterwards became Windsor's wife, had in 
1369, when he first became viceroy, received 
from Tirm the amount destined for the ex- 
penses of his expedition and the payment 
of his men (for date of her marriage with 
Windsor, see art. PEKBBES, AXICB). 

On Windsor's withdrawal from Ireland 
anarchy broke out. Accordingly on 20 Sept. 
1373 Edward reappointed him to the vice- 
loyalty (Fcedera, vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 990). He 
was commanded to levy the grants formerly 
promised at Baldoyle and Kilkenny, and to 
co-operate with Sir Nicholas Dagworth [cf. 
art. PEBEGBS, AMCB]. In 1374, on the re- 
losal of a parliament at Kilkenny to make a 
grant at I&gworth'g request, Windsor issued 
writs bidding clergy and laity to elect repre- 
sentatives, finance them, and send them to 
England to consult Edward on an aid to be 
taken from belaud [cf. art. 

Miiol Meanwhile Newcastle, on the frontier 
of Wicklow, was taken by the Irish. The 
government sent help by sea to the garrison 
in the castle of Wicklow, but the council, 
meeting at Naas, forbade Windsor to move 
further south because it left the north in 
peril. Windsor could carry on the war only 
by levying forced subsidies of money and 

Early in 1376 Windsor gave up his vice* 
royalty, and was summoned to England to 
consult with the king, On 29 Sept. 1376 he 
was granted 100/. a year for life from the 
issues of the county of York. On 14 Dec. 
pardon was granted him 'for having har- 
boured Alice Perrers, who was banished in 
1377, and license granted for her to remain 
in the realm as long as she and her husband 
please.' On 23 Oct. 1379 Sir John Harles- 
ton was directed to deliver up to Windsor 
the custody of Cherbourg ( WAXSINQHAM, 
Hist. AngL i. 427 ; Chron. Anglia, p. 255 ; 
Fadera, iv. 73). In the same year Windsor 
was sent on the expedition to help the Duke 
of Brittany against France (WALSHTGHA.!!, 
Hist. Angl. i. 134), receiving large grants of 
land, most of which had been forfeited by 
Alice Perrers (DTJGDAX.E, Baronage, i. 609 ; 
Col Pat. Rolls, 1377-81, p. 503 ; Hot. Parl. 
iii. ISO a). 

In 1381-2, 1382-3, 1383-4, Windsor had 
summons to parliament as a baron (Dtr0DALE, 
i. 509). In 1381 and 1382 he took a leading 
part in putting down the peasants' revolt, 
especially in the counties ot Cambridge and 
Huntingdon, being granted special authority 
with this object, and made a special justice 
and commissary of the peace in Cambridge. 
On 18 March 1383 he was referred to as a 
' banneret.' Further grants, previo usly made 
to AlicePerrers, were in 1381, 1383, and 1384 
extended to him. 

Windsor died at Haversham in Westmor- 
land on 15 Sept. 1384, heavily in debt to the 
crown. The barony became extinct. Hi& 
will was dated Haversham, 15 Sept., and 
proved on 12 Oct. 1384. He left no legitimate 
issue. His nephew, John de Windsor, who 
was one of his executors, seized most of his 
estates, and had many disputes with hia 
widow [see PBEEBES, AXICBJ. He left cer- 
tain lands to William of Wykeham [q. v.] f 
which the bishop eventually appropriated to 
the use of his great foundation at Win- 
chester (Col. Pat. RollSi 1381-2, p. 577). 
In Ireland John de Windsor did not succeed 
in obtaining his uncle's lands ; for William's 
estates in Waterford were adjudged to his 
two sisters Christiana, wife of Sir William 
de Moriers of Elvington, Yorkshire ; and 
Margaret, 1 wife of John Duket, 'hia nearest 

Wind us 





heirs and of full age* (King's Council in Ire- 
land, p. 826). 

[Rymer's Feeders, vol. iii. (Becord edit.); 
King's Council in Ireland, Walsinghara's Gresta 
Abbatum 8. Albani and Hist. AngL i. (all above 
in Rolls Ser.); CaU Pat. Rolls, 1377-81 and 
1381-5 ; Rot. Parl. ii. iii. ; Nicolas's Testamenta 
Vetusta; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 509; G, E. 
C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage, viii. 183-4 ; Gil- 
bert's Viceroys of Ireland; Duckett's Duchetiana, 
?p. 268-83; Duckett's 'Manorbeer Castle and 
,ts iSarly Owners' in Archaeologia Cambrensis, 
4th ser. xi. 137-45 ; Notes and Queries, 7th ser, 
vol. vii.] M. T. 

WINDUS, JOHN (fi. 1725}, author of 
1 A Journey to Mequinez/ was the historian 
of a mission despatched by George I in 1720 
under Commodore Charles Stewart, with a 
small squadron and the powers of a pleni- 
potentiary, to treat for a peace with the 
emperor of Morocco. The squadron sailed 
on 24 Sept. 1720, and in the following May 
a conference was held between the ambas- 
sador's party and the Basha Hamet Ben All 
Ben Abdallah at Tetuan. A treaty of peace, 
by which piracy was prohibited and the 
English prisoners released, was signed at 
Ceuta in January 1721, and Windus there- 
upon returned to England in Stewart's flag- 
ship, the Dover. Windus utilised the four 
months he spent on land in ' Barbary ' to 
collect materials for an account of the Moors, 
and in 1725, with a dedication to ' James, 
earl of Berkley, vice-admiral of England/ 
he published ' A Journey to Mequinez, the 
residence of the present Emperor of Fez and 
Morocco * (Albumazer Muley Ishmael), Lon- 
don, for Jacob Tonson, 1725, 8vo. 

No work on Morocco had hitherto ap- 
peared in English, with the exception of the 
somewhat meagre 'West Barbary' (1671) 
of Lancelot Addison [q, v.], and much inte- 
rest was excited by Windus's book. An 
influential list of subscribers was obtained, 
and the volume rapidly went through several 
editions, and was pirated in Dublin. The 
author was assisted in his task by M. Cor- 
Here, who had at one time resided at the 
Moorish court, and the work was illustrated 
by engravings by Fourdrinier, the plates 
being dedicated to William Pulteney, Lord 
Cobhaxn, the Duke of Argyll, and other dis- 
tinguished persons. It was reprinted in the 
'Collection of Voyages' of 1767, in the 
4 World Displayed ' (1774, vol. xvii. 12mo), 
and in Pinkerton's ' Collection of Voyages ' 
(1808, vol. xv. 4to). It was drawn upon to 
a large extent by Thomas Pellew [q. vj in 
his* History and Adventure in South Bar- 

bary/ written in 1739, and to some extent 
also in Thomas Shaw's 'Travels or Observa- 

tions relating to several parts of Barbary 
and the Levant ' (1738, folio). The descrip- 
tion of the manners of the people and the 
methods of the government renders the book 
* a curiosity/ as it was pronounced by James 
Boswell and by Stevenson (Cat. of Voyages 
and Travels, No. 598). 

[ Windus's Journey to Mequinez ; Blacfcwood's 
Magazine, xxxi. 205 ; Bndgett Meafcin's Moorish 
Empire, 1899; Hayfair's Bibliography of Mo- 
rocco, 1892 ; an interesting supplement to Win- 
dus is supplied in John Braibh-waite's History 
of the Revolutions in the Empire of Morocco, 
1729.] T. S. 

WINEPBXDE (Welsh, Gwenfrewi) ia 
the name of a legendary saint supposed to 
have lived in the seventh century. She is 
said to have been the daughter of Teuyth or 
Temic ap Eliud, of princely lineage, belonging 
to Tegengle, North Wales. Teuyth gave 
land to St. Beino, and put his daughter tinder 
his teaching. A chieftain, Caradoc ap Alaric 
or Alan, cut off the maiden's head, and when 
it touched the ground a spring appeared, 
namely, St. Winefride's Well or Holywell, 
Flint. The head was reunited to the body, 
and Winefride became abbess of Gwytherin. 

There is no evidence that this legend is 
older than the twelfth century, in the course 
of which, about 1140, Robert of Shrewsbury 
[q.v.] found her relics, claimed them for 
Shrewsbury, and wrote her life. Leiand's 
statement that a monk Elerius wrote a con- 
temporary life is uncorroborated. A Welsh 
life, probably of the middle of the twelfth 
century (printed by Rees in Cawbro-Britixh 
Saints, pp. 16, 17, 198-209, 303), does not 
mention the translation of the relics, but 
otherwise closely resembles Robert's life. 

[Robert's life is given in Sunns, iv. 20, and 
Capgrave ; Fleetwood*s Life and Miracles of St. 
Winefride, 'with her Litanies ; Hardy's Descr. Cafe. 
i. i. 179-84, and the article in the Diet, of 
Christian BiogrJ M. B. 

WJJNJTjtOD, afterwards called BOIOTACB 
(680-756), saint. [See BOJOTACB.] 

, VINCENT (1619-1668), astro- 
nomer, was the eldest son of Vincent Wing- 
(1587-1660) of North Luffenham, Rut? 
land, where he was born on 9 April 1619. 
The family was of Welsh origin. By his 
own exertions he acquired some knowledge 
of Latin, Greek, and mathematics, 'con- 
suming himself in study.' In 1648 he 
became known as joint author, with William. 

ication/ containing 
predictions 'drawn from the effects of 





several celestial configurations.* His * Ear- 
monicon Oceleste' appeared in 1651 ; his 
chief and a most useful work, entitled 
'Astronomia Britannica,' in 1652 (2nd ed, 
1<J69). This was a complete system of 
astronomy on Copernican principles, and 
included numerous and diligently compiled 
sets of tables. A portrait of the author 
was prefixed. It was followed in 1656 by 
* Astronomia Instaurata/ and in 1665 by 
'Examen Astronomiae Carolina/ exposing 
the alleged errors of Thomas Streete, who 
promptly retaliated with * a castigation of 
the envy and ignorance of Vincent "Wing.' 

Wing issued ephemerides for twenty years 
(1652-1671), the * exactest ' then to be had, 
according to John Jlanisteed, who main- 
tained * a fair correspondence * with him 
(RlGATTD, Correspondence of Scientific Men, 
ii. 86). He also wrote for the Stationers' 
Company an almanac styled *01ympia 
Domata/ the p.Tmna.1 sale of which averaged 
50,000 copies. The publication was con- 
tinued by his descendants at irregular inter- 
vals until 1805. 

Whig resided at North Lufienham, but 
occasionally * sought the society of the 
learned 'in London. He attended so zea- 
lously to his business as a land surveyor 
that, * riding early and late, in all kinds of 
weather,' he contracted a consumption, of 
which he died on 20 Sept. 1668, aged 49. 
4 He was a person,' says his friend and 
biographer John Gadbury, ' of a very ready, 
ripe, and pungent wit; and had good judg- 
ment and memory thereunto annexed/ 
Although of an uncontentious disposition, 
he defended himself with spirit against the 
attacks of 'troublesome and ambitious' per- 
sons.' Sides were taken in these disputes ; 
Mamsteed speaks of Wing's 'sectaries.' 
A convinced astrologer, he edited in '1668 
George Atwel's * Defence of the Divine Art/ 
drew the scheme of Ms own nativity pub- 
lished in Gadbury's ' Brief Relation/ and is 
said to have made a correct forecast of his 
death. His will was dated a fortnight be- 
fore. He was buried at North LufFenham. 
The ^Olympia Domata* for 1670 was edited 
by Ms elder son, Vincent 'Wing; and the 
numbers for 1704 to 1727 by his nephew, 
John Wing of Pickworth, Rutland, coroner 
of tfcafc county, who published in 1693 
'Heptarchia Mathematical and in 1699 
an enlarged version of his -uncle's *'Art 
of S^ein-* supplemented by 'Scientia 
< Calculation of the Planets' 


TJCHO WETS (1696-1750), astrologer, a 
grandson of John Wing, taught the ' arts 
aad sciences mathematical at Pickworth in 

1727, and edited the ' Olympia Domata' 
from 1739 onward. He was coroner of 
Rutland from 1727 to 1742. William 
Stuieley [q. v.] notes in his diary that he 
'spent many agreeable hours at Stamford 
and Pickworth with Mr. Tycho Wing and 
Mr. Edmund Weaver, the great Lincolnshire 
astronomer/ Tycho visited Stukeley in 
London in March 1760, and died at Pick- 
worth on 16 April ensuing. He married, on 
18 April 1722, Eleanor, daughter of Oonyers 
Peach, of Stoke Dry, Rutland, and had a 
family of five sons and one daughter. A 
portrait of him, painted in 1731 by J . Vander- 
bank, is in the hall of the Stationers' Com- 
pany, London. One of his descendants, Johri 
Wing (1752-1812) of Thorney Abbey, Cam- 
bridgeshire, agent to the Duke of Bedford, 
became in 1788 the object of scurrilous 
attacks in connection with a proposed nevy 
tax on the North Level. Another Tycho 
Wing (1794-1851), also of Thorney Aobey, 
married Adelaide Basevi, niece of Lord 
Beaconsfield's mother. 

[Gadbury's Brief Relation of the Life and 
Death of Mr. Vincent Wing, London, 1669; 
Green's Pedigree of the Family of Wing, 1486- 
1886; Kotes and Queries, 3rd ser. x. 374, 424, 
8th ser. ii. 48 ; Button's Phil, and Math. Dic- 
tionary (1615); Bromley's Cat. of Engrawd 
Portraits; Weidler's Hist. .Astronomies, p. 515; 
Lalande's Bibl. Astr. ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.; 
Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England.] A. M. C. 

WTN"GATE, EDMUND (1596-1666)} 
mathematician and legal writer, second son 
of Roger Wingate of Sharpenhoe in Bed-s 
fordshire and of his wife Jane, daughter of 
Henry Birch, was born at Flamborough in 
Yorkshire in 1596 and baptised there on 
11 June (Par. Reg*) He matriculated from 
Queen's College, Oxford, on 12 Oct. 1610; 
graduated- B,A. on 30 June 1614, and was 
admitted to Gray's Inn on 24 May. Before 
1624 he went to Paris, where he became 
teacher of the English language to the Prin- 
cess (afterwards Queen) Henrietta Maria. 
He had learned in England the rule of pro- 
portion recently invented by Edmund Q-un- 
ter [q. v.], which he introduced into France 
and communicated to the chief mathema- 
ticians in Paris. Being importuned to 
publish in French, he agreed to do o; but 
his book had to appear in a hurried and 
incomplete form in order to obtain priority 
of appearance, an advocate in Dijon to 
whom . he had communicated the rule in a 
friendly manner having already commenced 
to make some public use of it. He was in 
England on the breaking out of the. civil 
war, sided wijh the parliament, took the 
j covenant, and was made justice of the peace 




for the county of Bedford. He was then re- 
siding at Woodend in the parish of Harling- 
ton. In 1650 he took the * engagement/ be- 
came intimate with Cromwell, and one of the 
commissioners for the ejection of ignorant 
and scandalous ministers. He represented 
the county of Bedford in the parliament of 
1654-5. He died in Gray's Inn Lane, and 
was buried in St. Andrew's, Holborn, on 
13 Dec. 1656. He left no will. Administra- 
tion was granted to his son. Button Wingate, 
on 28 Jan. 1657. 

Wingate married, on 28 July 1628, at 
Maulden, Elizabeth, daughter and heir of 
Richard Button of Wootton in Bedfordshire, 
by whom he had five sons and two daughters. 

His publications, which were numerous, 
include : 1. * L'usage de la regie de propor- 
tion en arithme'tique,' Paris, 1624 j in Eng- 
lish as 'The Use of the Rule of Proportion,' 
London, 1626, 1628, 1645, 1658, 1683 ^recti- 
fied by Brown and Atkinson). 2. * Arith- 
metitjue Logarithmetique/ Paris, 1626. In 
English as 4 Aoya/M0/ior;p(a, or the Con- 
struction and Use of the Logarithmeticall 
Tables/ London, 1635 (compiled from 
Henry Briggs [q. v.]) 3. * The Construction 
and Use of the Line of Proportion/ London, 
1628. 4. ' Of Natural and Artificiall Arith- 
metique/ London, 1 630, 2 parts. Part i. had 
been designed ' onely as a key to open the 
secrets of the other, which treats of artificial 
arithmetique performed by logarithms/ and 
had therefore not been made sufficiently 
complete to stand alone as a text-book of 
elementary arithmetic. This defect was 
remedied by John Kersey the elder [q. v.] 
under the superintendence of Wingate, and 
a second edition appeared in 1650 as * Ajrith- 
metique made easie/ Wingate himself re- 
edited part ii., which was published in 1652 
as i Arithmetique made easie. The second 
book.' The first book ran through many edi- 
tions, the expression 'natural arithmetic 1 
being discarded for that of ' common arith- 
metic/ London, 1658, 1673 (6th edit.) ; 1678 
(7th edit.) ; 1683 (8th edit, and thelast edited 
by Kersey the elder) ; 1699 (10th edit, edited 
by Kersey the younger) ; 1704 (llth edit, 
with new supplement by George Shelley) : 
1708,1713, 1720, 1753 (edited by J.Dodson), 
and 1760. 5. 'Statuta Pacis : or a Perfect 
Table of all the Statutes (now in force) 
which any way concern the office of a 
Justice of the Peace/ London, 1641, 1644 
(under the initials ' E. W.') 6. * An Exact 
Abridgment of all the Statutes in force and 
use fifom the beginning of Magna Carta/ 
London, 1642, 1655, 1663 (continued by 
William Hughes), 1670, 1675, 1680, 1681, 
1684, 1694, 1703, 1704, 1708. 7, 'Justice 

Revived: being the whole office of a country 
Justice of the Peace/ London, 1644, 1661 
(under initials ' E. W.') 8. 'LudusMathe- 
maticus/ London, 1654, 1681. The book is 
the description of a logarithmic instrument, 
of the nature of which it is difficult to form 
an idea without even a drawing of it (under 
initials 'E. W/) 9. ' The Body of the Common 
Law of England/ London, 1655 (2nd edit.), 
1658, 1662, 1670, 1678. 10. "The Use of 
a Gauge-rod/ London, 1658. 11. ' Maximes 
of Reason/ London, 1658 (cf. PBESTOIT, Popu- 
lar and Practical Introdwetion to Law 

1845, p. 579). 12. 'The Clarks Tutor for 
Arithmetickand Writing . . . being the re- 
mains of Edmund Wingate/ London, 1671, 
1676. 13. ' The Exact Constable with his 
Original and Power in the Office of Church- 
wardens/London, 1660 (2nd edit.), 1682 (6th 
edit.) (under initials E. W.') 

lu 1640 he published an edition of 
' Britton J [see BBETOIT, JOHN IE]. In this he 
made corrections from somebetter manuscript 
than that used in the 1530 publication, but 
unfortunately placed them in an appendix, 
reprinting the text in its corrupt form. He 
supplied an entire chapter (lib. iv. chap. 5) 
which had previously been omitted, placing 
it also in the appendix. He also edited the 
works of Samuel Foster [q. v.], and Wood 
assigns to him a work entitled * Tactometria 
... or the Geometry of Regulars/ probably 
arepublicationof John Wyberd'sbooic, which 
appeared under the same title in 1650 (WpOD, 
Athena, iii. col. 425 ; cf. CHALMEKS, Biogr. 

[Visitations of Bedfordshire (Harl. Soc.) ; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Poster's Admis- 
sions to Gray's Inn, p. 134; Wood's Athense 
(Bliss), iii. 4:23-4 ; Button's Philosophical and 
Mathematical Dictionary ; Willis's Notitia JParlia- 
mentaria, iii. 259 ; prefaces to Wingate's work ; 
De Morgan's Ari thmetic Books ; Blaydes's G-enea- 
logia Bedfordiensis, pp. 2, 3, 196, 204, 329-30, 
337 ; BiographieUniverselle; Kennett'sRegister, 
p. 787 ; WorraJTs BibliothecaLegum ; Registers 
of Flamborough parish, per the Rev. H. W. 
Rigby.] B.R 

(1518-1592), controversialist. [See War- 


wnranELD,siB ANTHONY rues ?- 

1552), comptroller of the household, born 
probably about 1485, was son of Sir John 
Wingfield of Letheringham, Suffolk, by his 
wife Anne, daughter of John Touchet, sixth 
baron Audley hsee under TOUCHET, JAMBS, 
seventh BABOKJ. The father, whose younger 
brothers, Sir Humphrey, Sir Richard, and 
Sir Robert, are separately noticed, was the 




eldest son of Sir John Wingfield [see under 
WorePESLD, Sir HUMPHBBY], was sheriff of 
Norfolk and Suffolk in 1483, in which year 
He was attainted, but was restored on 
Henry VIFs accession in 1485, and served 
as sheriff in 1497. 

Anthony first appears as commissioner for 
the peace in Suffolk on 28 June 1510. Like 
his uncles, he served in the campaign in 
France of 1513, and was knighted for his 
bravery on 25 Sept. (Harl. MS. 6069, 
1 112). On 7 Nov. following he was pricked 
for sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, but six 

X later was discharged from holding the 
; his name appears on the roll in 1514, 
and he served as sheriff from November 
1515 to November 1516. He accompanied 
Henry VHI to the Field of the Cloth of 
Gold and to his subsequent meetings with 
Charles V in 1520 and 1522. He served 
under his cousin, Charles Brandon, duke of 
Suffolk, in the campaign in France in 152S, 
approved^ of Henry's religious changes, 
and officiated at the coronation of Anne 
Boleyn. He represented Suffolk in the 'Re- 
formation' parliament from 1529 to 1535, 
but on 15 Dec. 1544 was returned for Hors- 
ham. He again served under Suffolk during 
the northern rebellions of 1536, and was a 
commissioner for the dissolution of the 
monasteries in Suffolk, receiving in 1537 
grants from the lands of Oampsie Priory and, 
an 1539, the priories of Woodbridge and 
Letheringham, In the latter year ne be- 
came vice-chamberlain, captain of the guard, 
and member of the privy council, at which 
he was a constant attendant for the rest of 
his life. He was elected E.G. in April 1541. 
His capacity as vice-chamberlain necessi- 
tated his presence at the court functions of 
the time, and as captain of the guard he 
arrested Cromwell at the council-board in 
August 1540, and conducted Surrey to the 
Tower on 12 Dec. 1546. Henry VUI made 
him an assistant-executor of his will, and 
left him 200J. 

Under Edward VI he represented Suffolk 
in parliament from 26 Sept. 1547 till his 
J -* l * l arrested Gardiner on 30 June 1548, 
1 7 Ti Warwick's conspiracy against 
, and was despatched by the coun- 
cil ra 10 Oct, 1549 to arrest the Protector 
i Windsor. This he effected on the morn- 
ing of the llth, conveyingSomerset to the 
Tower three days later. He was rewarded 
by being promoted comptroller of the house- 
hold on % Feb. 1549-50 in succession to 
P^, ana m May 1551 was appointed joint 
fcr3 lieutenant of Suffolk. He died at Sir 
?2 Gatesfe house in Bsthnal Green on 
4o Aug. lodS, and was buried in great state 

on the 21st, apparently at Stepney (MAOHOT, 
pp. 23, 24, cf. note on p. 326). A memorial 
inscriptionis extant in Letheringham church, 
and a fine portrait, by Juan Pantoxa, pre- 

Powerscourt's ' Muniments of the Wingfield 
Family.' His will, dated 13 Aug. 1552, was 
proved on 15 April 1653. 

Wingfield married Elizabeth, eldest daugh- 
ter of Sir George Vere and sister of John de 
Vere, fourteenth earl of Oxford, and left a 
large family ; the eldest surviving son, Sh* 
Robert ( d. 1597), was father of Sir Anthony 
(d. 1605) and grandfather of Sir Anthony 
(d. 1638), first baronet ; another son, Richard, 
was father of Anthony Wingfield (1550 ?- 
1615 ?) [q. v.] and of Sir John Wingfield (d. 
1596) fa.v.], and a third, Anthony (d. 1593), 
was usher to Queen Elisabeth. 

[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vols. 
i-xvi.; State Papers, Henry VIII, 11 vols.; 
Gal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80; Addit MSS. 
25314 333, 344, 346, 27447 f. 77; Cotton, 
and Harl. MSS. passim ; Nicolas's Proc. Privy 
Council, vol. vii.; Dasent's Acts P. C. vols. 
i-iii.; Lit. Rem. of Edward VI (Roxburghe 
Club) ; Official Ret. Memb. of Parl. ; Chron. of 
Calais, pp. 22, 31, 33, 42, Rutland Papers, 
pp. 32, 37, Wriothesley's Chron. ii. 27, 33, 
Troubles connected with the Prayer-Book, e$. 
Pocock, passim (all these in OamdeD Soc.j; 
Strype's Works (General index) ; Gough's Index 
to Parker Soc. Publ, ; Davy's Suffolk Collec- 
tions; Ellis's Original Letters; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. passim ; Burke's Extinct Baro- 
nets; Lodge's Irish Peerage, ed. ArchdaU; and 
PowerscourtWingfield Muniments, 1804, which, 
though 'fiated' as correct by the College of 
Arms, contains various errors.] A. P. P. 

WmaFTELD, ANTHONY (1550?- 
1615 ?), reader in Greek to Queen Elizabeth, 
born probably in or soon after 1550, was the 
third son of Richard Wingfield of Wantis- 
den, Suffolk, by his wife Mary, younger 
sister of the famous 'Bess of Hardwick,' 
countess of Shrewsbury [see TAX.BOT, EIIZA.* 
BETH]. Sir Anthony Wingfield (1485 P-1552) 
[q . v.J was his grandfather, and Sir John 
Wingfield (d. 1596) [q. v.] was his brother. 
He matriculated as a pensioner of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in 1669, appears to have 
been entered as a student of Gray's Inn in 
1572, and was elected scholar of Trinity in 
1578. He graduated B.A. in 1573-4, was 
elected fellow of his college in 1576, and 
commenced M.A. in 1577. Possibly through 
the influence of his uncle Anthony fa 
1593), usher to Queen Elizabeth, he was 
appointed reader in Greek to the queen. 
On 16 March Io80-l he was elected public 
orator at Cambridge, and in 1582 he accom- 
panied Peregrine Bertie, lord "Willoughby 




- u A _,, on his embassy to Denmark, 
but in October of the same year he was ap- 
pointed proctor at Cambridge. On 21 March 
1588-9 he was granted leave of absence by 
his university on going abroad in the queen's 
service, and on condition that he supplied a 
deputy public orator ; this post he resigned 
on 25 Sept. 1589. On 19 Jan. 1592-3 the 
archbishop of York wrote to the Earl of 
Shrewsbury promising to 'take care that 
Anthony Wingfield shall be returned a bur- 
gess for one of the towns belonging to the 
see ' (Talbot MSS. I, fol. 158), and in the fol- 
lowing month he was elected for Ripon. 

Wingfield's relationship to JBess of Hard- 
wick makes it probable that he was the cor- 
respondent of the earls of Shrewsbury, whose 
name frequently occurs in the Talbot manu- 
scripts in the College of Arms (cf. Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 13th Rep. App. ii. 21} ; and he may 
have been the Anthony Wingfield who on 
25 Jan. 1594-5 became joint lessee of the 
prebends of Sutton, BucJdngham, Horton, 
and Horley, all in Lincoln Cathedral (CaL 
State Papers, Dom. 1595-7, p. 5). About 
the end of Elizabeth's reign, through the in- 
fluence of the Countess of Shrewsbury or of 
her stepson, William Cavendish (afterwards 
first Earl of Devonshire), to whom Wing- 
field was related on his father's side, he was 
appointed tutor to Cavendish's two sons, 
William (afterwards second Earl of Devon- 
shire [q.v.]) and (Sir) Charles, the mathe- 
matician. Aboutl608ThomasHobbes[q. v.], 
the philosopher, succeeded to this position, 
and Wingfield drops out of notice, though 
he is mentioned in the 'Talbot Papers' in 
1611 (LODGE, Illustrations, iii. 281-2). He 
probably died about 1615, leaving no issue, 
and being unmarried, unless he was the 
Anthony Wingfield who was licensed to 
marry Anne Bird on 4 April 1575 (CKESTEB, 
London Marriage Licences, col. 1489). 

Wingfield may have written 'Pedantius, 
comcedia olim Cantabrig. acta in Coll; Trin.' 
(London, 1631, 12mo). Nash assigned it in 
Ms ' Strange News ' 1592 (ed. McKerrow i. 
803) to < M. Winkfield.' Anthony is the only 
Wingfield of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
who could have written it ; but an early MS. 
in Caius College, Cambridge, attributes the 
piece to Edward Porcett or Forsett, who was 
another fellow of Trinity at the time. The as- 
cription of the play to Thomas Beard [q.v.]has 
little to commend it. Wingfield has Latin 
letters in * Epistolse Academise ' (ii. 468 sqq."), 
Latin verses in the university collection on 
the death of Sir Philip Sidney, and an epi- 
gram on ' The Peer Content,* which has often 
been printed (LODGE, Illustrations, iii. 176). 

It is almost impossible to distinguish the 

scholar with certainty from his uncle, two 
first cousins, two nephews, and several se- 
cond cousins (one of whom, created a baronet 
in 1627, died in 1638), all of them named 
Anthony, and it is possible that the member 
for Ripon was (Sir) Anthony Wingfield (d. 
1605), who had previously sat for Orford in 
1572,Dunwich in 1584 and 1586, andSuffolk 
in 1588 (O^cwi/5eiwr?t,i.411,415,420,425; 
cf. D'EwBS, Journal, p. 432 ; he was sheriff 
of Suffolk in 1597-8). The Anthony Wing- 
field who was employed with (Sir) William 
Waad [q.v.] in collecting evidence against 
Philip Howard, first earl of Arundel [q.v.l 
was probably the usher to Queen Elizabeth 
(Egertvn MS. 2074, ff. 9 sqq.) The Captain 
Anthony Wingfield who saw much service 
in the Netherlands, and went on the expedi- 
tion in 1589 against Spain, of which he wrote 
an account (printed hi HAKLTTZT, Vtiages, 
1599, n. ii. 134-55, where he is styled 
* colonel'), probably belonged to a different 
branch, of the family, the Wingfields of Ports- 
mouth (cf. Acts P. C. vol. xvi-xix. passim ; 
Cal State Papers, Dom. 1591-4, p. 405). 

[Davy's Suffolk Collections, s.v. ' Wingfield of 
Crowfield,' in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 19155 ; 
Talbot MSS. in the College of Arms, H. 
167, I. f. 158, L. ff. 354, 398, 0. f. 106, P. 
f. 1019 ; Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ii. 448, 555; 
Lodge's Illustrations ; Foster's Alumni Ozon. 
1500-1714; Powerscoxutfs Wingfield Muni- 
ments, 1894.] A. F. P. 

1600), colonist, born about 1560, was the 
son of Thomas-Maria Wingfield of Stone- 
ley, Huntingdonshire, who married a lady 
named Kerrye of a Yorkshire family. H!e 
was grandson of Sir Richard Wingfield 
(1469P-1525) [q.v.] of Kimbofton C&rtle, 
lord deputy of Calais. Thomas was the son 
of Sir Richard Wingfield, and was godson 
of Cardinal Pole and Queen Mary, whence 
the second Christian name, Maria, which sur- 
vived in the family for several generations. 

Edward served in Ireland and in the Low 
Countries, and was one of those to whom 
the original patent of Virginia was granted 
on 10 April 1606. He alone among those 
patentees whose names are mentioned in 
the instrument sailed with the first party 
of colonists on New Year's day 1607 [see 
SMITH, JOHN, 1580-1681]. The list of the 
council was sealed up, to be opened after 
landing. Wingfield was among its members, 
and on 18 May was elected president. On 
27 May, while leading an exploring party, 
Wingfield was 'shot clean through his 
beard* by an Indian, but escaped unhurt. 
He soon fell out with Hs colleagues, and on 
10 Sept, 1607 was deposed. Soon after this 




he was sued by John Smith and another of 
tae party for slander, the case was tried by 
the council and Wingfield was cast in heavy 
damages. Although a good soldier and an 
honourable man, mngSeld seems to have 
been wholly unfitted for his post. He was 
evidently self-confident, pompous, and puffed 
up by a sense of his own. superior birth and 
position, unable to co-operate with common 
men and unfit to rule them. Moreover, as 
the Spanish government was known to be 
bitterly hostSe to the colony and to be 
plotting against it, those interested in the 
undertaking were naturally distrustful of a 
Roman catholic. In April 1608 Wingfield 
returned to England. He appears to have 
been living, unmarried, at Stoneley in 
Huntingdonshire in 1613. 

Wingfield wrote a pamphlet entitled * A 
Discourse of Virginia.' This was a complete 
account of the proceedings of the colonists 
in Virginia from June 1607 till Wingfield's 
departure. It is in the form of^ a journal, 
but is in all probability an amplification of 
a rough diary kept at the time, Though 
cited by Purchas in the second edition of 
his * Pilgrimes T (1614, p. 757), the work re- 
mained in manuscript till it was discovered 
in the Lambeth Library by the Rev. James 
Anderson, author of the * History of the 
Church of England in the Colonies.' The 
discovery was made between the publication 
of the first edition of Anderson's 'History' 
in 1845 and that of the second in 1856. The 
manuscript was then edited by Dr. Charles 
Deane, the New England antiquary, and 
published in the 'Archseologia Americana' 
(I860, iv. 67-163), a hundred copies being 
also issued separately on large paper. 

[Wingfleld pedigree in the Visitation of 
Huntingdonshire, ed. Ellis (Camd. Soc.) 1849, 
p. 112 ; Lord Powerscourt's Muniments of the 
Ancient Family of "Wingfield, 1894, pp. 5, 7 ; 
"Wingneld's own Discourse; Smith's History of 
Viiginia; CaL State Papers, Colonial, Amer., 
and West Indies, i. 5, 6 ; Brown's G-enesis of the 
United States j "Winsor's Hist, of America, iii. 
155; NeilTs English Colonisation in America, 
chap, i.] J. A. D. 

1545), speaker of the House of Commons, 
was thetwelffch son of Sir John Wingfield of 
Letberiogham, Suffolk, by Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Sir John FitzLewis of West Horndoa, 
Essex. Sir John Wingfield, the father of 
fbar daughters and twelve sons, of whom 
Sir Rkfeni(1^9?-l25) and Sir Robert m 
noticed sepfffately,had been sheriff of Norfolk 
sad Sdfeik in 1443-4 and again in 1461. 
H was Wghted by Edward IV in 1461, 
End made a privy councillor. In 1477 he 

was appointed a commissioner to treat with 
the French ambassadors at Amiens. He 
died on 10 May 1481. His wife's will, dated 
14 July 1497, was proved on 22 Dec. 1500. 
Humphrey was educated at Gray's Inn, 
where he was elected Lent reader in 1517. 
He had been on the commission of the peace 
both for Essex and Suffolk since 1509 at 
least. Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk 
fa. v.], was a cousin of the Wingfields [see 
WINGITBLD, SIB RICHABD], Humphrey being 
one of his trustees ; and probably through 
his influence Wingfield was introduced at 
court. In 1515 he was appointed chamber- 
lain to Suffolk's wife Mary, queen of France, 
and was apparently resident in her house. 
On 28 May 1517 he was nominated upon the 
royal commission for inquiring into illegal 
inclosures in Suffolk (see LBADAM, Domesday 
of Inclosuresj 1897, i. 3). He appears to 
have acted in 1518, together with his eldest 
brother, Sir John Wingfield [see under 
WUTGFIELD, SIB ANTHONY], as a financial 
agent between the government and the 
Duke of Suffolk. On 6 Nov. 1620 he was 
pricked high sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, 
and on 14 Nov. was appointed a commis- 
sioner of gaol delivery for Essex. In 1523 
and 1524 he was a commissioner of subsidy 
for Suffolk and for the town of Ipswich. 
On 26 June 1525 he was appointed a com- 
missioner of assize for Suffolk, On 5 Feb. 
1526 he was a legal member of the king's 
council. He is mentioned in a letter dated 
25 March 1527 as 'in great favour with the 
cardinal ; ' and he took an active part in the 
establishment of the 'cardinal's college' at 
Ipswich in September 1528. On 11 June 

1529 he was nominated by Wolsey one of a 
commission of twenty-one lawyers presided 
over by John Taylor (d. 1534) fq. v.l to hear 
cases in chancery, and on the following 
3 Nov. .he was returned to parliament for 
Great Yarmouth. 

In 1530 the fall of Wolsey brought with 
it the forfeiture of his college at Ipswich, 
and Wingfield was consulted as one of ' the 
best counsel,' with a view to securing the 
exemption of the college from the penalties 
of Wolsey's praemunire. On the other hand, 
he was nominated by the crown on 14 July 

1530 a commissioner to inquire into Wolsey's 
possessions in Suffolk. In this capacity he, 
sitting with three other commissioners at 
Woodbridge, .Suffolk, returned a verdict on i 
19 Sept. that the college and its lands were 
forfeited to the king. He was at the same 
time high steward of St. Mary Mettingham, 
another Suffolk college, and under-steward 
in Suffolk of the estates of St. Osyth, Essex. 

On 9 Feb. 1533 the commons presented 




Wingfield to the king as their speaker. Ac- 
cording to Chapuys, the king conferred on 
him the order of knighthood ' on this occasion. 
He is styled * Sir ' in a petition of this year, 
and frequently afterwards, though, according 
to the list in Metcalfe's ' Book of Knights* 
(p. 71), he was not duhbed before 1537. 
During his speakership were passed the acts 
severing the church of England from the 
.Roman obedience and affirming the royal 
supremacy. There can be little doubt that 
Wingfield was in full sympathy with Henry's 
policy. He appears to have received from 
the crown a salary of 100 a year ' for atten- 
dance/ an addition, doubtless, to the t wages ' 
found by his constituency. 

Parliament was dissolved on 4 April 1536. 
On the outbreak of the northern rebellion 
in 1536 Wingfield was one of the Suffolk 
gentry upon whom the government relied 
for aid. He justified Cromwell's opinion of 
him by his zeal to suppress the seditious in- 
citements of the friars and other disaffected 
ecclesiastics. He was nominated in 1536 a 
commissioner for the valuation of the lands 
and goods of religious houses in Norfolk and 
Suffolk. For these services he was rewarded 
by a grant in tail male, dated 29 June 1537, 
of the manors of Netherhall and Overhall in 
Dedham, Essex, and all the lands in Ded- 
ham belonging to the suppressed nunnery of 
Campsie, Suffolk, also of the manor of Crep- 
\allinStutton, Suffolk, and all lands 

there belonging to the late priory of Colne 
Comitis (Earls Colne) in Essex. According 
to a letter written by him to Cromwell soon 
after this grant he would, but for it, * have 
had to begjin the world again,' having * lost 
half his living by his wife's death/ On 
4 July 1538 he was nominated upon a special 
commission of oyer and terminer for treasons 
in six^of the eastern counties. He was also 
commissioned to survey the defensive points 
of the coast when in 1539 there were appre- 
hensions of an invasion. He was among the 
knights appointed to receive Anne of Cleves 
in January 1540. After the conviction of 
the Marquis of Exeter he received a grant of 
a lease of his lands in Lalford Says, Arde- 
legh, Colchester, and Mile-End, in Essex and 

Wingfield died on 23 Oct. 1545 (In*, port 
mortem, 16 Jan. 1546). He married between 
1502 and 1512 Anne, daughter and heiress 
of Sir John Wiseman of Essex, and widow of 
Gregory Adgore, Edgore, or Edgar, serjeant- 
at-law. His son and heir, Robert, married 
Bridget, daughter of Sir Thomas Pargiter, 
knt., alderman and lord mayor of London in 
1530. His daughter Anne married Sir Alex- 
ander Newton. Wingfield's arms are still 

in the fourth window on the north side of 
Gray's Inn Hall. 

[Brewer and Gardner's Cal. of Lettens and 
Papers, For, and Dom. Hen. VIII, vols. i-xvi. ; 
Metcalfe's Visitation of Suffolk (1882), 1561 p. 
80, 1612 p. 176; Visitation of Huntingdonshire, 
1613 (Camden Soc. 1849); A nstis's Register of 
the Gaoter (1724), ii. 230; Lodge's Peerage of 
Ireland, ed. Archdall, 1789, v. 268; Manning's 
LiTes of the Speakers (1850), pp. 177-82; Dou- 
ttwaito'a Gray's Inn (1886), pp. 47, 127, 131 ; 
Official Return Memb. Parl.; Powerscourt's 
Wingfield Muniments.] I. S. L. 

WnSTQFIELD, SIB JOHN (d. 1596), 
soldier, was the third son of Richard Wing- 
field of Wantisden in Suffolk, and Mary, 
daughter and coheiress of John Hardwick 
of Derby, sister of Elizabeth (Talbot), grand- 
countess of Shrewsbury [q. v.] (Visitation 
of Huntingdon, Camd. Sbc. p. 129). His 
brother Anthony, reader in Greek to Queen 
Elizabeth, is separately noticed. Having 
apparently for some time previously served 
as a volunteer against the Spaniards in 
Holland, he was appointed captain of foot 
in the expedition conducted tnither by the 
Earl of Leicester in December 1585 (CaL 
Hatfleld MJSS. v. 240), and, being wounded 
in the action before Zutphen on 22 Sept. 
1586 (id. vi. 570), he was for his bravery on 
that occasion knighted by Leicester (Sxow, 
Annals, p. 739). He was one of the twelve 
knie-hts * of his kindred and friends' that 
walked at the funeral of Sir Philip Sidney 
on 16 Feb. 1587, and, returning to the 
Netherlands, was appointed governor of 
Gertruydenberg, His position, owing to 
the jealousies existing between the English 
auxiliaries and the States, and the mutinous 
condition of the garrison for want of pay, 
was neither an easy nor an agreeable one. 
Nevertheless, with the assistance furnished 
him by his brother-in-law, Peregrine Bertie, 
lord Willoughby de Eresby [q.v,], he managed 
to hold out successfully during 1588, and even 
to assist materially in forcing Parma to raise 
the siege of Bergen in November. But a 
rumour early in the following year that he 
intended to hand over the place to the 
Spaniards brought Maurice of Nassau before 
the town with a demand for its surrender. 
Wingfield indignantly denied the intended 
treason imputed to him, offering to prove its 
falsehood with his sword against any man 
and in any place whatever. Nevertheless, 
either because he had not the will or the 
power to prevent it, Gertruydenberg was 
on 10 April 1589 delivered up to the 
Spaniards (MOTLEY, United Netherlands, ii. 
389, 517, iii. 97; MAKKHAM, Fighting 
pp. 138-40). 


1 86 


Returning- to England with his wife and 
newly born child, Wingfield served as master 
of the ordnance under Sir John Norris 
(1547P-1597) [q. v.] in Brittany against 
the forces of the league in 1591, and the 
following year he is mentioned as being in 
charge of the storehouse at Dieppe (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1591-4, pp. 57, 218). 
He was one of the committee appointed in 
1593 for conference touching the relief of 
poor maimed soldiers and mariners (Hatfield 
MSS. iv, 295) ; and in June 1596 he sailed 
on board the Vanguard, as camp-master with 
the rank of colonel, in the expedition under 
the Earl of Essex against Cadiz. After the 
attack on the Spanish fleet, in which he 
bore his share (MAEKHAM, Fighting Veres, 
p. 227), he was one of the first to enter the 
town; but despising the warning of Sir 
Francis Vere not to expose himself reck- 
lessly without his armour, he was struck 
down by a shot in the market-place just 
when all resistance ceased (Cal. State 
Papers, Bom. 1595-7, pp. 191, 249, 272; 
MOTLEY^ United Netherlands, iil 364). He 
was buried with military honours in the 
principal church in Cadiz (CAMBBK, Annals, 
1615, ii. 119), and the following year the 

Sueen granted his widow an annuity of 
00 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1595-7, p. 
454). Wingfield married, about 1582, 
Susan, sister of Peregrine Bertie, lord Wil- 
loughby de Eresby, and widow of Reginald 
Grey, fourth earl of Kent, by whom he had 
one son, Peregrine, born in Holland. 

[Authorities quoted ; Powerscourt's Wingfield 
Muniments, p. 3i>.] R. D. 

(1842-1891), traveller, actor, writer, and 
painter, third and youngest son of Richard 
Wingfield, sixth viscount Powerscourt, by his 
wife, Lady Elizabeth Frances Charlotte, 
eldest daughter of Robert Jocelyn, second 
earl of Roden, was born on 25 Feb. 1842, 
and educated at Eton and Bonn. *He was 
intended for the army, which he relinquished 
only at the request of his mother, sub- 
sequently Marchioness of Londonderry, who 
knew the delicacy of his constitution and 
feared the risks of the profession. Of a re- 
markably adventurous disposition and vola- 
tile nature, he engaged in a strange and 
varied ^accession of pursuits, few of which 
were prosecuted long. On 21 Aug. 1865 he 
TOS at the Haymarket Theatre Roderigo to 
$* Othello of Ira Aldridge, the lago of 
Wdto Mcmtgomery, and the Desdemona of 
HadgeBobert)a(Hrs.Kendal). Hehadpre-j 
Tjously played m burlesque. Besides making ! 
many whimsical experiments, such .as going ! 

to the Derby as a negro minstrel, spending 
nights in workhouses and pauper lodgings, 
becoming attendant in a madhouse and in a 
prison, he travelled in various parts of the 
east, and was one of the first Englishmen to 
journey in the interior of China. His first 
published work was ' Under the Palms in 
Algeria and Tunis/ 1868, 2 vols. During 
the Franco-German war he went to Paris, 
where he stayed through the siege, attend* 
ing the wounded and qualifying as a surgeon. 
During the siege he communicated by balloon 
and otherwise with the * Times/ the * Daily 
Telegraph,' and other newspapers. After re- 
turning to London he went back to Paris 
immediately on hearing of the trouble with 
the commune, and remained there until its 
suppression by the Versailles troops. Having 
taken a house, No. 8 Maida Vale, with a 
large ^studio attached, he devoted himself to 
painting-, and became a member of the Royal 
Hibernian Academy. Between 1869 and 
1875 he exhibited four domestic scenes at 
the Royal Academy, and one at the Suffolk 
Street Gallery. He arranged during his stay 
in Paris for a panorama of the siege to be 
exhibited in London, and forwarded to Eng- 
land designs executed by various French 
artists. The failure of an American financier 
brought the scheme to nothing. 

to designing costumes for the theatres, and 
was responsible for the dressing of many 
Shakespearean revivals, including 'Romeo 
and Juliet' at the Lyceum for Miss Mary 
Anderson, and < Antony and Cleopatra ' at 
the Princess's for Mrs, Langtry. For a time 
Wingfield contributed theatrical criticisms 
to the ' Globe' newspaper, under the title 
' Whyte Tyghe.' For Madame Modjeska he 
adapted Schiller's 'Mary Stuart, 1 produced at 
the Court on 9 Oct. 1880. He also wrote 
some unacted dramas. He tempted fortune 
in many other forms of literature. * Slippery 
Ground/ a novel in 3 vols., appeared in 1876 ; 
'Lady Grizzle: an Impression of a mo- 
mentous Epoch/ 1878, 3 vols. ; ' My Lords of 
Strogue: a Chronicle of Ireland from the 
Convention to the Union/ 1879, 3 vols. ; 'For 
Good or Evil' appeared in Eros; Four Tales/ 
vol. i. 1880; 'In Her Majesty's Keeping/ 
J88> 3vols - ' 'Gehenna, or Havens of Unrest/ 
1882, 3 vols.; 'Abigail Rowe: a Chronicle 
of the Regency/ 1883, 3 vols.; 'Notes on 

i.vr.i fl>...i..._ _ TS i i i x\A ; . * 

^ > " 1 -.**^ -vw.iow v* .ULUDJJUU. tt J.VU 

mance/ 1888, 8vo ; "^aAderings of a* Globe^ 
trotter m the Far East/ 1889, 8vo ; and 'The'" 
Maid of Honour j a Tale of the Bark Days of 




France/ 1891, 3 vols. Some of the foregoing 
works reached second editions. Wingfield 
is also responsible for ' Her English Dress/ 
lectures issued by the International Health 
Exhibition, 1884. In the copse of his travels 
he brought home many curios, the most im- 
portant being a life-size figure of a mounted 
Japanese soldier in armour, said to be unique 
in Europe. Wingfield delighted in military 
service, and whenever war seemed imminent 
applied to be attached as war correspondent 
to the staff, a privilege more than once granted 
him. After .-joining the English army in the 
Soudan in 1884, he was long in hospital in 
Egypt. From this illness he never quite re- 
covered. He took, for his health, a voyage 
to Australia, from which he returned, as it 
seemed, fortified. He died, however, at 
14 Montague Place, London (whither he 
had moved from Mecklenburgh Square), on 
12 Nov. 1891, and was buried in Kensal 
Green cemetery. He married, on 16 June 
1868, Cecilia Emma, fourth daughter and fifth 
child of John Wilson Fitzpatrick, first baron 

In everything but his friendships Wing- 
field was capricious and unstable, turning 
from one pursuit to another, and wearying 
of everything, except writing, so soon as he 
had mastered its difficulties. His work 
under the conditions is creditable, and though 
it was never held to show his best, probably 
did so. His life was a sustained romance. 
In appearance he was slim and delicate-look- 
ing, and possessed a clear complexion and a 
thin and feminine but musical voice. 

[Personal knowledge and communicated in- 
formation ; Times, 14 Nov. 1891 ; Athenaeum, 
21 Nov. 1891 ; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1895; 
Scott and Howard's Blanchard.] J. K. 

1525), soldier and diplomatist, born about 
1469,isvariouslygiven as the tenth, eleventh, 
twelfth, and thirteenth son of Sir John Wing- 
field of Letheringham, Suffolk, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir John FitzLewis of West 
Horndon, Essex [see WINGKBLD, SIB HUM- 
PHREY]. Sir Robert Wingfield [q.v.] was his 
elder brother. Cooper states that he was edu- 
cated at the university of Cambridge, though 
at what college does not appear. A passa 
in a letter of 10 July 1516 suggests that 
afterwards proceeded to the university of 
Ferrara. Alter the university he probably 
studied law at Gray's Inn, in the windows of 
which hall his arms were in Dugdale's time 
twice blazoned (Orig. Jyrid. pp. 300, 8Q7). 
According to Polydore Vergil he was one oi 
the commanders against the Cornish rebels 
in 1497* He" was an esquire of the body 

at the meeting of Henry VII with the Arch- 
duke Philip in 1500. On 10 March 1505 he 
arrived at Rome on a pilgrimage, accom- 
panied by an illegitimate brother, Richard 
Urry (Collect. Top. y. 66). Before 14 Nov. 
1511 he was a knight, beingj on that date 
appointed marshal of Calais, i.e. apparently 
of the castle there. His first appointment 
as a diplomatist was on 20 Dec, 1512 as junior 
commissioner, with Sir Edward Poynings, 
John Yonge, master of the rolls, and Sir 
Thomas Boleyn, to arrange a holy league 
between the pope, England, Arragon and 
Castille, Maximilian, Prince Charles, and 
Margaret of Savoy. Wingfield with Poynings 
was despatched to the Netherlands [see 
PoYNniras, SIB EDWARD]. From February 
to April 1513 he resided at Malines, keeping 
Wolsey informed from time to time of the 
state of the military preparations. The treaty 
providing for a joint invasion of France was 
signed by the four commissioners at Malines 
on 5 April 1513. 

Wingfield then returned to his post at 
Calais, and was appointed knight-marshal 
there. On 16 May he was at Brussels, to 
which place he was probably despatched to 
further the suit of Charles Brandon, duke of 
Suffolk [q. v.], for the hand of Margaret of 
Savoy (c Cotton. MS. Titus, B. 1 ; Chron. 
of Calais, pp. 68-76). From Brussels he 
hastened back to report his mission to Henry. 

He was again at Brussels on 4 June, when 
he left for Antwerp to arrange for the passage 
of German mercenaries to Calais. _ These , 
arrived on 18 June, probably under his com- 
mand (Chron. of Calais, p. 12 J. His services 
were recognised by his promotion to be joint- 
deputv, or, as it had formerly been styled, 
captain of Calais, with Sir Gilbert Talbot on 
6 Aug. 1513 (ib. p. xxxviii ; cf. art, WBSTG- 
HELD, SIB ROBBBT). The pay of the deputy- 
ship was 204:1. per annum, and the deputy 
exercised general military jurisdiction except 
over the castle. On 19 Feb. 1514 he was one 
of the commissioners appointed ^ to levy men 
for the king's army in the dominions of the 
emperor and the Prince of Castille.* But he 
was soon entrusted with a more delicate mis- 
sion, being sent in June to Margaret of Savoy 
with the ostensible object of concluding 
arrangements for the marriage of the king's 
sister Mary with Prince Charles (afterwards 
Charles V). Overtures for the hand of the 
English princess had, however, already been 
made by Louis STL By 27 June the rumour 
had reached the Netherlands. On 11 Sept. 
Henry sent his excuses, but Margaret's vexa- 
tion made Wingfield's situation intolerable, 
and he sent urgent requests for recall. His 
desire was not granted until on 14 Jan. 1515. 




he was accredited with the Duke of Suffolk 
and Nicholas West [q.v.] on a special em- 
bassy to France to congratulate Francis I on 
his accession. It was on this occasion that 
Suffolk married the French queen (widow 
of Louis XII), but that step was known to 
neither of his brother envoys, 

Wingfield accompanied Mary of France 
from Calais to England on 2 May (Letters 
and Papers, iii. 4406 ; Chroru of Calais, p. 
17), perhaps to press his claim to exemption 
from the act just passed resuming royal 
grants. The claim was not allowed, but he 
remained at Calais, apparently discharging 
his former duties, and appears to have been 
the 'master deputy ' instructed to report on 
the French naval preparations ill August 
1515. About the same time he was instructed 
by Henry, in a despatch addressed to him as 
* deputy of Calais/ toproceed on a fresh mis- 
sion to Francis L He was directed among 
other matters to advance the project of an 
interview between the two sovereigns, and 
to pave the way for overtures for the surren- 
der of Tournay. He was back at Calais in 
September. He was by no means a subservient 
official, for he more than once refused to'exe- 
cute orders he judged prejudicial to Calais 
until after reconsideration by the king. 

In June 1516 Wingfield, with Cuthbert 
Tunstall [q. v.], was again accredited to the 
court of Brussels. Charles had on 23 Jan. 
succeeded to the crown of Castille, and Henry 
was anxious to secure his friendship. Wing- 
field was commissioned to invite him to visit 
England on his way from the Netherlands 
to Spain, and to offer him a loan of 20,000 
marks (13,333 6*. Sd.) towards his expenses. 
The offer was declined, and on 1 Sept. Wing- 
field returned to Calais, resuming his functions 
as deputy and as continental intelligencer to 
Wolsey. On 26 Aug. he was appointed com- 
missioner to sit at Calais on 1 Sept. 1517 and 
adjudicate the disputes between English and 
French merchants. On 5 May and again pn 
5 Nov. 1518 Wingfield was nominated, to- 
gether with the treasurer and secretary of 
Calais, to receive payment of instalments of 
50,000 francs each due to Henry under the 
convention with Louis TTT on his marriage 
with the Princess Mary, On 4 March 1519 
"Wiagfieldreceived a grant in tail male of the 

tyngham, Clopton Halle, and Ilkettyshall, 
Soffolfc,upon the death of Elizabeth, countess 
of Oxford. Before 15 May he resigned his 
post as deputy of Calais, receiving a grant of 
2Q<& a year for He, On the 25th he left 
Calaas 'most honourably spoken of by all 
there, amid the 'weeping eyes' of the in- 
He proceeded to Montreuil, pro- 

bably to confer with the French commis- 
sioners as to the meeting of the two kings. 
On his return to England he was one of the 
four ' sad and ancient knights * placed by the 
council in the kin^s privy chamber with the 
duty of checking his extravagance (HAXL, p. 
598). He was also appointed, with Sir 
Edward Belknap and Sir John Cutte, an in- 
spector of ordnance. 

Wingfield's high favour with the king, 
who designated him one of his * trusty and 
near familiars/ led to his appointment early 
in 1520 as successor to Sir Thomas Boleyn, 
the English ambassador at the court of 
France. His salary was fixed at II. a day. He 
left England on 4 Feb. His despatch to 
Wolsey, giving an account of his reception by 
Francis fat Cognac, is dated 8 March. The 
arrangements for the projected interview be- 
tween Henry and Francis were incorporated 
in a treaty which Wingfield negotiated by 
means of constant personal interviews with 
Francis. At the Field of the Cloth of Gold 
(7 June) Wingfield rode as a knight of the 
king's chamber. ' When Francis grew sus- 
picious of the purport of the subsequent in- 
terview between Henry and the emperor at 
Gravelines (5 July), Wingfield employed all 
his diplomacy to keep him in good humour, 
protesting on his knees by his bedside for an 
hour at a time the devotion of Henry and 
Wolsey to his person and his interest. Francis, 
who had vainly hoped to be admitted to par- 
ticipate in the meeting, rivalled Wingfield 
in the extravagance of his assurances. In 
August Wingfield received permission to re- 
turn home on private affairs, but before doing 
so was instructed, together with Jernin^ham, 
his successor, to communicate to Francis 
Henry's version of the overtures made by 
Chievres at Gravelines to detach him from 
the French alliance. He was now employed, 
as before, in the inspection of military stores. 
On 10 Jan. 1521 he and Sir Weston Browne 
reported on the armament of the king's great 
ship, the Henry Grace & Dieu. 

In the spring of 1521 Wingfield was se- 
lected to act as Henry VIIFs reprpsentative 
in mediating between Francis and Charles V. 
His instructions were to urge ou Oharlej the 
impolicy of war and the advantages of Eng- 
land's mediation. Wingfield arrived at 
Worms at the close of May, and obtained 
the emperor's consent to Henry's mediation. 
But on 1 June he wrote from Mayence that 
Charles had just heard of the invasion of 
Navarre by the French, and demanded ' such 
aid as was secured by the treaties between ' 
Henry and himself. At the -end of a fort* 
night Charles's passion on account of the 
French invasion had had time to cool, aud on 




15 June Wingfield wrote from Brussels that 
Charles would accept mediation provided re- 
stitution were made. On 22 June the emperor 
requestedWingfield to return to England and 
present to Henry a memorial of his case against 
Francis. It is apparent from the emperor's 
language thatWingfieldhad ingratiated him- 
self with him as successfully as he had done 
with Francis I and Louise of France. He 
left Brussels on 22 June. But a few days 
. after his return to England two envoys from 
the emperor arrived with the intelligence that 
Charles had reverted to his first mind and 
claimed Henry's aid in active hostilities 
against the French. Wolsey remarked that 
< Wingfield's despatch disagreed with their 
charge/ and resolved to send Wingfield back 
again to persuade Charles to a more pacific 
temper. Wingfield arrived at Antwerp on 
10 July 1521, accompanied by the emperor's 
two envoys, and found Charles still bent on 
an invasion of France, and still insisting on 
the active aid of England. By 22 July Wing- 
secret intention was to cajole Francis, and 
prepare to act with the emperor. Towards 
the end of October Wolsey sent Sir Thomas 
Boleyn and Sir Thomas Docwra to Charles to 
solicit him to enter into a truce with France ; 
they were instructed to takeWingjfield's ad- 
vice on the method of executing their mission. 
The three ambassadors followed the emperor 
to Courtrai on 24 Oct. In the same month 
Knight was appointed to succeed Wingfield, 
but the latter still remained at Oudenarde 
with his two colleagues, wrestling with the 
emperor's obstinate refusals of truce, and 
writing almost daily despatches to Wolsey, 
who was determined not to let him go until 
some conclusion was brought to the negotia- 
tions. About 16 Dec.WingTield and .Spinelly, 
who acted as his colleague after the departure 
of Boleyn and Docwra on 17 Nov., accom- 
panied the emperor to Ghent. At last, on 
8 Jan. 1522, the emperor himself requested 
Wingfield to leave at once for England upon 
a diplomatic mission. Wingfield replied, as 
he had done on the similar occasion in the 
previous June, that for him to leave his post 
without Henry's permission would be a breach 
of rule ; but, as before, he consented, Charles 
explaining to Henry the circumstances of the 
case. Charles further requested Wolsey to 
bestow the Garter upon Wingfield, and 
announced his intention of pensioning him. 
Wingfield's promotion to the .Garter took 
place in the following year (ANSTIS, iu232). 
He returned taAntwerp on 4 May 1522, with 
instructions to persuade the emperor to accept 
Wolsey's offer of mediation. He was also to 
arrange for the emperor's visit to England on 

his way to Spain. Wingfield probably accom- 
panied Charles, who reached JDoveron 26 May 
1522. His services were now employed by 
Henry upon a commission under the Earl of 
Surrey, lord high admiral, for recruiting the 
royal navy by impressing ships of the mer- 
chant service and certain Venetian vessels to 
act as convoy for the emperor's voyage to 
Spain. He also accompanied the fleet which 
burnt Morlaix and the English army on its 
incursion into France. At the end of 1523 
Wingfield probably returned to England 
with Suffolk and the principal military com- 

Wingfield utilised the opportunity of his 
return to claim and receive rewards for his 
services. On 20 Nov. 1522 he was granted 
the castle and manor of Kimbolton, and on 
1 Sept. 1523 the neighbouring manor of 
Swyneshede, lands in Swyneshede and Tyl- 
brook, Huntingdonshire, the manor of Harde^ 
wyke, and lands in Hardewyke, Overdene, and 
Netherdene, Bedfordshire, also forming part 
of the late Duke of Buckingham's forfeited 
estates. At Kimbplton he built 'new fair 
lodgings and galleries ' (LBLAND, Itin. v. 2). 
On 14 April 1524 he was made chancellor of 
the duchy of Lancaster. In the course of the 
years 1523-4 he was nominated upon the 
commission of the peace for no fewer than 
twenty-five southern and midland counties. 
Wingneld had, according to his friend Hugh 
Latimer, * a regard for literary men.' On the 
death (25 May 1524) of Sir Thomas Lovell 
[q. v.],high steward of the university of Cam- 
bridge, Wingfield solicited Henry's influence 
to procure him the post. The university had 
promised it to Sir Thomas More, but at the 
king's instance More withdrew his candida- 
ture and Wingfield was appointed. ' Who/ 
wrote Latimer to Dr. Grene, master of St. 
Catharine's, ' has more influence with the 
king than Wingfield?' 

On 24 Feb. 1525 Francis I was defeated 
and captured at the battle of Pavia. At 
the end of March Wingfield and Tunstall 
were despatched by Henry to Spain [SP& 
under TUNSTALL, CTTEHBEET]. During this 
embassy Wingfield died at Toledo on 22 July 
1525 (Jnq. post mortem), and was buried by 
his own request at the church of the friars 
observants, San Juan de los Reyes. 

Wingfield married, as her third husband, 
BLatherme, daughter of Richard Woodvile, 
earl Rivers [q. v.l widow of Henry Stafford, 
duke of Buckingham [q. v.l, and afterwards 
of Jasper Tudor, duke of Bedford [q. jv.] 
This double connection with the king 
accounts for the confidence reposed in him: 
The marriage also supported his claims to 
share in the forfeited Buckingham estates..- 




The duchess died some time before 1513. 
Win<nfield's second -wife was Bridget, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Sir John Wiltshire, comp- 
troller of Calais. He had no children by the 
duchess; by his second wife he left four 
sons and four daughters. The ' In<juisitiones 
post mortem J found that at the 1 time of bir 
Richard's death his eldest son pharles was 
twelve years old ; he obtained livery of his 
lands on 14 July 1535. Sir Kichard's will 
is preserved in the prerogative court of Can- 
terbury, and is dated 5 April 1525. His coat 
of arms is engraved in Anstis (iL 235). At 
the time of his death he must have been at 
least fifty-six years of age (see HALL, Chron. 
p. 699). His widow married Sir Nicholas 
Hervey (COLLETS, ed,Brydges, iv. 145). 

[State Papers (11 vols. 1830-52), vols. i. vi.; 
Brewer's CaL of Letters and Papers, Foreign 
and Domestic, Henry VIII, vols, i-iv. ; Gaird- 
ner's Letters and Papers of Bichard III and 
Hexrry VII, 1863, 2 vols. (Bolls Ser.) ; Anstis's 
Register of the Garter, 1721, ii. 230-5 ; Hall's 
Chron. 18J9; Visitation of Huntingdonshire 
(Camd. Soe.), 1849; Metealfe's Visitations of 
Suffolk, 1882 ; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, ed. 
Archdall, 1789 vol. v.; Rutland Papers (CamcL 
Soc.), 1842 ; Chron. of Calais (Camd. Soc.), 1846 ; 
f&lydore Vergil, Basle, 1570; EUis's Original 
Letters, 1825; Fiddes's Life of Cardinal Wolsey, 
1726 ; Morant's Hist, of Essex, 1768 ; Cooper's 
Athense Cantabrigienses ; Hasted's Kent, vol. i. ; 
Dugdale*s Origin es Juridieiales, 1680; Powers- 
court^ Wingfield Muniments.] L 8. L. 


VISCOTJNT POWEBSCOTJRT (d. 1634), was the 
elder son of Sir Richard Wingfield, governor 
of Portsmouth in the reign of Elizabeth (who, 
in turn, was the son of Lodovic, ninth son 
of Sir John 'Wingfield of Letheringham in 
Suffolk), and Christian, only daughter* of Sir 
"William Fitzwilliam of Hilton, and sister 
of Sir William Fitzwilliam, lord-deputy of 
Ireland (Visitation of Huntingdon, Camden 
Soc. p ; 129). 

Trained up from his youth to the profes- 
sion of a soldier, Winfffield first saw active 
service under his uncle, Sir William Fitz- 
william, in Ireland. For some years (1580- 
1686?) he held the post of deputy to the 
Tke-treasTorer of Ireland, Sir Henry Wallop 
Oa 9 May 1584 he was specially appointee 
*ta make enquiry during six years . . . of al 
bishops and other spiritual persons who hav< 
(^obtained any benefice without paying th< 
first-fruits since the second year of the queen 
and to compound 01 proceed against them o 
tfeeir exeea&aa . . . retaining half the profit 
for hhaself * (CaL Float*, Elk No, 4378 : cf 
Cd.S^$a^Jxeimz:iiiMQ,mi H 
offered himself unsuccessfully as an under 


in 1586, and, quitting Ireland apparently in 
bis year, served for some time under Sir John 
\orris (1547 P-1597) [q. v.] in the Nether- 
ands. In 1589 he took part in the expedi- 
ion to Portugal, and, in 1591 accompanied 
Morris into Brittany to assist Henry IV 
gainst the forces of the league, returning 
n December with despatches to England 
cf. A Journal of the Service in France against 
he Leaguers, 1591, pp. 126, 131; Behoir 
WSS. i. 291). Coming again to Ireland in 
.595, he was wounded in the elbow during 
a skirmish with Tyrone's forces between 
Armagh and Newry on 4 Sept., in conse- 
uence of which he was invalided and al- 
owed to retire to England (CaL State 
Capers, Irel. Eliz. v. 882, 428), being before 
lis departure knighted by the lord-deputy, 
Sir William Russell, in Christ Church, on 
9 Nov. (CaL Carew MSS. iii. 238). Re- 
covering shortly from his wound, he took 
>art, with the rank of colonel, in the ex- 
edition against Cadiz, under the Earl of - 
Sssex, in June 1596 (CaL State Papers, Dom. 
1595-7, pp. 221, 275). 

Wingfield returned to Ireland apparently 
m 1600 with Lord-deputy Mount] oy. On 
29 March in that year he was appointed mar- 
shal of the army in succession to Sir Richard 
Bingham, and at the same time admitted a 
member of the privy council (MoRRiN, CaL 
Patent Rolls, ii. 570). He took part that 
year in the campaign in Ulster (CaL Carew 
MS8. iii. 465), and was present the year 
following at the siege of Kinsale. He was 
confirmed in his office of marshal by James I) 
and having in July 1608 been instrumental 
in suppressing the rising of Sir Cahir O'Do- 
gherty [q.v.] by killing that chieftain, he 
was rewarded on 29 June 1609 by a grant 
of the district of Fercullen in co. Wicklow> 
erected into the manor of Powerscourt on 
25 May 1611. As a servitor in the planta- 
tion of Ulster he obtained two thousand > 
acres of land in the precinct of Dungannon, 
co. Tyrone, called the manor of Benburb; 
and from Pynnar's ' Survey ' (HARBis, JET*- 
bernica, i. 211), it appears that he did his 
duty in planting and building. He repre- 
sented Dpwnpatrick in the parliament of 
1613, taking a prominent part in the con- ' 
tested election of Sir John Davies (1569- 
1626) [q. v.] as speaker; and in this same 
year he obtained a grant of lands in the 1 
plantation of Wexford, in the neighbour- 
hood of Arklow, afterwards erected into the 
manor of Wingfield. In March the follow- 
ing year he was associated with Thomas 
Jones, archbishop of Dublin, in the govern- 
ment of Ireland during the temporary a'b- 




"sence of Lord Chichester (CaL State Papers, \ 
IreL Jas. I, iv. 470), and on 1 Feb. 1619 
(patent 19 Feb.) he was created^ viscount 
Fowerscourt, In reference to this dignity 
Chamberlain wrote to Carleton on 6 Feb, : | 
'Sir Richard Wingfield, though eighty-eight 
years old and childless, has given Lord Had- 
dington 2,000/. for an Irish viscouhtcy ' (CaL \ 
State Papers, Dom. 1619-23, p. 11). Pro- ' 
bably eight-eight is a mistake for sixty- ! 
eight, otherwise Wingfield must have lived ! 
to the age of a hundred and three. On 
80 Sept. 1619 he was appointed a commis- 
sioner for the plantation of Longford and 
Ely O'Carroll, and was again lord justice on 
the retirement of Lord Grandison in May 
1622 (CaL State Papers, IreL Jas. I, v, 850). 

Wingfleld died on 9 Sept. 1634, and hav- 
ing no issue by his wife Elizabeth, widow 
of Edward, lord Cromwell of Oakham in 
Rutland, was succeeded in the estate (the 
title becoming extinct) by his cousin, Sir 
Edward Wingfield, son of Richard, and 
grandson of George, third son of Lodovic. 

Portraits of Wingfield and his wife, by 
Cornelius Janssen(r), are preserved at 
Powerscourt. That of Wingfield represents 
him wearing a scarf, in connection with 
which there is a family tradition how on re- 
turning to England in 1595, and being asked 
by Queen Elizabeth what he expected as his 
reward, he replied, 'The scarf which your 
majesty wears round your neck will be suf- 
ficient reward for me/ 

[Lodge's Peerage, ed. Archdall, v. 268-72; 
PowersconrtVWingfi eld Muniments, pp. 38-9 (not 
always accurate), and authorities quoted. There 
are a number of Wingfield's letters in the Cecil 
Correspondence preserved at Hatfield House, and 
otiier references are Webb's Compendium of Irish 
Biography; Meehan's Fate and Fortunes of the 
Earls of Tyrone and Tyreonnel ; Hist. MS3. 
Comm. 7th Rep, p. 655, 8th Rep, p. 397.] 

R. D. 

1539), diplomatist, born about 1464, was the 
seventh son of Sir John Wingfield of Lether- 
ingham, Suffolk. His brothers Sir Humphrey 
and Sir Richard (1469P-1525) are separately 
noticed. He was brought up by Anne, 
lady Scrope, his stepmother (BLOMBBTELD, 
Norfolk, i. 821). He first rose to favour 
under Henry VII, to whose aid he came, 
together with his brother Richard, against 
the Cornish rebels in 1497 (GRAJTOBT, Vhron. 
p. 575; POI.Y.DOKE VERGIL, p. 760). On 
9 March 1505 he arrived at Rome on a pil- 
grimage (Collect. Top. v. 66). He was em- 
ployed by Henry VII on a mission to the 
Emperor Maximilian before 1508, in January 
of which year he is mentioned as returning 

to England (BEBH^ai) ANDR. p. 108), On 
2 July 1509 he is mentioned as a knight, the 
occasion being a grant to him by Henry VIII 
of a rent of 20/. irom the castle and town of 
Orford and the manor of Orford, and of the 
patronage of the Augustinian friars there, all 
being part of the forfeitures of Edmund de la 
Pole, earl of Suffolk [q. v.] Further grants 
followed, and on 10 Feb. 1511 he is styled 
' councillor and knight of the body.' 

In the same month Wingfield was des- 
patched again on a mission to Maximilian, 
and in August following he and Silvester de 
Giglis [q. v.], bishop of Worcester, were 
nominated ambassadors to a council con- 
voked by^ Julius II at the Lateran, The 
ultimate intention of the pope was to form 
a 'holy league' against France, to which 
Henry signified his adhesion on 17 Nov. 
The council was not actually opened till 
May 1512 (CKEIGHTOW, iv. 150). Wingfield 
remained with the emperor at Brussels and 
elsewhere, and does not appear to have at- 
tended its sittings. On SO Sept. Maximilian, 
hearing that Julius II was ill, appointed 
Wingfield and the bishop of Gurk his envoys 
to support the candidature of his nominee at 
Rome ; but, exasperated at being left withcm& 
means, Wingfield unceremoniously disai$- 
peared from the court of Brussels, ostensibly 
on a pilgrimage, but in reality to join his 
brother Sir Ricnard at Calais. Meanwhile he 
had been ordered to repair to the emperor, 
then in Germany, and on 9 March 1513 he 
was at the imperial court at Worms. On 
18 April 1 513 he was again at Brussels, 
whence he was on that day despatched 
back to the emperor at Augsburg to secure 
his adhesion to Henry VElTs scheme of a 
general confederacy against France. As 
a reward for his services he tad already 
(14 July), received a joint grant in survivor- 
ship with his brother Sir Richard of the office 
of marshal of the town and marches of Calais. 
During the early autumn of 1518 he paid a 
brief visit to England, but in May 1514 he 
was at Vienna, whence he despatched re- 
peated but generally vain appeals for money 
and for his recall. The success of the 
French arms in Italy in 1515 had, however, 
aroused the jealous resentment of Henry ^ 
who became yet more eager to unite Maxi- 
milian in a confederacy against France. 
Maximilian on his part was ready to sell 
himself to the highest bidder, while Wing* 
field, with whom hatred of the French was a * 
master passion, was always persuaded that 
the emperor was devoted to the English in- 
terest. Wolsey, perceiving that the ambas- 
sador was duped by Maximilian, sent Ri- 
chard Pace [q. v.] to act as a check upon 




Wingfield's credulous indiscretion. An 
acrimonious correspondence ensued between 
Wolsey and Wingfield. Pace, too, ridiculed 
Wingfield's credulity, a circumstance which 
Wingfield discovered by opening Pace's cor- 
respondence during the letter's illness. He 

ceipt for money sent to Pace, by "which 
device he obtained sole control of its distri- 
bution. He was perhaps reckoning for con- 
donation of this audacious act on a splendid 
offer which the emperor commissioned him 
to lay before Henry. This was the crea- 
tion of Henry as Duke of Milan and the 
resignation of the empire in his favour. 
Maximilian's real intention was to obtain 
supplies from Henry and to plunder ^ the 
duchy of Milan in his name. Pace's insight 
prevented Henry falling into the trap. 
Henry in reply refused to provide any more 
money, and expressed his displeasure with 
Wingfield for having advanced sixty thou- 
sand florins to the emperor on his own re- 
sponsibility. In the summer of 1516 Henry 
himself wrote to Wingfield an extraordinary 
letter of censure upon his credulous confi- 
dence in the emperor and his 'envy and 
malice' towards Pace, whom he had accused 
of betraying the secret of Maximilian's offer. 
A treaty was, however, drawn up between 
Henry and the emperor, dated 29 Oct. 1516, 
providing, inter alia, for the advance of forty 
thousand crowns by Henry, in return for the 
offer of the imperial crown, to be formally 
made by Wingfield and the cardinal of Sion. 
Wingfield received the emperor's oath on 
8 Dec. 1516 with much self-gratulation on 
his success. Yet the ink was scarcely dry- 
when Wingfield heard rumours that Maxi- 
milian had secretly subscribed to the ob- 
noxious treaty of Noyon. 

Wolsey, however, continued to employ 
Wingfield, and despatched him, together 
with Tunstall and the Earl of Worcester, to 
Brussels to negotiate with Charles (after- 
wards Charles Y) a policy favourable to 
English interests. The mission succeeded 
in obtaining firom Charles on 11 May 1517 a 
ratification of Henry's treaty with the em- 
peror of the previous October. Wingfield 
left Brussels on 16 March to return to the 
imperial court, then in the Netherlands. 
On 5 June, having received instructions from 
Henry to follow Maximilian back to Ger- 
many, Wingfield wrote to the king a point- 
blank refusal He was unpaid, his servants 
refused to remain with Him, and he was 
under vows to make pilgrimages in England, 
On 18 Aug. he was at Wenham Hall, Suffolk. 
Exasperation and gout had made him reck- 
less. * Infamy/ he wrote to Wolsey^ ' would 

hang over' the king and cardinal if a 
merchant who had advanced money on his 
guarantee as ambassador were not satisfied. 
The arrears of Wingfield's salary, amounting 
io 224Z. for seven weeks, were paid in the 
following December. 

During the next two and a half years 
Wingfield appears to have remained in re- 
tirement in England. The first sign of the 
king's returning favour is a grant, in which 
tie is recited to be ' a king's councillor,' of 
an annuity of a hundred marks out of the 
tonnage and poundage in the port of Lon- 
don, on 14 Aug. 1519. In November 1520 
be vacated his post of joint-deputy of Calais 
^Chron. of Calais, p. xxxviii), and apparently 
in December 1521 was appointed ambassador 
at Charles V's court. He was now not 
only a king's councillor but ' of the privy 
council ' and vice-chamberlain. He arrived 
at Brussels on 8 Feb. 1521-2. He ap- 
parently accompanied Charles to England 
in July. But on 14 Aug. he again crossed 
the Channel as an ambassador, on this oc- 
casion to the court of Margaret of Savoy at 
Brussels. His instructions were to induce 
Margaret to lend active assistance to the pro- 
jected operations of Charles and Henry 
against France. He returned to England 
in May 1523, but in August was appointed 
to a command in the Duke of Suffolk's army 
for the invasion of France. He seems to 
have taken no part in the campaign, re- 
maining apparently in Calais, of the castle 
of which he was appointed lieutenant by 
the influence of Wolsey. 

After the battle of Pavia (23 Feb. 1525) 
preparations were made by Henry for an 
invasion of France. Wingfield was nomi- 
nated (11 April) upon the council of war 
under the Duke of Norfolk, and was at the 
same time despatched, together with Sir 
William Fitzwilliam, to the court of Brussels 
to concert measures with the regent of the 
Netherlands. A series of evasive negotiations 
followed, and when Henry's projects of a 
joint invasion of France had given place to 
an alliance with that power (30 Aug.), it 
fell to Winfffield to extenuate the change of 
policy by dilating on the necessity of in- 
ternational peace for the extirpation of 
Lutheranism, the spread of which gave him 
great concern. In May 1526 he returned to 
Calais, of which place he was appointed 
deputy on 1 Oct. 1526. He appears to have 
remodelled the municipality by introducing 
into it, t as the representatives of the crown, 
the military officers who supervised its cle-^ 
fences ; this oligarchical change was made 
on instructions from ho me, and subsequently 
led to much dissatisfaction, into whick 




"Wingfield was in 1533 one of the commis- 
sioners appointed to inquire. In the autumn 
and winter of 1530-1 he largely added to the 
defences. Has successor, Lord Berners, was 
appointed deputy of Calais on 27 March 
lool upon the terms that he should nay 
"Wingfield a hundred marks yearly during 
his tenure of office. He continued to reside 
in Calais, of which he became mayor in 
1534 He had a valuable property in the 
outskirts of the town, four thousand acres 
in extent, which he had rented of the crown 
since 1530 for 20/. per annum. It had been 
a marsh, which Wingfield drained, thereby 
impairing the defences of the town. Upon 
the adverse report of a commission on the 
matter, the houses "Wingfield had built were 
destroyed and the sea let in. Wingfield's 
grievance against Lord Lisle, who had suc- 
ceeded Berners as deputy, culminated in a 
quarrel in December 1535 as to the rela- 
tive rights of the mayor and deputy. The 
king supported Lisle, and Wingfield was 
threatened with expulsion from the council 
This was followed in July 1536 by the intro- 
duction of a bill into parliament for the re- 
vocation of Wingfield's grant. The bill passed 
the commons, but with difficulty, and was 
withdrawn, Wingfield being persuaded to 
surrender his patent to the king on 25 July. 
In return for this, and as a very inadequate 
compensation for his losses, Wingfield re- 
ceived a grant on 1 Feb. 1537 of lands in the 
neighbourhood of Guisnes of the yearly rental 
value of 56 Wingfield, however, now 
brought an action at Guisnes against the 
minor officials concerned in the destruction 
of his property. Lisle stayed the proceed- 
ings, and wingfield retaliated by procuring 
the election of Lisle's enemy, Lord Edmund 
Howard, as mayor of Calais. Howard was, 
however, displaced, and Wingfield in January 
1538 renewed his action before the courts at 

Wingfield died on 18 March 1539. His 
will, dated 25 March 1538, was proved on 
12 Nov. 1539. Itsprovisions are set out in 
Anstis (ii, 229). He married Joan, widow 
of Thomas Clinton, lord Clinton and Say, 
who survived him, but left no issue. 

Wingfield's credulity, pedantry, pride, and 
contentiousness are graphically described by 
Brewer. He was, like his brothers, a man of 
superior education and proficient in French 
as well as in German. He is said by Anstis 
to have caused to be printed at Louvain about 
1513 a book entitled ' Disceptatio super 
dignitate et magnitoidhie Begnorum Britan- 
nici et Gallici habita ab utriusqueOratoribus 
et Legatis in Concilio Constantiensi/ He 
was patron of the college of Rushworth or 


Rushford, Norfolk, In 1520 he was specially 
admitted at Lincoln's Inn (Registers, i. 39). 
During the greater part of his life he was a 
strenuous opponent of Lutheranism, but on 
25 Feb. 1539, shortly before his death, he 
wrote Henry a letter extolling his ecclesiasti- 
cal policy and lamenting his own * former 

[Brewer and G-airdner's Gal. of Letters and 
Papers, Foreign and Domestic, contains hundreds 
of despatches to and from Wingfield and other 
references to him. See also Cal. State Papers, 
Spanish and Venetian series j Grafton's Chron., 
ed. H, Ellis, 1812; Chron. of Calais (Camden 
Soc.), 1846 ; Bernardi Andreee Annales Hen. VII 
(Eolls Ser.), 1858 ; Polydore Vergil's Historise 
Anglicae (Leyden), 1651 ; Ashmole's Institution 
of the Q-arter, 1672; Anstis's Register of the 
Garter, 1724, 2 vols.; Lodge's Peerage of Ire- 
land, ed. Archdall, 1789, vol. v. ; Collectanea 
TopograpTiica, 1837 vol. iv., 1838 vol. v.; Visi- 
tation of Huntingdonshire (Camden Soc.), 1849 ; 
State Papers of Henry VIII (1830-52), vols. i. 
ii. vii. viii. ; Brewer's Reign of Henry VIII, 18*4, 
2 vols.; Creighton's Hiat. of the Papacy, 1887, 
vol. iv. ; Powerscourt's Wingfield Muniments.] 

I. S. L. 

DE (d. 1262), bishop of London, was born 
at "Wingham in Kent. He was probably at 
first a clerk in the exchequer, as 200/. was 
entrusted to him hi 1241-2 to be expended 
in the king's service, and in 1245-6 he and 
John de Grey, justice of Chester, were as- 
signed to assess the tallage of that city. 
He was then one of the king's escheators 
(Excerpt, e Sot. Fin. L 458-64, ii. 4-56). 
He was appointed chamberlain of Gascony, 
and in 1252 he was sent to inquire into 
the complaints of the Gascons against the 
government of Simon de Montrort. The 
king seems to have suspected him of being 
too favourable to the Gascons, for he sent 
another commission to make renewed 
inquiry (MATT. PABIS, v. 277, 288-9; 
BBMONT, Simon de Montfort, p. 339). Wing- 
ham was also employed on two embassies 
into France. As early as 2 July 1253 
he was probably connected with the chan- 
cery, and oa 5 Jan, 1255 the great seal was 
delivered into his custody (MADOX, i. 68-9; 
MATT. PABIS, v. 485). 

When, on 10 May 1256, the election of 
Hugh de Belisale to the bishopric of Ely 
was quashed by the efforts of the king and 
the archbishop of Canterbury, Wingham 
was recommended by Henry without his 
consent. He dissuaded the ~ king from 
pressing the matter (MATT. PAIUS, v. 689, 
685). He received, however, in 1257 the 
chancellorship of Exeter, and soon after- 




wards was promoted to the deanery of St. 
Martin's. He was one of the twelve nomi- 
nated on the king's side to draw up the 
provisions of Oxford in June 1258, and was 
continued in his office on swearing not to 
put the seal to any writ which had not the 
approbation of the council as well as the 


On the flight of Ethelmar de Lusignan, 
bishop of Winchester, the king's half- 
brother, in 1259, the monks elected Wing- 
ham his successor. Anxious not to offend 
the king, he at first refused the honour, 
but aftewards prevailed on the king 
to accept him if Ethelmar did not 
succeed in obtaining consecration from 
the pope (MJLTT. PABIS, v. 731). He soon 
afterwards, however, accepted the bishopric 
of London. He was elected on 29 June 
1259, received back the temporalities on 
11 July, was consecrated on 15 Feb. 1260, 
and on 18 Oct. retired from the chancery. 
The king allowed fr to keep his deanery 
and ten valuable prebends and rectories. 
He died on 13 July 1262, and was buried in 
his own cathedral. Another Henry de Wing- 
ham was prebendary of Newington and arch- 
deacon of Middlesex in 1267, when he died 
(Ls NEVE, ii. 327, 417). 

[Grodwin, De Prsesulibns Anglise (1616), p. 
241 ; Hennessy's Nov. Rep. EccL Londin. ; Le 
Neva's Fasti, ed. Hardy ; Be 1 mont's R6ies Gascons ; 
Devon's Issues from the Exchequer ; Madox's 
Hist of the Exchequer ; boss's Judges of Eng- 
land, and authorities cited in text.] W. E. E. 

"WINI (<Z. 675?), bishop of London, was 
an Englishman, and probably a "West-Saxon 
by birth, though consecrated by bishops of 
{foul. He was made bishop of the western 
portion of the West-Saxons, with his see at 
Winchester, by Cenwalh [q. v.], king of the 
West-Saxons, though Ajplbert already held 
tie West-Saxon bishopric, having his see at 
Dorchester in Oxfordshire. Offended by 
this intrusion, Agilbert lefb his diocese, and 
Wini became sole bishop of the West- 
Saxons (BBDB, .Ewe. JScoL iii. 7). Wini's 
intrusion is given by the chronicler under 
660, but he says that Wini held the see for 
three years ; he was certainly holding it in 
666, and Florence of Worcester dates his 
expulsion 666 ; Dr. Bright adopts the chro- 
Eaek^s date 660. Bishop Stubbs suggests 
663, which is apparently with good re 
maintained by Bbr. Plummer. When, pro- 
bably in 666 > Ceadda or Chad [q. v.] came to 
iim lor eooseeiataon during a vacancy of the 
Bee of Canterbury, Wini performed tne rite 
wht the assistance of two British bishops 
whom he invited to join him in spite of thei: 
fcokiiag fc> the Celtic Easter (&. c. 28). H< 

was expelled from his bishopric by Cenwalh 
in 666, for what reason is not known ; he went 
10 Wulfhere, king of the Mercians, and 
}ought from him the see of London. He was 
not present at the synod of Hertford held 
>y Theodore in 673. Rudborne ^reserves a 
egend that repenting of his simony he 
retired to Winchester, and lived there in 
penitence for the last three years of his 
ife (Anglia Sacra, i. 192). This is ex- 
ceedingly doubtful, for Bede says that he 
remained bishop of London until his death, 
which is supposed to have taken place in 
675, the year of the consecration of his 
successor, Erkenwald [q. v.] 

[Bede, as quoted, ed. Plummer, see notes in 
vol. ii. 146-7; A.-S. Chron. ann. 660, 664; 
Flor. Wig. ann. 660, 666, 675 (Engl. Hist. 
Soc.); Bright's Early English Church Hist. pp. 
209-10, 241, 245, 247, 275, ed. 1897 ; Stubbs's 
Reg. Sacr. Angl. p. 5, ed. 1897; Haddan and 
Stnbbs's Councils, &c., iii. 121 .] W. H. 

1878), author, was born in London at 
20 Ely Place, Holborn, on 13 Sept. 1827. 
She was the fourth daughter of Henry Wink- 
worth, a silk merchant, the youngest son of 
William Winkworth, an evangelical clergy- 
man and a member of a Berkshire family. 
Her mother, Susanna Dickenson, was daugh- 
ter of a Kentish yeoman farmer. In 1899 
the Winkworths removed to Manchester, and 
there Catherine's education was chiefly car- 
ried on by governesses at home ; she studied 
also under the Bev. William Gaskell and 
Dr. James Martineau. The family was 
always on intimate terms with the Gaskells, 
and Catherine declared that she owed to Mr. 
Gaskell her knowledge of English literature 
and her appreciation of style. On 21 April 
1841 her mother died, and in 1845 her father 
married, as his second wife, Miss Leyburn. 
In the spring of that year Catherine went to 
Dresden to join an aunt who was living 
there in order to educate her daughters, and 
her residence there (she stayed until July 
1846) gave an impetus to her study of Ger- 
man. In 1850 her father built himself a 
house at Alderley Edge, about fifteen miles 
from Manchester, where the family lived for 
about twelve years. 

In 1853 Catherine published the first 
series of her 'Lyra Germanica/ translations 
made by herself of German hymns in com- 
mon use. The first edition was soon sold out, 
and bv 1857 the book was in a fifth. There 
have been twenty-three editions since. In 
1858 a second series was published, and that 
volume has had twelve editions. A selection 
appeared in 1859. Catherine Winkworth's 
translations of German hymns are very 




widely used, and have done more to influence 
the modern use in England of German hymns 
than any other version. The translations are 
always faithful, and at the same time 

Baron Bunsen suggested that the German 
hymn-tunes should be given, and in 1862 ap- 
peared 'The Chorale Book for England/ 
with music arranged by (Sir) William Stern- 
dale Bennett [q. v.] and Otto Goldschmidt. 
A supplement to the ' Chorale Book ' was 
published in 1865, 

In consequence of pecuniary losses the 
Winkworths in 1862 removed to Clifton, 
where Catherine, in addition to literary work, 
threw herself heart and soul into the move- 
ment for the promotion of the higher educa- 
tion of women. She joined the committee 
formed for that object in 1868, and in 1870 
became its secretary. Her main business was 
to find suitable lecturers, and here she had 
eminent success. Among those who gave 
discourses during her term of office were 
J. A. Symonds, Professor Nichol, F. W. 
Myers, Dr. Creighton, and Professor Bo- 
namy Price. Classes were established to 
aid women who were preparing for the 
Cambridge higher local examination, and 
they had likewise a great success. The as- 
sociation took a large part in assisting the 
establishment of Bristol University College, 
and at Catherine Winkworth's death her 
Mends raised a sum with which they founded 
in her memory two scholarships for women 
at the college. She was likewise governor 
of the Bed Maids' school, Bristol, one of the 
promoters of the Clifton High school for 
girls, and from 1875 until her death a mem- 
ber of the council of Cheltenham Ladies' Col- 
lege. On 15 May 1869 her father died. In 
1872 she went with her sister Susanna to 
Darmstadt, accompanying Miss Carpenter 
and Miss Florence Hill as delegates to the 
German conference on women's work, pre- 
sided over by the Princess Alice. 

Miss Winkworth died suddenly of heart 
disease on 1 July 1878 at Monnetier (near 
Geneva) in Savoy, whither she had gone to 
take charge of an invalid nephew. She was 
buried there. A monument to her memory 
was erected in Bristol Cathedral. 

Other works by Catherine Winkworth 
are: 1. 'Life of Ajnelia Wilhelmina Sieve- 
king from the German ' (the first half was 
translated by Miss Winkworth, who revised 
the whole ; the second by a lady unnamed), 
1863. 2. 'The Principles of Charitable 
Work as set forth in the Writings of A. W 1 . 
SievekiBg,' 1868. 3. The Christian Singers 
of Germany/ 1866 ; 1869. 4. Life of 
Pastor Fliedner, the Founder of the Zaisers- 

werth Sisterhood of Protestant Deaconesses, 
translated from the German/ 1867. 6. 
' Prayers from the Collection of Baron Bun- 
sen/ 1871. 

Her eldest sister, STTSAOTTA WINKWOETH 
(1820-1884), translator, was born in Lon- 
don on 13 Aug. 1820, and received much 
the same education as her sister Catherine. 
About 1850 Susanna told Mrs. Gaskell that 
she would like to translate the life of Nie- 
buhr. Mrs. Gaskell mentioned this to Bun- 
sen, who encouraged the idea. A meeting 
with Bunsen followed at Bonn, where Su- 
sanna stayed from August 1850 until May 
1851. The acquaintance so begun influenced 
the literary work of both Susanna and 
Catherine. At one time indeed Susanna 
worked as a sort of literary secretary to 
Bunsen. Regarding the biography of JHie- 
buhr, it was at first intended merely to trans- 
late Mme. Hensler's memoir, and to incor- 
porate from her collection of his letters and 
essays those that seemed suitable. But so 
much fresh information was gained at Bonn 
that Susanna's book is, to all intents and pur- 
poses, an original work. It was refused by 
Longman and Murray, but was finally pub- 
lished in 1852 by Chapman & Hall in three 
volumes. The first edition sold rapidly. The 
second edition, published in 1853, incor- 
porates the miscellaneous essays. In 1854 
Susanna published her translation of the 
( Theologia Gennanica/ which takes its place 
beside the l Imitation ' in the literature of 
devotion. The treatise had been first dis- 
covered by Luther, and was published by 
"him in 1516. The translation was made at 
the suggestion of Bunsen, whose letter to 
the translator is prefixed to the volume (cf. 
BTJNSBN, Memoir, ii, 342-6). Charles .Kings- 
ley provided a preface (cf. KnrasLEY, Letters 
and Memories, i. 4-23-7), andhe wrote in 1856, 

* Your " Theologia" is being valued by every 
one to whom I have recommended it* (ib. \. 
498), A third edition appeared in 1859, and 
it has been since republished. In 1855 Miss 
Winkworth completed the 'Life of Luther' 
commenced by Archdeacon Hare. The 
volume really consists of explanatory matter 
to Gustav fcoenig^s historical engravings. 
All following section xiv. is Miss Wink- 
worth's work. There was a second edition 
in!858. Inl856MissWinkworthtraiislated 
Bunsen's i Signs of the Times/ and received 
150/. for the work. Again, at Bunsen's 
suggestion she translated in 1857 Tauler's 

* Sermons/ Bunsen wrote on 14 Sept. 1859 
that Miss Winkworth sacrificed her health 
in her labours over Tauler. ' Her historical 
treatment of the subject (he said) is admir 
ruble ; she had, one may say, as good as no 




forerunner 7 (BuNSEff, Memoir, ii. 510). In 
1866 she published a little book entitled 
* German Love from the Papers of an Alien/ 
The author was Professor Max Miiller, who 
refused at that tome to allow his name to 
appear. Her trans